Project artifact 3


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Project artifact 3

  1. 1. Volume 1, Issue 3 Did that make sense? Does that Make Sense??? Article One Free nerve ending- a receptor Mediates sensations of discrimina-11.12.12 nerve ending that is not enclosed tive touch and low-frequency vi- in a capsule. A typical free nerve bration. (2) Pacinian Corpuscles- ending consists of a bare axon that mediate sensations to crude touch. may be myelinated or unmyelinat- (2) Muscle Spindles- consists of a ed. It is often found in fibrous discrete grouping of about 5 to 10 capsules, ligaments, or synovial modified muscle fibers called intra spaces and may be sensitive to -fusal fibers, which are surrounded mechanical or biochemical stimuli. by a delicate capsule. (2) Golgi (2) root hair plexuses- Are Deli- tendon Organs- Like muscle spin- cate, weblike arrangements of free dles, are proprioceptors. They are nerve endings that surround hair located ar the point of junction follicles and detect hair movement. between muscle tissue and tendon. © (14) (2) Merkel discs- Flattened or disc (2) -shaped variations of free nerve © 15 endings, called Merkel Discs, are responsible for mediating sensa- tions of light or discriminative touch. (2) Meissner Corpuscle- Sense hearing= the ear has dual Article Two sensory functions. In addition to its role in hearing, it also functions asInside this issue: the nose to smell delicate odors. Sense of smell: Sense of smell is the sense organ of balanced, or equi-Inside Story 2 made up of olfactory receptors Sense of taste= Taste buds are the librium. The stimulation, of trigger, which are yellow colored epithelial most important part of this sense, responsible for hearing and balanceInside Story 2 support cells, basal cells, and spe- they house the chemoreceptors involves activation of specialized cialized bipolar type olfactory responsible for taste. The sense of mechanoreceptors called hair cells.Inside Story 2 receptor neurons. The olfactory taste of taste depends on the crea- Sound waves movement are physi- epithelial is located in the most tion of a receptor potential in gus- cal forces that act on hair cells toInside Story 3 tatory cells. Only then can an ac- generate receptor potentials, and superior portion of the nasal cavi- ty. The location of these receptors tion potential be generated and then nerve impulses, which areInside Story 4 eventually perceived in the brain as explains the necessity for sniffing, nerve impulse relayed to the brain or drawing air forcefully up into for interpretation sound or balance. The ear is dividedInside Story 5 into three anatomical parts: external ear, middle ear and inner ear.Inside Story 6
  2. 2. Does that Make Sense??? Article Three Exteroceptors: Somatic sense receptor locat- Thermoreceptors: Receptors ed on the body surface. A sense organ, such activated by heat or uli if the intensity is great as the ear, that receives and responds to cold. The body will either vaso- enough to generate a receptor stimuli originating from outside the body. constrict the blood vessels, in- potential. Their distinguishing Visceroceptors: Somatic sense receptors crease the metabolic rare, or feature is the presence of large located in the internal visceral organs. locat- cause you. Heat-Loss the body amounts of tightly packed mem- ed in blood vessels and viscera. It arises will dilate the blood vessels or brane that contains the photopig- from within the body and may be felt as make you sweat. ment rhodopsinor a related mole- pain, taste, fatigue, hunger, thirst and nau- cule Nociceptors: receptors activated sea. by intense stimuli of any type the Proprioceptors: receptors located in the results in tissue damages. A © 16 muscles tendons, and joints. It allows the group of cells that senses painful body to recognize its position. stimuli and sends these nerve signals to the brain and the spi- Mechanoreceptors: receptors the respond to nal cord. physical movements in the environment such as sound waves like equilibrium and Photoreceptors: receptors only in balance sensors in the ears. the eye, it responds to light stim- Article FourDoes that make the retina instead of on it, caus- sense??? There are 4 processes that focus a clear retinal to change shape and the ing the image to be blurry. This image on the retina; refraction of the light opsin molecule to expand. This can be corrected by using con- rays, accommodation of the lens, con- signal travels to the brain to be cave contact lenses, glasses, or striction of the pupil, and convergence of interpreted, and objects are seen in refractive eye surgery. Farsight- the eyes. Refraction is the bending of shades of gray. (2) edness is caused when the eyes light. The refracting media of the eye are are shorter than normal, and the There are 3 types of cones in the the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor. These 4 image focuses behind the retina retina and contain a different pho- refracting media together bend light rays to bring focus on the also making the image blurry. It topigment than rhodopsin. Each retina from an object 20 feet away. But an eye can also focus can be corrected by convex con- cone is acted on by a different on object much closer than 20 feet away and this is achieved tact lenses, glasses, and refrac- wavelength or color. Cones are less by accommodation. Accommodation is for near vision and it tive eye surgery. (2) sensitive to light so brighter light is causes an increase in the curvature of the lens, constriction of needed for the break down. Cones Deer’s don’t see hunters who the pupils, and convergence of the eyes. The constriction of the contribute more to sharper images. wear bright orange because they pupil prevents divergent rays from the object from entering the (2) have dichromatic vision; only eye through the periphery of the cornea and lens. Convergence Nearsightedness, or myopia and seeing hues of blue and yellow, is the movement of the two eyeballs inward so that their visual farsightedness, or hyperopia is both but they are red and green color- axes come together at the object viewed. (2) refraction disorders. Nearsighted- blind. They can also see uv light. Rods and cones contain photopigments. The photopigment (13) ness is when the eyes are elongated found in rods is called rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is very light and the image focuses in front of sensitive so even dim light is broken down. Light causes thePage 2
  3. 3. Anatomy and Physiology WeeklyArticle FiveNever got part... ISSUE 3 Page 3