The conflicts between people have shaped world history
Events that led to the partitionWorld War IWorld War II
Origins of conflict Origins of conflicts had the choice of joining India or Pakistan. The ruler ofKashmir, which had a Muslim majority population, joined India by signing theInstrument of Accession and India acquired Hyderabad in accordance with thewishes of the people of Hyderabad. However, Pakistan laid its claim on Kashmirand thus it became the main point of conflict. The Partition of India came aboutin the aftermath of World War II, when both Great Britain and British Indiawere dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilization. It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come fromBritish India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan"and "Hindustan" once independence came. The partition itself, according toleading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India MuslimLeague, and Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress, shouldhave resulted in peaceful relations. However, the partition of British India intoIndia and Pakistan in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines.Nearly 50 percent of the Muslim population of British India remained in India.Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims resulted in between500,000 to 1 million casualties. Princely-ruled territories, such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, were also involved inPartition.
Timemeline 1905-First Partition of Bengal for administrative purposes. Gives the Muslims a majority in that state. 1906-All India Muslim League founded to promote Muslim political interests. 1920-Gandhi launches a non-violent, non-cooperation movement, or Satyagraha, against the British for a free India. 1929-Congress calls for full independence. 1930-Dr. Allama Iqbal, a poet-politician, calls for a separate homeland for the Muslims at the Allahabad session of the Muslim League. Gandhi starts Civil Disobedience Movement against the Salt Laws by which the British had a monopoly over production and sale of salt. 1930-31-The Round Table conferences, set up to consider Dominion status for India. They fail because of non-attendance by the Congress and because Gandhi, who does attend, claims he is the only representative of all of India. 1935-Government of India Act: proposes a federal India of political provinces with elected local governments but British control over foreign policy and defence.
1940-Jinnah calls for establishment of Pakistan in an independent and partitioned India. 1942-Cripps Mission o India, to conduct negotiations between all political parties and to set up a cabinet government. Congress adopts Quit India Resolution, to rid India of British rule. Congress leaders arrested for obstructing war effort. 1942-43-Muslim League gains more power: ministries formed in Sind, Bengal and North-West Frontier Province and greater influence in the Punjab. 1944-Gandhi released from prison. Unsuccessful Gandhi-Jinnah talks, but Muslims see this as an acknowledgment that Jinnah represents all Indian Muslims. 1945-The new Labour Government in Britain decides India is strategically indefensible and begins to prepare for Indian independence. Direct Action Day riots convince British that Partition is inevitable. 1946-Muslim League participates in Interim Government that is set up according to the Cabinet Mission Plan. 1947-Announcement of Lord Mountbattens plan for partition of India, 3 June. Partition of India and Pakistan, 15 August. Radcliffe Award of boundaries of the nations, 16 August. 1971-East Pakistan separates from West Pakistan and Bangladesh is born.
Aftermath• In the aftermath of Partition, the princely states of India, which had been left by the Indian Independence Act 1947 to choose whether to accede to India or Pakistan or to remain outside them, were all incorporated into one or other of the new dominions. The question of the choice to be made in this connection by Jammu and Kashmir led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 and other wars and conflicts between India and Pakistan. Two self governing countries legally came into existence at the stroke of midnight on 15 August 1947. The ceremonies for the transfer of power were held a day earlier in Karachi, at the time the capital of the new state of Pakistan, so that the last British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, could attend both the ceremony in Karachi and the ceremony in Delhi, this is why Pakistans Independence Day is celebrated on August 14 and Indias on August 15
Quiz1. Who was Mohammed Ali Jinnah?a) A political leader b) A soldierc) A train-driver d) A common man2. When Pakistan got its freedom?a) 1967 b) 1971c) 1945 d) 19613.What was the name of the non-violent, non- cooperation movement that Mahatma Gandhi launched?a) Satyamanas b) Satyabharatc) Satyavijay d) Satyagraha