Background India in an economic hardship so taxes increase. Farmers forced to produce trade crops(tobacco, cotton, spices, indigo, etc) instead of food crops. This leads to a famine. British used India as a machine thinking that it would never warm up. Indians unhappy from British rule.India was desperate to start a freedom struggle butlacked a leader, someone like Mahatma Gandhi. Manypeople did not understand the concept of Ahinsa.
Against Whom and Why Against the British empire. For killing several hundred Indians pitilessly at Jallianwala Baug and from later indignation at the government’s alleged failure to take adequate action against those responsible. The movement was to consist of the resignations of titles; the boycott of government educational institutions, the courts, government service, foreign goods, and elections; and the eventual refusal to pay taxes.
Supporters Rajendra Prasad Jawaharlal Nehru Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Maulana Azad Bhagat Singh Chandra Shekhar Azad Younger generation of India
Aims of the Movement Surrender of all titles and Government posts Boycott of Government schools and colleges Boycott of all functions of the British Government Boycott of law courts Boycott of all foreign articles Giving up the policy for Indian soldiers in Mesopotamia Formation of Nyay Panchayats Development of small scale industries Development of communal harmony Use of Swadeshi articles Establishment of national schools End of untouchability and caste-system Adoption of non-violence in the whole country.
Satyagraha Two elements: Truth and non-violence Gandhi ji’s guidelines for a Satyagrahi in a famous speech: “He should refuse to accept dishonesty and remains peaceful during extreme provocation. He should not hate the person doing evil, he rather hates evil. In order to prove the establish the truth, he deliver pain on the opponent, and rather accept suffering. By the doing this, he would hope to arouse conscience in the man who has committed wrong. He has to give up fear, hatred and falsehood.”
Cause of failure February 1, 1922 an angry mob killed British officers by lighting a police station on fire in Chauri Chaura. Also, the mob burned down the police station killing 23 police officers After this incident, Gandhi ji himself called off the movement. The Indian National Congress officially called of the Non- Cooperation Movement on February 12, 1922. Why: People were not ready for a non-violent movement. Such an incident could spark many others Difficult to sustain such a large-scale movement for a much longer time
Impact on the people and British Gave boost to Indian textile industry Many new traders and manufacturers grew up Value of foreign imports reduced to half. British understood that Indians could participate in natioanl movements in unity and their old divide-and- rule policy will not work here Indian National Congress (INC) was no longer ‘a microscopic minority’ as it commanded the support and sympathy of millions of Indians. British cautious from: Gandhi ji, INC, unity of Hindus and Muslims, and Satyagraha.