Flat File (Table) These early systems organized content two-dimensionally into fields and records and used pointers, or computer codes, structured into the file to connect records. They did not offer as much power and flexibility as modern systems.
Relational The databases of today are a collection of different tables interconnected based on the type of data in the fields and records. Since they don’t use pointers, organization and resulting queries can be more sophisticated. They allow a higher level of content analysis.
Database The database consists of files containing information in the form of records related to specific events or subjects. These records are divided into fields describing the information they contain. The information within each field is standardized so the computer can locate it effectively.
DBMs answer specific questions about content areas or about relationships among content areas by using matrices.
Matrices effectively represent information while allowing comparing and contrasting.
Matrices are superior for representing data in problems. Their use can better define needed information, suggest order of operations, provide a consistent check of the solution, and reduce brain overload.