Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)                                                                      ...
Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)                                                                      ...
Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)                                                                      ...
Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)                                                                      ...
Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)                                                                      ...
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Regional Material Flow Modelling and GHG Inventorying

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The need and tools for regional modelling in terms of key material and energy flows, and its relation with GHG inventorying for regions

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Regional Material Flow Modelling and GHG Inventorying

  1. 1. Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS) 15.03.2010 Contents Regional Material Flow Modelling and GHG Inventorying Sustainable development (briefly!) MFA and LCA Regional Material Flow Modelling Material Flow Management National and regional GHG Inventorying Summer School Curitiba 2010 P10:water P7:waste water March 5-17, 2010, Curitiba Universidade Positivo, Graduate Program Angel: P1:goods raw mater ials P11:exported energy in Environmental Management IT engineer eBusiness T1:Region P5:emissions P2:fossil fuels management IMAT P1:goods P3:imported raw materials energy IT = a tool for everything, including Angel Avadi Material Flow Management P8:imported water P9:energy P4:waste © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Sustainable Development Scopes and Tools for Sustainable Development Firm level Industrial collaboration “development that meets the needs of the present Eco-efficiency Industrial Ecology without compromising the ability of future Cleaner Production (PIUS) generations to meet their own needs” Industrial Symbiosis SCP Brundtland Report (Our Common Future) ,1987, WCED Environmental strategies EIPs, Eco-Industrial • Bio-cascading Networks • extended product life System change from “throughput” to “circular” • reduced material intensity societies • management practices, etc. Regional SD Decoupling energy from emissions and engage in Environmental Urban Symbiosis Management Systems decarbonisation • ISO14001 RMFM Bio-mimicry of ecosystems circular flows: no • EMAS • CE, ZE, MFA waste! © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Strategies for Regional Development Regional Material Flow Management Conventional regional Region is an ideal system to optimise towards development strategies: sustainability poverty reduction, Build the Circular Economy (CE) via Zero canned receipts for Emission (ZE) initiatives development (e.g. Washington Concensus) Regional Sustainable Engage in regional value-adding initiatives UN, OECD, IMF/WB, Development Aim for decentralized, regionally-bound activities etc MFM: regional value-adding Stimulate synergies among productive activities strategies (i.e. Industrial Symbiosis) Pragmatically extends Identify sources of emissions and reduce those Agenda 21 emissions Interdisciplinary approach Modelling regions to understand their material and Adaptation to specific energy flows, and then optimise them!!! conditions © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © IfaS 2008 1
  2. 2. Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS) 15.03.2010 MFA and LCA: tools for RMFM Carbon Footprinting for organisations MFA for systematically assessing flows and stocks CFP: CO2 (GHG) impact of an activity or of materials within a system product along its whole life cycle Static depiction, but may lead to id trends of accumulation/depletion of stocks a single impact category: GWP Key aspects: energy and socioeconomic factors Can be used for regional modelling (understanding of regional dynamics) Organisations are interested in Calculate: ISO 14040 (LCA), ISO 14067 LCA for understanding impact of products within a (CFP), PAS2050 system Reduce: energy efficiency, material efficiency Various impact categories Offset: emission-reducing projects May lead to region-impacting measures, such as COMMUNICATE! Industrial Symbiosis initiatives: escalation of positive impacts! © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Suggested concepts hierarchy Objectives of Material Flow Analysis describe quantitatively the system, delineate it and overcome its complexity: understand it! locate pollutants, potentials and unnecessary cost factors deeply assess all input/output flows of energy and materials in the system, including full cost calculations identify improvement and innovation potentials that may lead to a further local development © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. 10 Create added-value. MFA activities Umberto 5.5 by IFU Compare towards RMFM approach • Industrial processes-oriented (e.g. as practiced by IfaS) • LCA-oriented modelling tool • Designed to study Material Flow Networks • Uses place/transition networks (Petri) Start with available data (statistics) • Features valuation systems • Produces mass balances, Life Cycle Visit main facilities Inventories and Sankey diagrams Interview key people! • Ecoinvent-connected Stakeholder management is a whole • Modules library science/craft by itself • Umberto for Carbon Footprinting in BETA Visualise gathered data (MFA software) Visualisation is key for system change © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. 11 Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © IfaS 2008 2
  3. 3. Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS) 15.03.2010 Umberto: industrial MFA Why RMFMo? The region can be optimised Once simplified, a system P1: raw materials towards sustainable can be understood and thus P2: Opp. supplies development: RMFM improved P8:preliminary products Modelling to reduce complexity via aggregation, abstraction Which impact of economic, P1: raw materials social and environmental and idealisation dimensions of the region T1: Malthouse P3: malt T2: Lorry transport P6:Brewing T3:brewery P7:BEEEER Modelling a region to describe malt key material and energy flows Various approaches to regional P4:Waste P5:emissions modelling Ideal: economic- P4:Waste organisational-ecological Technical-scientific Economic-organisational Could Umberto be used for regional material flow modelling??? Economic-ecological © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Critical aspects of RMFMo Umberto challenges to RMFMo System boundaries Abstraction/aggregation Regional subsystems to be taken into account Households, Industry and commerce, Public, AFOLU Integration of social aspects of sustainability, on Energy generation, waste management, waste and waste water management, transportation, regionally- top of environmental and economic relevant materials Eco-efficiency: dematerialisation of the economy Materials, energy, emissions Modesty (conservation): sustainable consumption Customisation Consistency (innovation): composition and effects Pre-defined levels of materials, chosen/replaced Parameterisation and flow calculation Desirable Data issues Tiered approach from IPCC Fels, T. and Noell, C. (2001) Managing Sustainable Regional Material Flows: A Key Issue of Sustainable Development – Contemporary Concepts and Models © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Conclusions on Umberto for RMFMo A region can certainly be modelled, but Interpretability of Umberto outputs is questionable and sensitive Umberto does not seem suitable for GHG Inventorying Current version is not very user-friendly (for programming) Generated Sankey diagrams are poorly customisable; thus Vensim DSS Additional modelling and simulation tools/ Threshold 21 Model environments should be explored towards an GoldSim integrated RMFM/GHG Inventorying solution V. Regional modelling with Umberto © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © IfaS 2008 3
  4. 4. Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS) 15.03.2010 Why GHG inventorying? GHG Inventorying Material and energy flows feature associated GHG emissions 40.000 GWP of anthropogenic GHG emissions perceived Mostly inspired by IPCC/UNFCCC tCO2eq as a main environmental impact category National, regional, supply chain levels Inventorying is understanding! Various guidelines IPCC Guidelines Inventorying is first step towards reducing/ UNDP/UN DESA Manual offsetting US EPA guidelines (AP-42) CORINAIR Guidebook Various frameworks and programmes European Energy Award Climate Alliance RAPIDC © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Key GHG Inventory design aspects GHG Inventorying tools Suggested approach: Criteria Interface Data Calculations and Applica- Methodo- Price Tools boundaries bility logy scheme IPCC’s tiers. Combination when Data selection needed/possible (i.e. transportation) ECO2Region, Remote National GHG Based upon IPCC Regions Bottom-up/ Commerc by Ecospeed application, Inventories + guidelines; Territorial can be top-down ial Top-down web-based regional data + perhaps cause flexibly combination Bottom-up principle for energy defined Suggested approach: and transportation Combination IPCC principles Territorial, except GEMIS, Standalone Extensive DB which Algorithms probably Regions Bottom-up/ Free, for Energy (LCA/UNFCCC by Öko-Institut Windows includes more than proprietary, simple top-down public Boundary setting emission factors-based usage-related application, 8000 processes in and following mostly combination domain requires over 20 countries linear functions. Territorial principle emissions) browser Causal principle CO2 Remote National GHG ? Regions Bottom-up/ Free, Grobbilanz, application, Inventories top-down public “Problematic” categories Suggested approach: web-based (Germany, Austria) combination domain 100% IPCC principles emissions by Climate + regional data Energy calculation based upon sold fuel Alliance Austria IFEU Excel tool Municipal data + Klimaschutz in Municipalit Bottom-up Project- Transportation GEMIS for emission Kommunen ies, regions specific Treibhausgasbil anz, by IFEU factors guidelines + IPCC ECO2Region - Balancing Methodology, by Ecospeed SA., Zurich, August 28, 2009 Kennedy et al (2009) Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines for Global Cities and Metropolitan Regions Institute © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Ideal features of a GHG inventorying tool Desired features (IfaS) applicable at different sizes and complexities of regions Should allow to predict/forecast CO2 development (cities, towns, rural municipalities); as a reaction to measures based on easily accessible, available and maintained data, In this context it should show CO2 abatement efficiency such as official regional or national statistics; per invested monetary unit (e.g. €/tCO2) easy to use (usability), i.e. based on basic tools like web browsers or spreadsheets; Should be user-friendly and suitable for scenario- flexible as to accommodate estimations when specific building (as opposite to Umberto) detailed figures are unavailable (i.e. regarding Should be some kind of regional investment and transportation); policy setting steering tool a combination bottom-up with top-down approaches; Should be designed for evaluating various GHG coherent regarding boundaries setting (i.e. IPCC or LCA abatement potentials and predict changes ex ante approach to energy and transportation emissions); and based on trustable emission factors information sources. IfaS CO2 balancing tool for regions eea (2008) BALANCE – globally, evaluate locally: Additional features for the European Energy Award® © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © IfaS 2008 4
  5. 5. Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS) 15.03.2010 RMFM approach (IfaS) 1. Informal data gathering (internet and literature-based) and preliminary analysis of the region 2. Kick-off meeting(s) with pre-defined stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis is to be performed along the whole process. Settle a MFM board of trustees, with power to make decisions. 3. Information, motivation, training of decision makers and key actors in the system, towards the ideal (vision) of a Circular Economy. 4. Formal data gathering and Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of the system, previous definition of the system boundaries . MFA should focus on the urban systems, main economic drivers, and explore possibilities for interplay and circular material and energy IfaS: http://stoffstrom.org flows, as well as in the energetic and material utilisation of “wastes”. IMAT: www.imat-master.de © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. RMFM approach (IfaS) Steps for CFP and offseting 4. (cont) Main goal: to understand and describe the system CFP or LCA to accurately determine the current carbon footprint (especially its real operation costs), for which IT and diagramming Identification of hot-spots in terms of energy consumption and associated tools are to be used (Sankey and block diagrams, modelling CO2-emissions (energetic transparency) tools, the Umberto MFA package, etc.) Network analysis should Where possible, changing to another electricity company to switch to identify the current interplay relations and potentials. buying electricity from renewable sources: wind turbines, solar panels, 5. Define concrete optimisation potentials and craft sustainable biomass-to-energy, hydroelectric plants ideas towards it. Consider financing mechanisms Optimisation of energy efficiency and, thus, reduction of CO2-emissions and reduction of other GHG emissions contributed from production 6. Craft a Master plan, stating the optimisation/development vision processes for the system and both the strategy (programs) and tactics Identification of solutions to neutralise the CO2 emissions that cannot be (concrete projects, featuring financial aspects and project eliminated by energy efficiency measures. This last step includes carbon management) to achieve it. offsetting; investment in projects that aim at the reducing CO2 emissions, 7. Founding an MFM firm (public or public-private partnership) to for instance LULUCF, carbon trading, etc. deal with the projects implementation, involving the MFM-Team and the MFM board. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. Offseting ideas Renewable energy: wind, solar, hydro, biomass to energy Methane collection and combustion: flaring and biogas Energy efficiency: co-generation, energy-efficient buildings, fuel efficiency/substitution, energy transparency, PIUS measures Destruction of industrial pollutants: suitable for CDM, but perhaps leading to “evil” incentives LULUCF projects (Land use, land-use change and forestry) Purchase of carbon allowances from emissions trading schemes Links with emission trading schemes: after accredited by UNFCCC, a project can be linked to EUETS, KP, voluntary markets. © Institut für angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement Recognise potentials. Optimise proccesses. Create added-value. © IfaS 2008 5

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