Theories and Models ofDevelopmentA brief synopsisGEO 210 Aimee Kelly
Questions they AddressWhy are some countries more developed thanothers?What should a country do to become moredeveloped?
The Classical Model of DevelopmentCreated by Walt W. RostowDevelopment is the result of investmentNeed investment to diversify the economyFive stages would transform the countryfrom a preindustrial society into amodernized service-oriented economy
Stage 5: Age of Mass Consumption Rostow’s Classical Consumer oriented Service sector dominated Development Stage 4: Drive to Maturity Model Diversification Less Reliance on Imports Stage 3: Take-Off Industrialization Growth in new technologies Stage 2: Pre-conditions for Take-off The country transitions Specialization in key areas from a primary to a Elites start innovation tertiary sector dominated economy.Stage 1: Traditional Society Subsistence/agricultural
Dependency TheoryForget about stages, development is a result ofrelational processes.International trade is the central piece of the relationalprocess.Some states have more power in international tradeand are dominant states.Other states do not have the resources or power andare dependent states.Dominant states develop at the expense ofdependent states.
World-System TheoryDeveloped by Immanuel Wallerstein.The capitalist world economy causesunderdevelopment.Capitalism creates an international division oflabor, or a hierarchy of states.Core, semiperipheral, and peripheral regions.System of unequal trade relationships that supportthe growth of the core at the expense of theperipheral and semiperipheral states.States can change their role in the internationaldivision of labor.
Current Map of World According to World-System TheoryFig 9.15b from Greiner
Neoliberal Model of DevelopmentBased on the liberalist ideas of Rousseau, T.Jefferson, and Adam Smith.Suggests that capitalism can help countriesdevelop as long as markets were free and open.Suggested underdevelopment was the result ofgovernment policies that prevent economicgrowth.So, countries should engage in structuraladjustment programs that involve strategies formarket reform and deregulation.