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Demographic transition
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Demographic transition

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  • 1. The DemographicTransition - REDUX
  • 2. Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)RNI = Crude Birth Rate (CBR) – Crude Death Rate (CDR)
  • 3. Stage 1 Preindustrial•High birth and deathrates•Low rate of naturalincrease (RNI)•Socioeconomic factors: • Short life expectancy •People have more kids to increase survival of some children
  • 4. Stage 2 Early Industrial•High birth rate; death ratestarts declining•High rate of naturalincrease (RNI)•Socioeconomic factors: • Increasing life expectancy as death rate declines •Medical advances, sanitation improvements, access to food and clean water
  • 5. Stage 3 Late Industrial•Birth rate starts declining;death rate continues todecline•Declining rate of naturalincrease (RNI)•Socioeconomic factors: • Social changes as people realize don’t need large families •Population growth starts to decline as result
  • 6. Stage 4 Post Industrial•Birth rates and deathrates both low•Low rate of naturalincrease (RNI)•Socioeconomic factors: • Access of education and employment for women is associated with low birth rates, as is a higher standard of living.
  • 7. Rate of NaturalIncrease
  • 8. The Result The country will transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. The RNI transitions from low, high, declining, to low. The population of a country transitions from low at the start of the demographic transition to high at the end.
  • 9. Summary The demographic transition explains the transition of a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. The changes we see are a result of urbanization and industrialization. The two big socioeconomic changes are:  Technological advances – drops in death rates showing everywhere.  Changes in social customs resulting in declining birth rates…still waiting.