Stage 1•High birth and deathrates•Low rate of naturalincrease•Socioeconomic factors: • Short life expectancy •People have more kids to increase survival of some children
Stage 2•High birth rate; death ratestarts declining•High rate of naturalincrease•Socioeconomic factors: • Increasing life expectancy as death rate declines •Medical advances, sanitation improvements, access to food and clean water
Stage 3 Late Industrial•Birth rate starts declining;death rate continues todecline•Declining rate of naturalincrease•Socioeconomic factors: • Social changes as people realize don’t need large families •Population growth starts to decline as result
Stage 4 Post Industrial•Birth rates and deathrates both low•Low rate of naturalincrease (RNI)•Socioeconomic factors: • Access of education and employment for women is associated with low birth rates, as is a higher standard of living.
Rate of NaturalIncrease
The Result The country will transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. The RNI transitions from low, high, declining, to low. The population of a country transitions from low at the start of the demographic transition to high at the end.
Summary The demographic transition explains the transition of a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. The changes we see are a result of urbanization and industrialization. The two big socioeconomic changes are: Technological advances – drops in death rates showing everywhere. Changes in social customs resulting in declining birth rates…still waiting.