AAUP 2014: OA State of the Nation (A.M. Corrigan)Presentation Transcript
Open Access in the Great White North
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Natural Sciences and Engineering
Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
Social Sciences and Humanities
Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC)
CIHR-funded researchers are required to make
their peer-reviewed publications accessible at no
cost within 12 months of publication – at the
latest. While the CIHR Open Access Policy
provides researchers with clear guidance on
CIHR's minimum expectation, in the spirit of
public benefits of research, CIHR encourages
researchers to make their publications accessible
for free as soon as possible after publication.
CIHR OA Policy
• Committing to academic freedom, and the right to publish;
• Maintaining the high standards and quality of research by
committing to academic openness, integrity and ethics;
• Promoting recognized research best practices and
standards across disciplines, and embracing and sharing
emerging practices and standards;
• Advancing academic research, science and innovation;
• Effective diffusion of research results; and
• Aligning activities, programs and policies between
Canadian and international research funding agencies.
Tri-Agency Draft OA Principles
Draft Policy Statement
Peer-reviewed Journal Publications
Grant recipients are required to ensure that any
peer-reviewed journal publications arising from
Agency-supported research are freely accessible
within 12 months of publication, either through
the publisher's website (Option #1) or an online
repository (Option #2).
• Option #1: Grant recipients submit their
manuscript to a journal that offers immediate
open access to published articles, or offers
open access to published articles within
12 months (Gold)
• Option #2: Grant recipients archive the final
peer-reviewed full-text manuscript in a digital
archive where it will be freely accessible within
12 months (e.g., institutional repository or
discipline-based repository) (Green)
The policy is built on a model that is suitable and sustainable
for science publications but does not work well for social
sciences and humanities (SS/H) journals. There are some
fundamental differences in these types of journals that should
be considered when developing an OA approach:
• SS/H material has a very long half-life, and many articles
are not heavily used or cited until the third or fourth year
• Articles in SS/H journals tend to be considerably longer
than articles in science journals, and SS/H journals tend to
publish fewer articles per issue.
UTP Concerns around Gold OA
The Gold OA model, which generally relies on author
publication charges (APC) to fund publishing operations,
poses issues in the context of SS/H:
• SS/H articles can be quite long and APCs would be high.
• The Tri-Agency OA policy does not mention any increase
in research funding to cover APCs.
• Many SS/H authors do not receive research grants.
• Would APC’s influence publishing decisions?
• Institutionally funded APCs might disadvantage younger
scholars or less wealthy institutions.
UTP Concerns around Green OA
The Green OA model, wherein an author deposits the full text of a peer-reviewed
manuscript in an institutional repository, may also pose problems:
• The original submission is often very different from the published article
• The OA version be particularly discoverable without good metadata and
• Research has found that 44% of libraries would cancel some or all scientific,
technical, and medical (STM) titles and 65% would cancel some or all social
• An embargo of 12 months would certainly mean substantial library
cancellations for our journals
• A reduced revenue base may for editors to lower publication standards by
eliminating multiple peer reviews, plagiarism checking, copyediting, marketing,
or online platform features.
• Canadian scholars may not be able to publish their work
• Canadian journals may decide to partner with large commercial publishers
outside Canada reducing publishing expertise in Canada.
• Many respondents commented that the policy could influence where
they publish and could have an impact on their research careers.
• The majority of researchers commented that the policy would
impact their grant funds if they would be required to pay APC’s.
• Some felt that the 12-month embargo period was too short while
others felt it was too long.
• Respondents commented that the policy could have implications for
the sustainability of journals and scholarly associations.
• Some respondents suggested expanding the policy’s scope to
include research data and monographs.
• Several respondents mentioned the importance of optimizing
repositories to ensure that papers are easily searchable and
• Some respondents questioned how compliance would be
The Agencies recognize the importance of the issues raised in the
consultation and welcome the breadth of views on how Canada can
effectively transition to an open access environment for scholarly
Their goal is to announce a harmonized open access policy for peer
reviewed journal publications in fall 2014.
They will continue, individually and as a group, to engage in
discussions with key stakeholders including scholarly societies,
publishers, institutions, libraries, and other research funders, to explore
cooperative approaches for continuing to move towards open access
to research publications.
What are we doing about OA?
• Informing our editors and our contributors about the
issues surrounding OA and what it means for their
• Contributing to the conversation surrounding OA
through discussions with industry associations such
as the Canadian Association of Learned Journals.
• Surveying our contributors to determine the level of
government grants related to publications so we will
know how to react to policy developments.
• Researching the possibility of instituting an optional
author-pay OA option for our journals.
Anne Marie Corrigan
Vice President, Journals
University of Toronto Press
Tri-Agency Responses to Consultation