Background and LocationSmall Island Nation in the EasternCaribbeanDevelopment is still in the earlystages of developmentTourism is the Island’s economicsectorFormer British Colony based onSugar cane producti
Physical attractions Tropical climate sandy beaches warm water of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean Coral reefs found on both coasts Crystal clear waters, great for scuba diving, snorkelling, jet skiing and other water sports Unused sugar plantations offer varied species such as Mongooses, Pigs and Vervet Monkeys.
Human attractionsBrimstone Hill is a fortress perched on avolcanic cone and is the only world heritage site in the Eastern Caribbean.Bloody point is the site were 2000 Carib-Indians were massacred in 1526A narrow-gauge railway that served the sugar plantations18th C sugar estate houses converted into hotelsBasseterre i the Island’s capital offers great examples of Georgian architecture
Economic ImpactsTourism has replaced sugar production as the greatest contributor to GDPIn 2002 the 648-room Marriott hotel resort openedStay-over visitor numbers are forecast to reach 200,000 by the end of the decadeIn 2005, tourism contributed $107 million
Economic advantages the island’s now have a well-educated work force with over 98% of the population educated to Secondary level English spoken as the main advantage
Social PositivesInternational tourism creates various opportunities forSt Kitts and Nevis, by strengthening the economy.Jobs are created directly by tourism eg hotelreceptionists, waiters, porters, maintenance workers,guides etcIndirect
Social PositivesSt Kitts has a modern international airport that nowhas a upgraded runway to handle larger wide-bodied jetairlinersCruise ships play an important role in tourism60% of roads on St. Kitts are tarmackedThere are many hotels, the largest being Royal St KittsMarriott- a luxury resort
Environmental PositivesInternational tourism has provided a motivation to protectSt. Kitts and NevisAny new developments made are regulated to ensure thatthey do not damage the islands and are sustainable.Impacts of new developments are assessed to preserve theislands cultural heritage.The rainforest is protected by law and there are limits onheights of new buildings.
Economic NegativesMuch of the revenue from tourism goes overseas to MEDCs eg.Most large hotels and resorts belong to international chains in thewest.International holidays are often booked through companies based inMEDCs eg Four SeasonsAir transport is usually by carriers based in MEDCs eg VirginAtlanticPopularity of tourist destinations is constantly changing, and oftengo out of fashion after peaking.
Environmental Negatives Pressure is put on the already limited water resources - water demand per capita by tourists is three times higher than by domestic consumers There is a lack of sewage treatment on the island (results in pollution of coastal waters and coral reefs)
Location• Largest island in the Canaries• The Canary Islands are situated off the coast of West Africa• All the islands belong to Spain• Tenerife has an area of just over 2000km2
Human Attractions• Step pyramids of Guímar on the East coast• Spanish food is fit
Physical Attractions • The huge caldera of Mount Teide • Las Cañadas del Teide National Park • Roques de Garcia • Beach resorts of Playa de las Americas and Los Cristianos • Hiking in the *‘monteverde’ ecosystem*bio-diverse woodland ecosystem
Data• Tourism first developed in 1960s• 80% of the islands GDP
Economic positives• Increased employment opportunities• Tourism is directly responsible for jobs in hospitality• Tourism is indirectly responsible for jobs in catering, car rental, laundry services and water supply• Tourism is an all year round activity thanks to Tenerife’s warm climate
Economic Negatives• The economy of Tenerife is becoming increasingly overdependant on tourism.• A further downturn in the European economy would hitTenerife hard.• Over-development is a feature of the southwestconurbation.•Further investment is needed in sewage treatment plantsto prevent coastal pollution as beaches have to meet EUstandards.
Social Positives• Before the development of mass tourism in the 1960’s,Tenerife was an isolated and backwards part of Spain.• It created thousands of new jobs. Today nearly 2 in every5 jobs are in tourism or related activities.• Quality of life has improved.• Integration of new cultures.
Social Negatives• Local culture and society have been undermined.• Decline in employment in agriculture eg. Only one thirdof the island’s arable land has been farmed.• Young people leave rural areas to find work in the centreof mass tourism.• Drunkenness and rowdiness among young visitors add tothe poor image of mass tourism on the island.
Social Negatives• Most get low-skilled, poorly paid work such as cleaners,building workers.•The Canary Islands has the lowest wage rates of anyregion in Spain.
Environmental Positives• Because of Tenerife’s diverse natural environment,tourism had underlined the importance of the naturalenvironment as a resource. • Eg) The Teide National Park itself is a major tourism attraction and is protected by UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Environmental Negatives• In places like Playa de las Americas, tourism created whatthe tourist guide books described as “a concrete jungle oftackiness and a jumble of high rise hotels”.• This shows how the development of infrastructure toprovide for tourists gets rid of greenery in the city.• The built environment is visually unattractive.• Roads are congested and there are few open spaces.
Environmental Negatives• Demand for water continues to rise while waterresources remain fixed.• Over-exploitation of groundwater has caused water levelsand quality to decline.• Desalination is needed to provide new resources,however the desalination plants rely on high-cost energy.