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emphasis, concisness & clarity in composition

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helping with essay writing.

helping with essay writing.

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  • 1. EMPHASIS, CONCISNESS& CLARITY IN COMPOSITION
  • 2. Emphasis Method Usage Italics Gives light emphasis. Use for subtle stressing of words. Underline More insistent. Works well for emphasis of a complete phrase. Some people only use italic and bold, in which case the difference will cause attention. Bold Is clearly visible when you first look at the whole page. Can create tension as they read towards it. This can be useful if done deliberately. size Bigger fonts stand out more and small fonts recede. But beware of reducing readability by mixing font sizes too much. Punctuation! In particular the exclamation mark, gives a strong emphasis. Use sparingly. Be very careful when using multiple marks!!! It can be interpreted as either enthusiasm or attempted manipulation. UPPERCASE Is the written equivalent of shouting. Avoid where possible, including use in headings. Color There are many colors you can use. Brighter colors and those towards the red end of the spectrum stand out more. Blues and dark colors are more subtle. A neat usage is in headings (which often include the key message). COMBINATIONS And you can combine any of the above, shouting in a deafening way.
  • 3. OtherWays to Emphasize Method Usage Strong words One way of enlivening and emphasizing in written text is to use strong words that trigger emotional reactions. Just as strong words in spoken language grab attention, so they also work in written work. "If you really love me then you will...“ Use of the Passive The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action. Generally, more emphasis is given to the beginning of a sentence. By using a passive sentence, we emphasize by showing what happens to something rather than who or what does something. Example: Reports are expected by the end of the week. In this example, attention is called to what is expected of students (reports). Expressing Annoyance Use the continuous form modified by 'always', 'forever', etc. to express annoyance at another person's action. This form is considered an exception as it used to express a routine rather than an action occurring at a particular moment in time. Examples: Martha is always getting into trouble. Peter is forever asking tricky questions. George was always being reprimanded by his teachers. Note that this form is generally used with the present or past continuous (he is always doing, they were always doing).
  • 4. Conciseness 1. Replace several vague words with more powerful and specific words 2. Interrogate every word in a sentence 3. Combine sentences 4. Stay on message 5. Avoid “There is” or “There are” Constructions -other phrases to avoid: “for the most part” and “for the purpose of”
  • 5. Examples: • For the most part, people’s suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. - Revised: For the most part, people’s suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. • Many woodlands, in fact, have been purchased for the purpose of creating public parks. - Revised: Many woodlands, in fact, have been purchased for the purpose of creating as public parks. • There is a snow-capped mountain that appears on the left, and there are storm clouds that are gathering in the background. - Revised: A snow-capped mountain appears on the left, and storm clouds are gathering in the background.
  • 6. Clarity • Avoiding grammatical errors • Having clear structure sentence • Avoiding problems with modifiers • Limiting modifiers such as only, even, almost, nearly, and just should appear in front of a verb only if they modify the verb.
  • 7. Clarity • Using parallel sentence structure • Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling. • Avoid unclear pronoun references • This, that, these, those, he, she, it, they, and we are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned.
  • 8. Worksheet 1. There are children that are playing near the base of the mountain. Ans. Children are playing near the base of the mountain.
  • 9. Worksheet 2. Our website has made available many of the things you can use for making a decision on the best dentist. Ans. Our website presents criteria for determining the best dentist.
  • 10. Worksheet 3. Working as a pupil under someone who develops photos was an experience that really helped me learn a lot. Ans. Working as a photo technician's apprentice was an educational experience.
  • 11. Worksheet 4. The teacher demonstrated some of the various ways and methods for cutting words from my essay that I had written for class. Ans. The teacher demonstrated methods for cutting words from my essay.
  • 12. Worksheet 5. Many have made the wise observation that when a stone is in motion rolling down a hill or incline that that moving stone is not as likely to be covered all over with the kind of thick green moss that grows on stationary unmoving things and becomes a nuisance and suggests that those things haven’t moved in a long time and probably won’t move any time soon. Ans. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  • 13. Worksheet 6. Ludwig's castles are an astounding marriage of beauty and madness. By his death, he had commissioned three castles. Ans. Ludwig's three castles are an astounding marriage of beauty and madness.
  • 14. Worksheet 7. Industrial spying, because of the growing use of computers to store and process corporate information, is increasing rapidly. Ans. Industrial spying is increasing rapidly because of the growing use of computers to store and process corporate information.
  • 15. Worksheet 8. A decision was reached to postpone the vote. Ans. The committee decided to postpone the vote.
  • 16. Worksheet 9. This report explains our investment growth stimulation projects. Ans. This report explains our projects to stimulate growth in investments.
  • 17. Worksheet 10. The implementation of the plan was successful. Ans. The plan was implemented successfully.
  • 18. THE END

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