Pp27 world war_i__(31_years_of_disaster,_part_1)

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  • Note: details of pictures have colored borders.
  • [Between 1815 (when Napoleon was defeated) and August 1914 (when World War I broke out) there had been no major wars. This period of peace even has a name—the Pax Britannica. Europeans became confident that large-scale war would not occur again.] I show the issue of Alsace-Lorraine by placing both outstretched palms in front of my face, thumbs touching, with my wristwatch around my right thumb (right hand represents France, left hand Germany [backward to me, correct to students]. As A-L changes hands the watch slides from France to Germany and back.
  • [After the First Balkan War of 1912, Britain and Germany hardened the positions they took in World War One. Strachen says (in The First World War, page 41): “The principal link between the long-term and short-term origins of the First World War is the First Balkan War”.]
  • [Austria-Hungary threatened the influence of Russia in the Balkan Peninsula.]
  • [Actually, the alliance between England and France of 1904 was designed to work out rivalries in Africa, not to join together against Germany .]
  • [Other cousins (all descendents of Queen Victoria) married the rulers of Sweden, Norway, Yugoslavia, and Greece; one cousin inherited the throne of Romania.]
  • [Until World War II, World War I was called The Great War. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to Emperor Franz Joseph, who had ruled the Austrian Empire since 1848.] [Some Serbians lived in Serbia, while some lived in an adjacent part of the Austrian Empire. Serbian nationalists wanted all Serbs to be in Serbia.]
  • [When one country tells a second country that it will support it no matter what the second country does, it gives control to the second country. Austria concluded that this endorsement was an encouragement by Germany to take action, which it was not.]
  • [Russia wanted to support its fellow Slavs of the Balkan Peninsula against Austro-Hungarian aggression.]
  • [This would enable Germany to avoid fighting two enemies at once—one on its Western border (France) and one on its eastern border (Russia).]
  • [Germany wanted to attack France from the north (through Belgium), rather than across their common border on France’s east, in order to more easily encircle Paris and thereby cause the country to surrender. Britain felt the moral need to support small Belgium against German aggression. Slightly earlier, Germany had tried to get Belgian permission to send troops through the country in the event of war with France; Belgium refused.]
  • [ Chronology of events: Leading to the war: 6/28/1914 Franz Ferdinand assassinated 7/5 Count Alexander von Hoyos sent to Berlin for consultation—receives blank check 7/7 Austrian Crown Council met, most favored war 7/13 Baron Friedrich von Wiesner reported no evidence of Serbian government complicity, although Black Hand was involved. 7/14 Crown Council again, Hungarian PM Count Stefan Tisza was now in substantial agreement: Key week: July 23-28, 1914 7/23 Austrian ultimatum to Belgrade (the capital of Serbia) 7/24 Russian formulated support for Serbia 7/25 1. Austria assured Russia that no Serbian territory would be annexed 2. Russian military council decided to fight Austria if it fights Serbia. 3. Serbia accepted most of Austria’s unreasonable demands. 7/28 Russia mobilized on the Austrian front. Outbreak of the war: 7/28/1914 Austria declares war on Serbia (7/29 British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey to German Ambassador: “[If the war were not localized,] it would not be practicable [for Britain] to stand aside.” [quoted in Strachan, The First World War, p.21.]) 7/30 general mobilization of Russian army 8/1 Germany declared war on Russia and mobilizes France mobilized 8/2 Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding passage to France 8/3 Germany declared war on France France declared war on Germany 8/4 Germany declared war on Belgium, Germany attacked Belgium UK declared war on Germany 8/23 Japan declared war on Germany 10/29 Ottoman Empire began fighting Russia 11/2 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire 5/23/1915 Italy declared war on Austria 8/27 Romania joined the war on the Allied side 8/28 Bulgaria joins the war on the German side 8/28/1916 Italy declared war on Germany 4/6/1917 US declared war on Germany 12/7 US declared war on Austria] 8/19/1918 Honduras declared war on Germany
  • [ Chronology of events: Leading to the war: 6/28/1914 Franz Ferdinand assassinated 7/5 Count Alexander von Hoyos sent to Berlin for consultation—receives blank check 7/7 Austrian Crown Council met, most favored war 7/13 Baron Friedrich von Wiesner reported no evidence of Serbian government complicity, although Black Hand was involved. 7/14 Crown Council again, Hungarian PM Count Stefan Tisza was now in substantial agreement: Key week: July 23-28, 1914 7/23 Austrian ultimatum to Belgrade (the capital of Serbia) 7/24 Russian formulated support for Serbia 7/25 1. Austria assured Russia that no Serbian territory would be annexed 2. Russian military council decided to fight Austria if it fights Serbia. 3. Serbia accepted most of Austria’s unreasonable demands. 7/28 Russia mobilized on the Austrian front. Outbreak of the war: 7/28/1914 Austria declares war on Serbia (Countries obviously at war but not name may below have assumed declarations, such as Russia against Germany) (7/29 British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey to German Ambassador: “[If the war were not localized,] it would not be practicable [for Britain] to stand aside.” [quoted in Strachan, The First World War, p.21.]) 7/30 general mobilization of Russian army 8/1 Germany declared war on Russia and mobilizes France mobilized 8/2 Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding passage to France 8/3 Germany declared war on France France declared war on Germany 8/4 Germany declared war on Belgium, Germany attacked Belgium UK declared war on Germany 8/23 Japan declared war on Germany 10/29 Ottoman Empire began fighting Russia 11/2 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire 5/23/1915 Italy declared war on Austria 8/27 Romania joined the war on the Allied side 8/28 Bulgaria joins the war on the German side 8/28/1916 Italy declared war on Germany 4/6/1917 US declared war on Germany 12/7 US declared war on Austria] 8/19/1918 Honduras declared war on Germany
  • [Italy did not enter the war on the side of the Central Powers because the terms of the alliance required this only if the other members were attacked. Both sides proceeded to bribe potential allies. In this bribing Italy yielded to the Allies’ offers. (Later, England violated the territorial integrity of Greece in a manner similar to Germany’s violation of Belgian territory at the outbreak of the war. Greece then was coerced into an alliance with the Allies similar to the forced alliance between Finland and Germany-Austria in World War II. British propaganda efforts, however, concealed this similarity effectively.)]
  • [Italy did not enter the war on the side of the Central Powers because the terms of the alliance required this only if the other members were attacked. Both sides proceeded to bribe potential allies. In this bribing Italy yielded to the Allies’ offers. (Later, England violated the territorial integrity of Greece in a manner similar to Germany’s violation of Belgian territory at the outbreak of the war. Greece then was coerced into an alliance with the Allies similar to the forced alliance between Finland and Germany-Austria in World War II. British propaganda efforts, however, concealed this similarity effectively.)]
  • [As non-combatants, Americans could sell non-war goods to both sides, but the superior British navy meant that, for the most part, only the allies could take delivery of these available goods. Wilson failed to take this into account and adjust our policies to maintain a true neutrality. In terms of ethnic backgrounds, more Americans traced their ancestors to German culture than to English culture, and so Americans found no natural side to take at the beginning of the war. America’s historic strong ties to the United Kingdom had been previously weakened by the anti-British feelings of Irish immigrants to the US. (The Irish formed the first group of immigrants to bring widespread hatred with them.)]
  • [See Davies. Europe, A History, page 902]
  • The Germans needed to defeat Belgium by swinging west and then south toward Paris. But General Moltke decided that the French border was not well enough defended against French forces and moved some attack soldiers south to strengthen the border defense. Worse yet, the Belgians didn’t roll over and play dead as the Germans had expected, and thus slowed the Germa advance toward the French border. As it turned out, the Germans had no trouble fighting on two fronts; they actually carried out the war on eight fronts.]
  • [The German government did not reveal this defeat to the German people at the time, paving the way for the stab-in-the-back myth.] [General Joffre saved the day at Marne by moving badly needed reserve troops from Paris to the battlefield by conscripting 600 Renault taxis.]
  • [The submarine provided Germany’s only chance to confront the superior British navy. The German government took ads in New York newspapers warning Americans to stay off of British ships. Some Americans ignored the warning. When a German sub sunk the British ship Lusitania (May 15, 1915) with Americans on board, Americans became hostile towards Germany. Germany resumed submarine warfare on Feb. 1, 1917.]
  • [Also, because the British were buying the most products, American bankers were loaning the most money to the British. American bankers thus had an interest in seeing the British win, to insure the repayment of these loans.]
  • [Also, because the British were buying the most products, American bankers were loaning the most money to the British. American bankers thus had an interest in seeing the British win, to insure the repayment of these loans.]
  • [Americans began to play a significant role at the Château-Thierry, June 4, 1917]
  • [On the Russian soldiers’ suffering and will, see Davies, page 907.]
  • [The Czar was overthrown on March 12, 1917.]
  • At the time of the February democratic revolution, Lenin was in exile in Z ürich, Switzerland. To get to Russia (read: Petrograd) it was necessary for him to travel through Germany. But that was impossible for two reasons: 1. Russia was Germany’s enemy, and 2. Lenin was a hated communist. Lenin got the German government to allow a transit nonetheless (in a sealed rail car) by promising, after carrying out a communist revolution, to pull Russia out of the war as soon as possible. [This is summarized in the second slide following.] The cost of this negotiated loss was great in territorial terms—Russia ceded about one third of European territory to Germany. Although Germany lost the war 11 months later, the winners did not return all of this land—note the new countries (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) that were created out of former Russian territory, with additional territory going to the new state of Poland and to Rumania.
  • Russia’s capital (Sankt Petersburg) could hardly have a German name when she was at war against Germany, thus the approximate translation to Russian—Petrograd. Likewise, the Saxe-Coburg family ruling the United Kingdom circumspectly changed its name to something more English sounding—Windsor.
  • [When German generals began to adopt a new policy of infiltration in 1918, German troops began to break through allied lines; by then it was too late, for American forces were arriving in France.]
  • . . . from Renaissance Art (D ürer’s Clump of Grass [Vienna, Albertina \ )
  • . . . from Renaissance Art (D ürer’s Clump of Grass [Vienna, Albertina \ )
  • Note that this poster dates from World War II. You can delete it, or ask students what is wrong with this poster (the uniforms are the giveaway).
  • This etching and aquatint was created ub 1924.
  • Black Jack Pershing’s famous remark made upon first landing in France [the reference is to French help].
  • [Already before the armistice (11/11/1917 at 11 AM, Czechoslovakia had declared its independence (October 28), as had the new Yugoslavia (October 29) and Hungary (November 1).]
  • Recall that the German public was often not told of bad news, as, for instance, the results of the Battle of the Marne. Thus, the myth of a Jewish betrayal in the face of German successes in the war.
  • [The other leaders wanted material compensation, while Wilson wanted “democracy”, self-determination, an international peace-keeping organization, and basically no “winner mentality”.]
  • [The German people turned to Hitler because he promised to return the self-respect that had been taken away from the German people by the victors in forcing the German leaders to accept total blame for the war instead of partial blame.]
  • Note that this map is not titled “Territorial Changes in Europe After World War I”, but rather “New Countries and Reconstituted Poland After World War I”. There were additional changes shown elsewhere in this section.
  • [Which is not to say that horses were no longer essential for transportation duties, e.g., where trains were not available and for pulling artillery pieces and transporting anything on muddy roads.] [One third of all the supplies shipped by the American army consisted of food for its horses.]
  • [French leaders even went so far as to maintain that the troops with the highest morale would win because it was retreating troops who suffered casualties, refusing therefore to allow losing troops to retreat.] “ Military strategy and tactics, as always, were based on the lessons of recent wars. The Franco-Prussian War and the Boer War had proved the vulnerability of infantry attack. The solution was thought to lie in three areas—in the use of massed artillery as the primary offensive arm against battlefield positions, in the use of railways for the rapid deployment of attacking forces, and in the use of cavalry for encirclement and pursuit. On the Eastern Front these assumptions did not prove ineffective. But in the West, where fortified trench-lines came into being, it took thousands of abortive operations before the superiority of the concrete blockhouse over the high-explosive shell was even suspected.” Norman Davies, Europe, A History, page 902
  • [The great battles of World War I had greater casualties than the major battles of World War II.]
  • [Jaurès was assassinated the next day (op. cit., page 51).]
  • Pp27 world war_i__(31_years_of_disaster,_part_1)

    1. 1. World War IWorld War I is primarily a text presentation, with 29 maps & 7 questions.is primarily a text presentation, with 29 maps & 7 questions. 77 refers to 1914-1991, when Soviet communism collapsed; 31 to 1914-194577 refers to 1914-1991, when Soviet communism collapsed; 31 to 1914-1945 OutlineOutline:: I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event?I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event? II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? III. Who ruled? IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? V. Which countries fought on each side? VI. How did America react to the war? VII. What were the goals of each side? VIII. What major events occurred during the war? IX. How did World War I end? X. Why was World War I so disastrous? XI. Epilog: whose fault was the war? XII. Appendix: How did World War I affect German-Americans, especially in the area around San Antonio? Note: Teachers should print out the text, which includes many footnotes.
    2. 2. 31 Years of Disaster: Part 1: World War One 1914-1918 Causes, Course of the War, Effects Text Copyright by Ronald Wiltse, (As of: May 2008)
    3. 3. WARNING! This presentation is stuffed with information. You must:  pay close attention,  copy the outline, and  study the results . . . to get the maximum out of it!
    4. 4. 0. Geographical preview: Europe Balkan Peninsula
    5. 5. I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event? 77/31 5
    6. 6. I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event? A. The conflict that started in 1914 lasted 77 years, until 1991. B. Of that 77 years, the period of war lasted 31 years (1914-1945), with a 21 year break (1918-1939). (In August 1914 most expected that the war would be over within 4 months.)
    7. 7. I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event? C. European nations forfeited their position as the world’s leaders. 1. Every European government that went to war in 1914 was defeated and destroyed by 1945, except Great Britain, which went from the world’s most powerful nation to a fourth rate power:  Russia/ Soviet Union, 1918  Germany, 1918 & 1945  Austria, 1918 & 1945  France, 1940  Italy, 1944
    8. 8. I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event? D. The USA replaced Europe as the world’s greatest power. E. Two great movements dominated the century, causing monstrous evil.  Soviet Communism  Nazism
    9. 9. I. Overview: Why was World War I an important event? F. Thus,  World War I led to the rise of Soviet communism.  World War I led to the rise of Nazi Germany.  World War I led to World War II.  World War I otherwise changed the course of the twentieth century.
    10. 10. II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? A. Building conflicts made war almost inevitable. 1. German actions. a) The emergence of the German Empire in 1871 upset the balance of power carefully developed in Europe over the preceding centuries.  Yet Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor (and actual ruler) of the German Empire, skillfully kept his potential enemies from encircling him with alliances.  France resented Germany for taking Alsace-Lorraine away from France in 1870. 10
    11. 11. II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? b) Incompetent Wilhelm II took personal control of Germany in 1890, but could not maintain the high quality of Bismarck’s leadership.  Kaiser Wilhelm II, by needlessly building up the German navy, threatened British naval power which was essential to maintain its empire. John Tenniel, The Firing of Bismarck
    12. 12. II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? 2. Three groups clashed in Balkan Peninsula.  As the power of the Ottoman Empire declined in the Balkans, the native Slavic peoples of the Balkans wanted to rule themselves.  Austria wanted to expand its power into the area.  Russia wanted to prevent such Austrian expansion.
    13. 13. Languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire reflect the ethnic diversity of the Empire’s inhabitants. Balkan Peninsula Austro-Hungarian Empire showing languages spoken What future European countries do you see inside the borders of the Austrian- Hungarian Empire?
    14. 14. II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? B. Political leaders built entangling alliances. (In his Farewell Address of 1797 George Washington warned Americans of entangling alliances)—an entangling alliance involves one country with the fortunes of another country, even if the first country doesn’t want to get involved.
    15. 15. II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? 1. Germany allied itself with Austria-Hungary, which Russia resented. (Austria-Hungary comprised a multi- national empire, and as such saw itself as unique among European nations. Usually, we will refer to it as Austria here.) 15
    16. 16. II. How did Europe lose the peace (long-term causes)? 2. Unlike Bismarck, the German Kaiser could not prevent his potential enemies from forming an alliance—The Triple Entente (England, France, and Russia)—which forced Germany into the possibility of a two-front war—against France in the west and Russia in the east.
    17. 17. III. Who ruled?  George V (King of England), cousin of  Wilhelm II* (Kaiser of the German Empire), cousin of  Nicholas II* (Czar of the Russian Empire),  Franz Josef* (Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire)  Raymond Poincaré, President of France *These leaders and their ruling houses, all in countries that lost the war, lost their monarchies as a result of the war.
    18. 18. III. Who ruled?  George V (King of England), cousin of  Nicholas II* (Czar of the Russian Empire), George V (left) and Nicholas II
    19. 19. III. Who ruled?  Wilhelm II* (Kaiser of the German Empire), cousin of 20
    20. 20. III. Who ruled?  Franz Josef* (Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) *These leaders and their ruling houses, all in countries that lost the war, lost their monarchies as a result of the war.
    21. 21. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? A. Foolish leaders allowed their countries to drift into war. 1. A Serbian nationalist assassinated the heir to Austrian throne, unleashing a chain of events that led to a localized war between Austria and Serbia. This war within days became a worldwide war; thus this event is called the match that ignited the Great War.
    22. 22. Serbia, in black, east of Bosnia and its main city, Sarajevo. Many Serbs lived in Bosnia.
    23. 23. The assassin, Gavrillo Princep, and Franz Ferdinand with Sophie.
    24. 24. Car in which Franz Ferdinand and his wife were riding in when they were shot. 25
    25. 25. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 2. Austria used the assassination as an excuse to move against Serbia, which Austria wanted to dominate.  Evidence of direct involvement of the Serbian government was not found.  Austrian citizens feared that a local war against Serbia would escalate into a feared general war, but that did not stop their government from moving forward.
    26. 26. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 3. Germany unconditionally backed Austria in its conflict with neighbor Serbia, oblivious to the dangers involved in giving Austria so much power (the “blank check”). What does giving someone a blank check mean?
    27. 27. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 4. Serbia yielded to Austrian demands, but Austria attacked anyway.
    28. 28. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 5. Russia, to support Serbia, mobilized for war against Germany.
    29. 29. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 6. Germany responded by declaring war against Russia. 30
    30. 30. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 7. Because war with Russia would mean war with Russia’s ally France, Germany declared war on France, hoping to defeat France before Russia could prepare its army to fight. German route of attack. The German plan was to encircle Paris, forcing France to surrender. To do this, however, the German army had to march through Belgium.
    31. 31. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 8. When Germany attacked Belgium, the UK declared war on Germany.
    32. 32. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? 9. At this point, each nation involved justified itself by claiming that it had been attacked.
    33. 33. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? B. Events of the last week of July 1914 occurred at such a rapid-fire pace that the diplomats involved could not think clearly.
    34. 34. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? The “week” of war declarations: July 28-August 4, 1914  Tues.,7/28 Austria declared war on Serbia  7/30 general mobilization of Russian army  8/1 Germany declared war on Russia and mobilized  France mobilized, (assumed declaration of Russia against Germany, but not actually declared)  8/2 Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding passage to France  8/3 Germany declared war on France  France declared war on Germany  Tues., 8/4 Germany declared war on Belgium, attacked Belgium UK declared war on Germany 35
    35. 35. IV. How did a local conflict become a world war (short-term causes)? The “week” of war declarations: July 28-August 4, 1914 Tues.,7/28 Austria declared war on Serbia 7/30 general mobilization of Russian army 8/3 Germany declared war on France France declared war on Germany Tues., 8/4 Germany declared war on Belgium, attacked Belgium UK declared war on Germany 8/2 Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding passage to France In 8 days, most of Europe was at war! 8/1 Germany declared war on Russia and mobilized France mobilized, (assumed declaration of Russia against Germany, but not actually declared
    36. 36. V. Which countries fought on each side? A. Two camps arose before the war:  The Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy  The Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia.
    37. 37. V. Which countries fought on each side? B. During the war, with slight changes, these became:  The Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire.  The Allies: Britain, France, Russia, and, with a little hesitation, Italy.
    38. 38. Original lineup:  Pink: Central Powers  Red: Allies Other colors: Countries unattached in August 1914
    39. 39. During World War One, Allies* were on the Central40
    40. 40. V. Which countries fought on each side? C. Overview: The Triple Entente: became The Allies: United Kingdom United Kingdom France France Russia Russia Italy The USA (32 countries total)
    41. 41. V. Which countries fought on each side? C. Overview: The Triple Alliance: became The Central Powers: Germany Germany Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Italy Ottoman Empire
    42. 42. [ ?  Which goes with which? Allies Triple Alliance Central Powers Triple Entente 45
    43. 43. VI. How did America react to the war? A. President Woodrow Wilson initially called on Americans to remain neutral in thought as well as action.  On January 22, 1917 Wilson calls for peace without victory.
    44. 44. VII. What were the goals of each side?  Germany – support Austria, gain more land, weaken Britain and Russia  Austria – to avoid damage by nationalistic groups such as the Serbs, gain parts of Serbia and Romania  Ottoman Empire – to survive
    45. 45. VII. What were the goals of each side?  Russia – to defend Serbia and Romania  England – to defend Belgium  France – to defend itself, recover Alsace- Lorraine  The USA – to make the world safe for democracy, defend its bankers’ loans, & defend its threatened maritime economy.
    46. 46. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? A. Germany feared a two-front war. Thinking that Russia would take several weeks to field its army, Germany decided that this time provided a window of opportunity to quickly defeat France first, then fight Russia.
    47. 47. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? B. To defeat France quickly the Schlieffen Plan called for German troops to race through Belgium, swing south, and capture Paris. The plan failed and a two- front war followed. The Schlieffen Plan 50
    48. 48. Why the Schlieffen Plan failed—too much Belgian resistance and a weakened attack force 50 . . . as planned . . . as carried out
    49. 49. The first major battle was the Battle of the Marne. How did the French reserve troops get from Paris to the Marne battlefield ?
    50. 50. Paris taxis!
    51. 51. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? C. The Battle of the Marne (September 5-12, 1914) stopped the German advance, saving France.
    52. 52. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? D. While other fronts moved, the Western Front ground down to a stalemate. 1. The border between the contestants hovered about a seldom-moving line run- ning from Belgium, across northeastern France, to Switzerland. German trench 55
    53. 53. A stalemate meant trench warfare. 2. The title of Erich Maria Remarque’s novel about the western front can be translated Nothing New on the Western Front. William Orpen,  Dead Soldiers in a Trench
    54. 54. William Orpen, Thiepval [in winter]
    55. 55. C.R.W. Nevison, Paths of Glory
    56. 56. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? E. Submarine warfare gave Germany a chance against the superior British navy. 1. Because the US government refused to stop American citizens from riding dangerously on British ships, the Germans stopped submarine warfare to avoid pushing the US into the war. 60
    57. 57. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? E. Submarine warfare gave Germany a chance against the superior British navy. 2. The event that frightened Germany into ending sub- marine warfare was Amer- ican reaction to the sink- ing of the British liner Lus- itania in May of 1915, in which 128 Americans died.
    58. 58.  Warning given to Lusitania passengers by German officials dockside: NOTICE! TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY, Washington, D.C. April 22, 1915
    59. 59. Lusitania recruiting poster
    60. 60. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? E. Submarine warfare gave Germany a chance against the superior British navy. 3. Eventually Germany had to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, knowing that would draw the US into the war. It hoped to prevail before the US could make a difference.
    61. 61. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? F. The US slid into the war: The United States maintained a false neutrality and slipped ever closer to the United Kingdom, overlooking British violations of international law, but not those of the Central Powers.
    62. 62. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? F. The US slid into the war: 1. Because of the strong British navy, the Allies could take delivery of vital supplies produced in the United States, while the Central powers could not. 65
    63. 63. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? F. The US slid into the war: 2. Finally, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war against Germany, which it did on April 6, 1917, ¾ of the way through the war. It followed with a declaration against Austria- Hungary on Dec. 7.
    64. 64. Because of the time needed to train and outfit American soldiers, it was not until 14 months later that American forces were able to take a significant role in the war, meaning that they fought for only the last five months of the war. General John Pershing led the American Expeditionary Force. If copying, copy this short form: 3. It took 14 months for US troops to get into the war; the war ended 5 months later.
    65. 65. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? G. Russia faced problems. 1. The poorly equipped Russian people suffered greatly during the war. 2. Russian soldiers, although dying at a lower rate than other major combatants, lost the will to fight.
    66. 66. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? G. Russia faced problems. 3. The Czar refused to pull out of the war. 4. Democrats overthrew the Czar’s government in 1917 (but continued to fight the war). Czar Nicholas II
    67. 67. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? G. Russia faced problems. 5. Lenin led the Russian Communists (Bolsheviks) in a second Revolution in 1917 (Nov. 7, 1917) and pulled Russia out of the war (December 22), despite the Allies’ plea not to do so. 6. The key question among the Allies at the time: which would have a greater impact, Russia pulling out of the war (Dec. 1917), or America entering the war (in effect, June 1918)? 70
    68. 68. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? G. Russia faced problems. Communists—among others— believed that the upper and lower classes were natural enemies, as shown in the painting From the Depths by William Balfour-Kerr.
    69. 69. Lenin needed to go from Zurich to Petrograd, but had to convince the German government to let a Russian communist travel through Germany (he promised to overthrow the Russian Government and withdraw from the war). The German government allowed Lenin’s party to travel through Germany by sealed train. St. Petersburg became Petrograd became Leningrad became St. Petersburg
    70. 70. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? H. Eventually the Germans adopted a policy of infiltration. (Infiltration means that weak points are attacked, regardless of the unevenness of the line that results. That approach, of course, has been followed in all wars since then.)
    71. 71. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? I. The influenza epidemic of 1918 hurt war efforts.  In the last weeks of the war, influenza broke out, especially among troops living in crowded conditions.  From the middle of September 1918, more people were killed by influenza in the next 4 months than died from the plague in the century after 1347.
    72. 72. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? J. Both sides used propaganda posters to influence the public. 75
    73. 73. VIII. What major events occurred during the war? Wars must be financed.
    74. 74. Another American poster, with an appeal to history (remember the Hundred Years War?).
    75. 75. The classic American recruiting poster. This iconic poster lives on. Here is an example seen in a window in Romania in 2007.
    76. 76. But others were used too.
    77. 77. Above: from Australia 80
    78. 78. Above: from Australia
    79. 79. 85
    80. 80. r German poster in the style of the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) Do you remember this picture:?
    81. 81. r
    82. 82. Then, as now.
    83. 83.  Not all propaganda was from a government. Otto Dix, Troops Advancing under Gas Attack Do you think this kind of art work could have been presented during the war?
    84. 84. IX. How did World War I end? A. The entry of the US threw the balance of fighting to the Allies’ side (Germany’s new policy of infiltration came too late). Stereoscope slide, “Lafayette, we are here.” 90
    85. 85. Childe Hassam, Allies Day
    86. 86. IX. How did World War I end? B. In the fall of 1918, Germany faced great social upheaval if the war didn’t end quickly; thus, its military leaders surrendered. 1. Germany’s civilian leaders signed the armistice only because its military leaders ordered them to.
    87. 87. IX. How did World War I end? B. In the fall of 1918, Germany faced great social upheaval if the war didn’t end quickly; thus, its military leaders surrendered. 2. The armistice occurred on November 11, 1918, at 11 AM—the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918.
    88. 88. IX. How did World War I end? B. In the fall of 1918, Germany faced great social upheaval if the war didn’t end quickly; thus, its military leaders surrendered. 3. In the 1920s, some German military leaders and German anti-Semites claimed that the military had not lost the war; rather, the surrender was due to traitorous false German civilian leaders. These so- called traitors were all Jews, and thus began the myth of the Jewish stab-in-the-back.
    89. 89. IX. How did World War I end? C. The winners (France, the UK, and the US) met in Paris to dictate terms of the peace to Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. 1. American President Woodrow Wilson proposed his Fourteen Points, which generally were rejected as too idealistic. 95
    90. 90. Hall of Mirrors at Versailles The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, by William Orpen, in the Imperial War Museum, London Do you remember Versailles?
    91. 91. IX. How did World War I end? D. The Treaty of Versailles treated the losers harshly. 1. Germany’s leaders were forced to admit guilt for the war and agree to pay damages to the victors.  This and other mistreatments caused resentment among Germans, thus paving the way for Hitler.
    92. 92. IX. How did World War I end? D. The Treaty of Versailles treated the losers harshly. 2. Wilson’s demand for self-determination for most ethnic groups justified the destruction of the empires of the losers. ◄ Germany lost land to the newly reconstructed Poland, and Alsace-Lorraine went back to France.
    93. 93. IX. How did World War I end? D. The Treaty of Versailles treated the losers harshly. ◄The victors divided Austria-Hungary into many pieces.  Hungary won its complete independence from Austria.  The victors created Yugoslavia out of parts of Austria and other countries.  Czechoslovakia joined two major ethnic groups into one country (together they would have a better chance to defend themselves against future aggression).  Land went to the new Poland, and to Romania.
    94. 94. IX. How did World War I end? D. The Treaty of Versailles treated the losers harshly. ◄The victors reduced the Ottoman Empire to its core, Turkey, while the newly created territories of Syria, Lebanon, Trans-Jordan, Palestine, Arabia, and Iraq were assigned to the leader- ship of the UK and France. 100
    95. 95. IX. How did World War I end? D. The Treaty of Versailles treated the losers harshly.  Even Russia, which had pulled out of the war toward the end as a loser, lost much land . . .  to the newly created Poland.  to the new ethnically centered states of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.  Wilson’s proposal for a League of Nations, to prevent future warfare, was adopted.
    96. 96. IX. How did World War I end? E. Review of the territorial changes: 1. Poland. The Polish people had lost their independence in the 1700s (to Prussia, Russia, and Austria). The WWI winners took land away from Germany, Russia, and Austria to restart Poland.
    97. 97. IX. How did World War I end? E. Review of the territorial changes:  To give Poland access to the sea, the winners cut Germany into two parts and made Danzig an international city. This division will remain a sore point for Germans.
    98. 98. IX. How did World War I end? E. Review of the territorial changes: 2. Russia. Russia lost much land to Germany when the new communist government dropped out of the war. The winners gave back only some of it. Land taken from Russia in black.
    99. 99. IX. How did World War I end? E. Review of the territorial changes: 3. Austria-Hungary. After Hungary became indepen- dent and other land went to countries old and new, only the core of the Empire—today’s Austria—was left, ruled from its giant capital, Vienna. 105
    100. 100. IX. How did World War I end? E. Review of the territorial changes: 4. Germany. Germany became a divided country when a strip in the northeast was given to Poland. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, and all land west of a line drawn 50 kilometers east of the Rhine River was demilitarized. Do you see any other changes?
    101. 101. New and changed countries with land from Russia: Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania part of Poland & Rumania from Austria-Hungary: (Austria) (Hungary) Czechoslovakia part of Romania part of Yugoslavia part of Poland part of Italy from Germany: part of Poland
    102. 102. IX. How did World War I end? E. Review of the territorial changes: 5. Ottoman Empire. The winners broke up the Ottoman Empire, which itself had nearly 500 years earlier conquered the Byzantine Empire. The core became Turkey. Its former Middle East land was turned over to France and England, who created Transjordan, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Arabia, and Iraq.
    103. 103. New Middle eastern countries from the ottoman empire Mandate for France: Syria Mandates for Britain: Palestine Transjordan Iraq Independent: parts of Arabian Peninsula Green areas were already under British control by 1914. (Mandates were areas assigned for European control by the League of Nations in 1920)
    104. 104. X. Why was World War I so disastrous? A. New technology changed the nature of fighting:  The new technology included the machine gun, barbed wire barricades, and trench warfare.  Mustard “gas” caused much suffering. 110
    105. 105. X. Why was World War I so disastrous? A. New technology changed the nature of fighting:  (The airplane was in its infancy and generals disliked the tank and therefore they nearly always used them ineffectively.)
    106. 106. First American Air Victories, by John McCoy First American Air Victories, by John McCoy
    107. 107. President: Here are some new weapons. General: Tanks! President: You’re welcome.
    108. 108. X. Why was World War I so disastrous? B. The military leaders used outdated tactics:  They relied on horse-mounted soldiers (cavalry) and bayonets; 115
    109. 109. Horses could also die!
    110. 110. X. Why was World War I so disastrous? B. The military leaders used outdated tactics:  They practiced the direct infantry assault (i.e., charging against machine guns), and  They followed the doctrine of uniform advance, where soldiers would not advance into a point of weak resistance unless their entire line could advance at the same rate.
    111. 111. X. Why was World War I so disastrous? C. One result of outdated tactics was stalemate on the Western front (each side built a long line of trenches, separated from each other by a no-man’s land ). D. Another result of the above was massive casualties.
    112. 112. XI. Epilog: whose fault was the war? A. Many on all sides engaged in wishful thinking.  “There will be ups and downs. But it is impossible that things won’t turn out all right.” Jean Jaurès, French socialist leader, July 30, 1914 (quoted in Strachen, The First World War, page 41.) B. Leaders on all sides led poorly. C. Germany was dangerously aggressive. 120
    113. 113. XII. Appendix: How did World War I affect German-Americans, especially in the area around San Antonio? A. The climate gradually turned against German culture. 1. Childish name changes took place.  e.g., Sauerkraut became liberty cabbage. 2. German newspapers in America often took a pro- German stance up to the declaration of war, stimulating a backlash against things German.
    114. 114. XII. Appendix: How did World War I affect German-Americans, especially in the area around San Antonio? Making His Dollars Fight, cartoon approving of mistreatment of good Americans just because their ancestors came from German-speaking lands (1917 cartoon from The Baltimore American)
    115. 115. XII. Appendix: How did World War I affect German-Americans, especially in the area around San Antonio? B. German-Americans found themselves on the defensive. 1. Germans came to America because they preferred it to their German-speaking homelands, often fleeing oppressive governments. By 1914, some were third generation Americans, yet they were often treated with suspicion by Anglo- Americans, and sometimes harassed.
    116. 116. XII. Appendix: How did World War I affect German-Americans, especially in the area around San Antonio? B. German-Americans found themselves on the defensive. 2. German language public schools around San Antonio switched to English. 3. German-Americans stopped speaking German in public.
    117. 117. XII. Appendix: How did World War I affect German-Americans, especially in the area around San Antonio? B. German-Americans found themselves on the defensive. 4. Some anglicized their names, e.g., Schmidt to Smith. 5. Only in the late 1950s did German-American Texans begin to openly celebrate their German heritage again. 125
    118. 118. END
    119. 119.  The following slides are for use with the vocabulary worksheet.
    120. 120. Alsace-Lorraine
    121. 121. Ottoman Empire
    122. 122. Triple Entente and Triple Alliance

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