Civilized life in sub-
Saharan Africa
Version for teachers Ronald Wiltse September 2008
Civilized life in sub-
Saharan Africa
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms
1. Nubia (south of the first cataract) was raided
...
1. Nubia
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms
2. Kush 800 BC-AD 350 (southern Nubia, so
named by...
1. Nubia
2. Kush
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms
3. Maqurrah (capital: Dunqulah)
a. converted to Ch...
1. Nubia
2. Kush
3. Maqurrah
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms
4. Alwah
a. converted to Christianity 540s.
b. Sur...
1. Nubia
2. Kush
3. Maqurrah
4. Alwah
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms
5. Axum (Aksum)/Ethiopia (flourished 200s-
500s)/A...
1. Nubia
2. Kush
3. Maqurrah
4. Alwah
5. Axum/Ethiopia
Axum
Ethiopean Madonna and Child
Review
1. Nubia
2. Kush
3. Maqurrah
4. Alwah
5. Axum/Ethiopia
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms
1. Ghana (flourished 600s-1200s) (“Ghana” is a
tit...
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms
1. Ghana (flourished 600s-1200s) (“Ghana” is a
tit...
1. Ghana
Ghana
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. West Africa civilized kingdoms
2. Mali (or Mandingo) (1235-1400s), a Muslim
state. (...
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms
2. Mali (or Mandingo) (1235-1400s), a Muslim
state...
1. Ghana
2. Mali
Mali
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms
3. Songhai (Songhay, or Goa) (1400s-1500s)
a. Orig...
1. Ghana
2. Mali
3. Songhai
Review
1. Ghana
2. Mali
3. Songhai
The difficulty
in determining
boundaries of the
past reflects
1. The ambiguity of
boundaries,
2. boundaries
changing over ...
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms
4. Benin 1180-1800s
a. Known to us primarily becau...
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Benin, 1897
CivilizedLifein
Sub-Saharan
Africa
B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms
5. The Great Zimbabwe
a. Central area about 200 ac...
End
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary
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Pp23 civilized life_in_sub-saharan_africa_summary

  1. 1. Civilized life in sub- Saharan Africa Version for teachers Ronald Wiltse September 2008
  2. 2. Civilized life in sub- Saharan Africa
  3. 3. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms 1. Nubia (south of the first cataract) was raided and repeatedly ruled by Egypt. a. falls to Islamic conquerors in 1400s. Here, Muslim influence enters the Eastern Africa sub-Saharan region. b. This opens the way to conquer westward.
  4. 4. 1. Nubia
  5. 5. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms 2. Kush 800 BC-AD 350 (southern Nubia, so named by Sesostris, ca 1915 BC)1 a. Began as a regional Nubian capital under Egyptian control. b. Kush conquered Egypt c. Capital Meroe (Latin name) d. Driven out of Egypt by Assyrians (663 BC) e. Destroyed between 320 and 350 by the king of Axum. f. Carried on trade with India and Egypt.
  6. 6. 1. Nubia 2. Kush
  7. 7. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms 3. Maqurrah (capital: Dunqulah) a. converted to Christianity 540s. b. Survived 7th century Arab raiders c. Weakened by Egyptian Mamlūks d. Subsequently fell to Arab emigrants
  8. 8. 1. Nubia 2. Kush 3. Maqurrah
  9. 9. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms 4. Alwah a. converted to Christianity 540s. b. Survived into the 1500s.
  10. 10. 1. Nubia 2. Kush 3. Maqurrah 4. Alwah
  11. 11. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa A. Eastern Africa civilized kingdoms 5. Axum (Aksum)/Ethiopia (flourished 200s- 500s)/Abyssinia a. resists Muslims, which stimulates a “golden age” b. Converted to Christianity in the 300s, thus linking to the Roman Empire. c. Trade with Mediterranean ended by Muslim expansion, 700s-900s. d. Possible source of the medieval fabled king Prester John.
  12. 12. 1. Nubia 2. Kush 3. Maqurrah 4. Alwah 5. Axum/Ethiopia
  13. 13. Axum
  14. 14. Ethiopean Madonna and Child
  15. 15. Review 1. Nubia 2. Kush 3. Maqurrah 4. Alwah 5. Axum/Ethiopia
  16. 16. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms 1. Ghana (flourished 600s-1200s) (“Ghana” is a title for the kings.) a. Founded by Jews or Berbers around AD 300. b. Camel caravans began trade between Rome and Ghana (gold, salt, slaves–often for salt obtained at the Mediterranean) around AD 300. c. Described by the great Spanish-Arab chronicler Abū ‘Ubayd al Bakrī. 1. This aided in the formation of the kingdom of Ghana.
  17. 17. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms 1. Ghana (flourished 600s-1200s) (“Ghana” is a title for the kings.) d. In 1076 conquered by Almoravid Muslim general Abū-Bakr Ibn-Umar. Here, Muslim influence is firmly established in Western Africa. e. Almoravid domination disrupted the trading, permanently. Almoravid sheep flocks caused a permanent desertification of the region. Note the foreign Way of doing Things harms The environment.
  18. 18. 1. Ghana
  19. 19. Ghana
  20. 20. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. West Africa civilized kingdoms 2. Mali (or Mandingo) (1235-1400s), a Muslim state. (Wikipedia: 1230s-1600s) a. The winner in the power vacuum left by the decline of Ghana. b. Mansa Musa (1312-1337) 1. His hajj caused inflation. c. Songhai raids led to decline.
  21. 21. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms 2. Mali (or Mandingo) (1235-1400s), a Muslim state. (Wikipedia: 1230s-1600s) d. Ibn Battuta visited Mali in the 1350s.
  22. 22. 1. Ghana 2. Mali
  23. 23. Mali
  24. 24. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms 3. Songhai (Songhay, or Goa) (1400s-1500s) a. Origins in Berber settlements in the 600s. b. Capital: Gao (on bend in Niger River) c. Timbuktu second most important city d. King Kossoi converted to Islam ca. 1000. e. Brought to an end in 1591 by Moroccan soldiers. f. Hausa city-states (7) replaced some of the area ruled by Songhai.
  25. 25. 1. Ghana 2. Mali 3. Songhai
  26. 26. Review 1. Ghana 2. Mali 3. Songhai
  27. 27. The difficulty in determining boundaries of the past reflects 1. The ambiguity of boundaries, 2. boundaries changing over time, and 3. a lack of information.
  28. 28. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms 4. Benin 1180-1800s a. Known to us primarily because of its artistic work in iron, bronze, brass, wood, and ivory.
  29. 29. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa
  30. 30. Benin, 1897
  31. 31. CivilizedLifein Sub-Saharan Africa B. Western Africa civilized kingdoms 5. The Great Zimbabwe a. Central area about 200 acres, it is the largest of several stone constructions in this part of Africa. b. The Hill Complex (one of three parts of the area) is 328 feet by 148 feet. c. The area was mostly abandoned in the 1400s.
  32. 32. End
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