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Perception Perception Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 5 Perception By Aastha Tyagi
  • Perception: is a process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment.
    • Differs from one person to another, depending on the needs, values and expectations.
    • People respond to situations on the basis of their perception about the reality rather than reality itself.
    • SENSATION:--
    • People use their sensory organs to sense.
    • Senses receive stimuli both from within and outside the body.
    • PERCEPTION:--
    • An individual takes in the raw data through his senses, and then, refines, modifies or completely alters it by his cognitive
  • SUBPROCESS OF PERCEPTION EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Physical environment Office Values Mgt styles CONFRONTATION REGISTRATION Sensory and neural INTERPRETATION Motivation, learning FEEDBACK Kinesthetic BEHAVIOR Overt Covert CONSEQUENCE Reinforcement/ punishment
    • Sometimes the stimuli is so subtle that an individual may not even be conscious that he is exposed to come stimuli. This is called subliminal perception.
    • EXTERNAL ATTENTION FACTORS:--
    • Intensity
    • Size
    • Contrast
    • Repetition
    • Motion
    • Novelty and familiarity
    • INTERNAL SET FACTORS:--
    • Learning
    • Motivation
    • personality
  • Factors Influencing Perception: 1.) Perceiver 2.) Target 3.) Situation
  • PERCEPTUAL ORGANISATION
    • Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual process after a stimulus is received.
    • Figure ground
    • - Perceived objects are separated form their general background by the perceiver
    • 2. Perceptual grouping
    • Closure ( person may sometimes perceive a whole, where it doesn’t exist )
    • Continuity ( limited to continuous pattern )
    • Proximity
    • similarity
    • 3. Perceptual Constancy
    • The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness of an object remains constant and doesn’t change for one individual to another.
    • 4. Perceptual context
    • - It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment
    • - Different meaning in different situations.
    • 5. Perceptual defense
    • A person may establish a defense against some stimuli or situation because they may be clashing with his personal values or culture or may be threatening.
    • Denial
    • Modification and distortion
    • Change in perception
    • Recognition but refusal to change
  • SOCIAL PERCEPTION (how an individual perceives others)
    • Characteristics that influence the perception:
    • Understanding of one’s own behavior
    • Personal characteristics of a person
    • Self-esteem
    • Not on one single skill
  • Shortcuts in Judging Others:
          • 1.) attribution
          • Way in which people explain cause for their own behavior
          • 1. Dispositional attribution
          • ( behavior is affected by the characteristics of a person)
          • 2. Situational attribution
          • 2.) Stereotyping
          • Tendency of generalizing the characteristics of all members of group
          • 3) Halo Effect
  • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT (self- presentation)
    • Self promotion (competent & Effective)
    • Supplication (weak and irresponsible)
    • Exemplification (ethical and socially responsible)
    • Intimidation (powerful)
    • Ingratiation (likable)
  • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Impression motivation Impression construction
  • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
    • DEMOTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES
    • Accounts (excuses)
    • Apologies
    • disassociation
    • PROMOTION ENHANCING STRATEGIES
    • Entitlements
    • Enhancements
    • Obstacle disclosures
    • association