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Perception
 

Perception

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    Perception Perception Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 5 Perception By Aastha Tyagi
    • Perception: is a process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment.
      • Differs from one person to another, depending on the needs, values and expectations.
      • People respond to situations on the basis of their perception about the reality rather than reality itself.
      • SENSATION:--
      • People use their sensory organs to sense.
      • Senses receive stimuli both from within and outside the body.
      • PERCEPTION:--
      • An individual takes in the raw data through his senses, and then, refines, modifies or completely alters it by his cognitive
    • SUBPROCESS OF PERCEPTION EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Physical environment Office Values Mgt styles CONFRONTATION REGISTRATION Sensory and neural INTERPRETATION Motivation, learning FEEDBACK Kinesthetic BEHAVIOR Overt Covert CONSEQUENCE Reinforcement/ punishment
      • Sometimes the stimuli is so subtle that an individual may not even be conscious that he is exposed to come stimuli. This is called subliminal perception.
      • EXTERNAL ATTENTION FACTORS:--
      • Intensity
      • Size
      • Contrast
      • Repetition
      • Motion
      • Novelty and familiarity
      • INTERNAL SET FACTORS:--
      • Learning
      • Motivation
      • personality
    • Factors Influencing Perception: 1.) Perceiver 2.) Target 3.) Situation
    • PERCEPTUAL ORGANISATION
      • Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual process after a stimulus is received.
      • Figure ground
      • - Perceived objects are separated form their general background by the perceiver
      • 2. Perceptual grouping
      • Closure ( person may sometimes perceive a whole, where it doesn’t exist )
      • Continuity ( limited to continuous pattern )
      • Proximity
      • similarity
      • 3. Perceptual Constancy
      • The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness of an object remains constant and doesn’t change for one individual to another.
      • 4. Perceptual context
      • - It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment
      • - Different meaning in different situations.
      • 5. Perceptual defense
      • A person may establish a defense against some stimuli or situation because they may be clashing with his personal values or culture or may be threatening.
      • Denial
      • Modification and distortion
      • Change in perception
      • Recognition but refusal to change
    • SOCIAL PERCEPTION (how an individual perceives others)
      • Characteristics that influence the perception:
      • Understanding of one’s own behavior
      • Personal characteristics of a person
      • Self-esteem
      • Not on one single skill
    • Shortcuts in Judging Others:
            • 1.) attribution
            • Way in which people explain cause for their own behavior
            • 1. Dispositional attribution
            • ( behavior is affected by the characteristics of a person)
            • 2. Situational attribution
            • 2.) Stereotyping
            • Tendency of generalizing the characteristics of all members of group
            • 3) Halo Effect
    • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT (self- presentation)
      • Self promotion (competent & Effective)
      • Supplication (weak and irresponsible)
      • Exemplification (ethical and socially responsible)
      • Intimidation (powerful)
      • Ingratiation (likable)
    • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Impression motivation Impression construction
    • IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
      • DEMOTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES
      • Accounts (excuses)
      • Apologies
      • disassociation
      • PROMOTION ENHANCING STRATEGIES
      • Entitlements
      • Enhancements
      • Obstacle disclosures
      • association