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  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 Perception By Aastha Tyagi
  2. 2. Perception: is a process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Differs from one person to another, depending on the needs, values and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>People respond to situations on the basis of their perception about the reality rather than reality itself. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>SENSATION:-- </li></ul><ul><li>People use their sensory organs to sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Senses receive stimuli both from within and outside the body. </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION:-- </li></ul><ul><li>An individual takes in the raw data through his senses, and then, refines, modifies or completely alters it by his cognitive </li></ul>
  5. 5. SUBPROCESS OF PERCEPTION EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Physical environment Office Values Mgt styles CONFRONTATION REGISTRATION Sensory and neural INTERPRETATION Motivation, learning FEEDBACK Kinesthetic BEHAVIOR Overt Covert CONSEQUENCE Reinforcement/ punishment
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sometimes the stimuli is so subtle that an individual may not even be conscious that he is exposed to come stimuli. This is called subliminal perception. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>EXTERNAL ATTENTION FACTORS:-- </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty and familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL SET FACTORS:-- </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>personality </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factors Influencing Perception: 1.) Perceiver 2.) Target 3.) Situation
  9. 9. PERCEPTUAL ORGANISATION <ul><li>Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual process after a stimulus is received. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Figure ground </li></ul><ul><li>- Perceived objects are separated form their general background by the perceiver </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>2. Perceptual grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Closure ( person may sometimes perceive a whole, where it doesn’t exist ) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity ( limited to continuous pattern ) </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>similarity </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>3. Perceptual Constancy </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness of an object remains constant and doesn’t change for one individual to another. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4. Perceptual context </li></ul><ul><li>- It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Different meaning in different situations. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>5. Perceptual defense </li></ul><ul><li>A person may establish a defense against some stimuli or situation because they may be clashing with his personal values or culture or may be threatening. </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Modification and distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Change in perception </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition but refusal to change </li></ul>
  15. 15. SOCIAL PERCEPTION (how an individual perceives others) <ul><li>Characteristics that influence the perception: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of one’s own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Not on one single skill </li></ul>
  16. 16. Shortcuts in Judging Others: <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.) attribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Way in which people explain cause for their own behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Dispositional attribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( behavior is affected by the characteristics of a person) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Situational attribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Stereotyping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency of generalizing the characteristics of all members of group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Halo Effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT (self- presentation) <ul><li>Self promotion (competent & Effective) </li></ul><ul><li>Supplication (weak and irresponsible) </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplification (ethical and socially responsible) </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidation (powerful) </li></ul><ul><li>Ingratiation (likable) </li></ul>
  19. 19. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Impression motivation Impression construction
  20. 20. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES <ul><li>DEMOTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts (excuses) </li></ul><ul><li>Apologies </li></ul><ul><li>disassociation </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTION ENHANCING STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>Entitlements </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacle disclosures </li></ul><ul><li>association </li></ul>