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Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded
Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded
Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded
Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded
Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded
Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded
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Genetic owe aasthapandeygraded

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  • 1. 
 
 
 Genetic
Technology
 Aastha
Pandey
 2011/04/12
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


  • 2. 
 





  • 3. ONE
WORLD
ESSAY

 GENETICALLY
MODIFIED
FOOD
–
Good
or
bad?


 Genetically
 modified
 (GM)
 food.
 What
 may
 seem
 like
 a
 sensation
 may
 just
 be
slow
 poison.
 Genetically
 modified
 is
 the
 modification
 or
 improvement
 of
 an
 individual
genotype.
 The
 aim
 of
 GM
 food
 is
 to
 change
 the
 phenotype,
 or
 physical
 features
 of
 a
crop.
 GM
 food
 is
 basically
 inserting
 “better”
 nutrition
 into
 the
 foods,
 and
 making
 it
“healthier”
for
people.
All
this
may
seem
satisfying
and
great
and
first,
but
there
is
much
to
 be
 known
 about
 the
 disadvantages
 of
 changing
 the
 phenotype
 of
 what
 you
 are
eating.
GM
food
may
easily
cause
environmental
and
social
issues.


 How
do
people
genetically
modify
food?
There
are
different
techniques
in
which
you
 can
 genetically
 modify
 food.
 One
 most
 obvious
 one
 would
 be
 “Transferring
 the
gene.”
This
is
basically
taking
a
gene
from
one
organism
and
inserting
it
into
another.
It
is
a
process
of
copying
the
gene
that
codes
for
the
trait
of
another
organism
and
pasting
the
gene
into
the
genome
of
the
receiving
crop.

(Chaudry,
2011)

 
 For
example,
inserting
thuringiensis
genes
into
 corn,
 to
 cut
 out
 the
 gene
 that
 is
 needed
 in
 the
 bacteria,
 its
 DNA
 is
 isolated.
 Afterwards,
 special
 enzymes,
 restriction
 endonucleases,
 receive
 the
 desired
 gene.
 These
 enzymes
 are
 sensitive
 to
 the
 DNA,
 so
 they
 will
 only
 receive
 specific
 parts
 of
 the
 DNA.
 (Chaudry,
 2011)
 Once
 the
 gene
 is
 copied,
 scientists
 must
 make
 an
 “expression
 cassette.”
 (Chaudry
 2011)
 The
 expression
 cassette
 consists
 of
 further
 DNA
 surrounding
 the
 gene
 so
 that
 the
 corn
 cell
knows
where
the
received
gene
begins
and
ends.
Figure
1:
Procedure
of
transferring
 The
 beginning
 is
 called
 the
 promoter
 and
 the
 end
 is
gene
(Chaudry,
2011)

 called
 the
 terminator.
 (Chaudry,
 2011)
 When
 the
expression
cassette
is
created
it
is
inserted
into
a
plasmid.
The
plasmid
is
a
part
of
the
DNA
 that
 is
 present
 in
 bacteria.
 This
 then
 makes
 millions
 of
 copies
 of
 the
 cassette.

  • 4. (Chaudry,
 2011)
 After
 all
 of
 the
 process,
 it
 is
 inserted
 into
 the
 receiving
 cell
 genome.
Cells
 that
 successfully
 receive
 the
 gene
 then
 are
 expanded
 in
 cell
 culture
 and
 used
 to
work
new
plants.
(Chaudry,
2011)

(The
diagram
above
shows
the
procedure
of
the
gene
transfer.)


 Until
 now,
 genetically
 modified
 foods
 may
 seem
 like
 a
 brilliant
 thing.
 Not
 only
can
 it
 make
 crops
 grow
 faster
 and
 add
 more
 nutrition,
 but
 also
 the
 changed
 may
 be
passed
onto
other
crops.
This
may
seem
perfect,
but
the
development
of
the
crop
will
only
turn
out
perfect
if
all
steps
are
done
accurately.
Even
a
small
stumble
may
cause
a
disorder
 on
 the
 crop,
 and
 cause
 the
 malfunction
 of
 surrounding
 cells.
 The
 things
 that
could
 go
 wrong
 are
 dangerous.
 When
 looking
 at
 genetically
 modified
 foods
 we
 think
about
 crops
 growing
 in
 places
 that
 they
 don’t
 usually
 grow,
 nutritious
 and
 healthier
foods
 and
 a
 world
 with
 healthy
 crops.
 Moreover,
 humans
 think
 about
 crops
 that
 are
cold
 tolerant,
 that
 have
 antifreeze
 gene
 from
 cold‐water
 fish
 (Whitman,
 2000).

However,
 changing
 natural
 resources
 will
 always
 have
 disadvantages.
 For
 example,
potential
 human
 health
 impacts,
 such
 as
 allergies
 or
 antibiotic
 resistance
 (Oak
 Ridge,
2008),
also,
GM
foods
don’t
taste
as
good
as
natural
crop
(Csanad,
2011).


 GM
 food
 has
 environmental
 benefits,
 for
 example
 it
 saves
 the
 use
 of
 toxic
chemicals.
 Crops
 can
 be
 wasted
 from
 pests
 that
 stagger
 around
 them,
 resulting
 in
catastrophic
 financial
 loss
 for
 farmers
 and
 starvation
 in
 countries.
 (Whitman,
 2000)
Farmers
tend
to
use
many
tons
of
chemical
pesticides
yearly.
(Whitman,
2000)
People
do
 not
 tend
 to
 like
 to
 eat
 foods
 that
 are
 treated
 with
 pesticides
 because
 of
 potential
health
risks.
(Whitman,
2000)
Growing
GM
foods
such
as
B.t.
corn
(genetically
modified)
can
 help
 eliminate
 the
 application
 of
 chemical
 pesticides
 and
 decreases
 the
 cost
 of
bringing
 them
 in
 market.
 However,
 it
 may
 also
 be
 harm
 to
 the
 environment.
 For
example,
 gene
 transfers
 to
 non‐target
 species.
 The
 concern
 is
 that
 crop
 plants
engineered
for
herbicide
tolerance
and
weeds
will
crossbreed,
resulting
in
the
transfer
of
the
herbicide
resistance
genes
from
the
crops
into
the
weeds.
(Whitman,
2000)
This
can
be
a
hazard
for
farmers,
because
their
unmodified
crops
would
be
cross‐pollinated

  • 5. from
 someone
 else’s
 GM
 crops.
 (Whitman,
 2000)
 All
 in
 all,
 GM
 foods
 may
 be
environmentally
fit,
and
at
the
same
time
delicate.

GM
 foods
 also
 have
 social
 benefits,
 for
 example
 Nutrition.
 Malnutrition
 is
 common
 in
this
world.
People
rely
on
single
crop
such
as
rice,
however
rice
does
not
contain
perfect
amounts
 of
 all
 necessary
 nutrients
 to
 prevent
 malnutrition.
 (Whitman,
 2000)
 For
example,
 blindness
 due
 to
 deficiency
 of
 vitamin
 A
 is
 a
 common
 problem
 that
 can
 be
increasing.
 Researchers
 at
 the
 Swiss
 Federal
 Institute
 of
 Technology
 Institute
 for
 Plant
Sciences
 have
 created
 a
 type
 of
 “golden”
 rice.
 (Whitman,
 2000)
 This
 rice
 had
 an
unusually
high
amount
of
beta‐carotene
(vitamin
A).
This
way
it
could
help
people
who
don’t
have
enough
vitamin
A,
can
prevent
them
from
blindness.
Anyhow,
GM
foods
can
cause
 allergenicity.
 Many
 children
 in
 the
 Unites
 States
 of
 America
 and
 Europe
 have
developed
 life‐threatening
 allergies
 to
 peanuts,
 and
 other
 foods.
 There
 is
 a
 high
 possibility
that
introducing
a
new
gene
 into
a
crop
can
create
a
new
allergen,
 or
 cause
 allergic
 reactions
 in
 people.
 (Whitman,
 2000)
 Hence,
 in
 Brazil
 nuts
 into
soybeans
was
abandoned
because
 of
 the
 fear
 of
 causing
 allergic
 reactions.
 (Whitman,
 2000)
 On
 the
 whole
 GM
 foods
 may
 be
 healthy
 and/or
unhealthy
for
people.

 (The
 diagram
 on
 the
 left
 shows
 the
 growth
 of
 genetically
 modified
 food
 during
the
1996‐1999)

Figure
2:
Growth
of
GM
food
during
1996­1999
(Food
 
 In
conclusion,
GM
food
may
be
Woo,
2011)
 very
 beneficial
 to
 people
 in
 the
 sense
that
gene
transfer
can
be
environmentally
friendly
and
healthier
for
humans.
GM
food
has
 a
 lot
 of
 potential
 in
 doing
 great
 things,
 but
 is
 withheld,
 as
 there
 are
 too
 many
unexpected
 results
 that
 may
 be
 risk‐full.
 It
 may
 not
 only
 harm
 people
 or
 the

  • 6. environment,
but
it
may
also
harm
other
crops.
Up
until
now,
GM
foods
have
started
as
a
 great
 resolution
 for
 loss
 of
 food,
 but
 if
 not
 used
 correctly
 it
 can
 become
 the
 reason
that
kills
you.
If
the
growth
of
amounts
of
GM
food
has
been
growing
so
fast
and
by
a
lot
of
numbers
then
the
number
of
GM
foods
will
be
higher
in
the
future.
This
can
cause
the
future
generation
a
disadvantage.
GM
food
wasn’t
created
to
harm
people,
but
the
results
are
out
of
our
reach,
so
it
would
be
best
to
stop
Genetically
modifying
food
for
the
safety
of
our
lives
and
for
the
future
generation.

 
 Bibliography:
 
Chaudry,
Arshad.
"The
Science
Creative
Quarterly
»
GENETICALLY
MODIFIED
FOODS."The
Science
Creative
Quarterly.
Web.
28
Mar.
2011.

 http://www.scq.ubc.ca/genetically‐modified‐foods/


Csanad.
"Advantages
and
Disadvantages
of
Genetically
Modified
Crops
(GMOS)."
HubPages.
Web.
20
Mar.
2011.


 http://hubpages.com/hub/GMO‐advantages‐and‐disadvantages

 
"Genetically
Modified
Foods
and
Organisms
‐‐HGP
Ethical,
Legal,
and
Social
Issues."
Oak
Ridge
National
Laboratory.
5
Nov.
2008.
Web.
20
Mar.
2011.

 http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml


"The
Advantages
and
Threats
of
Genetically
Modified
Food."
Food
Woo.
Web.
11
Apr.
2011.

 http://www.foodwoo.com/the‐advantages‐and‐threats‐of‐genetically‐modified‐food.html


Whitman,
Deborah
B.
"Genetically
Modified
Foods:
Harmful
or
Helpful?"
CSA.
ProQuest,
Apr.
2000.
Web.
20
Mar.
2011.

 http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php






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