Acid Rain
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  • 1. Acid Rain
  • 2. Introduction • Acid gases are produced when fossil fuels like coal and oil are burned in power stations, factories and in our own homes. These gases react with water vapors present in atmosphere and lowered the PH of water and making it acidic. when they converted into clouds it can cause rain & that rain is known as Acid Rain. Acid rain can also occur in the form of snow, fog. Acid fog has 10 times more acid than acid rain.
  • 3. Formation • Burning of fossil fuels emits sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to form sulphur tri oxide. • 2 SO2 + O2 2SO3. The sulphur tri oxide joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and becomes sulphuric acid. This then falls back down to earth as "acid rain“. • SO3 + H2O H2SO4
  • 4. Carbon dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) -----> Carbonic acid (H2CO3) Nitric oxide (NO) + Water (H2O) -----> Nitric acid (H2NO2)
  • 5. Causes of Acid Rain • Coal Oil and natural gas are used in power stations to make electricity, which give off sulphur dioxide gas. • Burning of fuels in vehicle engines gives off nitrogen oxides as gases.
  • 6. problems!!! • Acid rain can travel long distances. • Often it doesn’t fall where the gas is produced. Winds blow them great distances before they dissolve and fall to Earth as rain. • E.g. gases produced in India and China can result acid rain in Pakistan or Afghanistan.
  • 7. How Acid Rain Affects The Environment Acid rain is an extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects. Forests, lakes, animals, and humans suffer from acid rain. Trees The needles and leaves of the trees turn brown and fall off. Trees can also suffer from stunted growth; and have damaged bark and leaves.
  • 8. All of this happens partly because of direct contact between trees and acid rain, but it also happens when trees absorb water and mineral from soil that has come into contact with acid rain. Normal ph level of soil is between 6.0 to 6.8.
  • 9. Lakes are also damaged by acid rain. Fish die off, and that removes the main source of food for birds. Acid rain can even kill fish before they are born when the eggs are laid and come into contact with the acid. Also, birds can die from eating "toxic" fish and insects.
  • 10. How Does Acid Rain Affect Fish and Other Aquatic Organisms? • Acid rain causes harm or kill fish, reduce fish population numbers, completely eliminate fish species from a water body, and decrease biodiversity. As acid rain flows through soils in a watershed, aluminum is released from soils into the lakes and streams located in that watershed. So, as pH in a lake or stream decreases, aluminum levels increase. Both low pH and increased aluminum levels are directly toxic to Aquatic Organisms. In addition, low pH and increased aluminum levels cause lower body weight and smaller size and fish lose their ability to reproduce.
  • 11. Buildings Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings (especially those made out of sandstone or limestone). It reacts with the minerals in the stone to form a powdery substance that can be washed away by rain.
  • 12. Transport Currently, both the railway industry and the aeroplane industry are having to spend a lot of money to repair the corrosive damage done by acid rain. Also, bridges have collapsed in the past due to acid rain corrosion. Repainting is the only way to fix a car finish disfigured by acid rain
  • 13. Humans Humans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain. One of the major problems that acid rain can cause in a human being is respiratory problems. Many can find it difficult to breath, especially people who have asthma. Asthma, along with dry coughs, headaches, and throat irritations can be caused by the sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxides from acid rain.
  • 14. Health • Since acid rain can kill aquatic animals, weaken trees and dissolve stone, it seems like it could also burn animals, but it doesn't affect people in the same way as it does fish or plants. Acid rain feels the same as regular rain -- it's even safe to swim in an acidic lake. But the sulfate and nitrate particulates of dry deposition can cause asthma & bronchitis problems.
  • 15. Acid rain can affect both plants (through soil and/or direct contact) and animals (from things they eat and/or direct contact). When humans eat these plants or animals, the toxins inside of their meals can affect them. Kidney problems, skin cancer & different diseases have been linked to people eating "toxic" animals/plants.
  • 16. According to a Research Research carried out in North America in 1982, revealed that sulphur pollution killed 51,000 people and about 200,000 people become ill as a result of the pollution. In Europe about 20% trees & in Germany about 60% trees have been damaged by acid rain. In some places acid rain had a pH level of 2.3, which was very acidic and destructive.
  • 17. • Use renewable energy like wind power, solar panels , geothermal energy & hydro power. • Limit the number of vehicles on the roads and increase public transport. • Plant a tree. These are finally something we don't seem to have enough of. The tree will absorb some of the polluted air and put out clean, fresh oxygen. • Drive less: Try to walk or bike instead. • Educate other people: Now I have explained about causes of acid rain to you, you must aware other peoples who don’t know about this problem.
  • 18. Responsibility of an individual • Individuals can also help prevent acid rain by conserving energy. The less electricity people use in their homes, the a small number of chemicals power plants will emit. Vehicles are also major fossil fuel users, so drivers can reduce emissions by using public transportation, carpooling, biking, or simply walking wherever possible.
  • 19. Reference • http://encartaupdate.msn.com/teleport/teleport.aspx?Lang=A&Year= 2007&tname=weblinks&ty=chk&ud=701712392&ca=1024&vs=2007 • Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica • Hart, John. "Acid Rain." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008. • Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. • Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. • MLA Style: "acid rain." Britannica Student Library. Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. • APA Style: acid rain. (2010). Britannica Student Library. Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference