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SPIROCHAETES

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar M.D.
Spirochaetes



Spiro = flexible, motile
Three families




Treponema – syphilis
Borrelia – relapsing fever, Lyme dis...
Treponema pallidum







regular spirals
Cannot be seen by ordinary microscopy
in wet films, cannot be stain by ordin...
Syphilis








Acquired by sexual contact
Enter through abrasions
Multiply at site of lesion
Primary
Secondary
Ter...
Primary syphilis








Hard chancre – at site of entry
Usually on genitalia
Covered by thick pus – rich in
treponem...
chancre
Secondary syphilis





1-3 months after chancre
Rashes in oro pharynx, condylomata at
mucocutaneous junctions
Spiroche...
Condyloma acuminata
Latent syphilis




Following secondary syphilis, there is a
latent period
During this time, diagnosis is possible
only ...
Tertiary syphilis





Months to years after primary lesion
Represents delayed hypersensitivity
Organisms are not pres...
aneurysm
gumma
Dementia paralytica
Lab diagnosis







Sample – serum from chancre, gumma
Collected by scraping base/margin
Highly infectious – handle ...
Serological tests


Non specific






VDRL (veneral disease research laboratory)
RPR (rapid plasma reagin)
TPI

Spec...
VDRL





We use cardiolipin antigen obtained
from bovine heart
Look for antibodies in serum of patient
Mix serum with ...
RPR – rapid plasma reagin
test


Antigen is attached to carbon particles
– can see agglutination with naked eye
False positive reactions







Leprosy
Malaria
Relapsing fever
Infectious mononucleosis
Hepatitis
Tropical eosinoph...
FTA-ABS






Fluoroscent treponemal antibody
absorption test
Mix patients serum with artificial
treponemes
The artific...
Treatmemt





Penicillin G injection single shot is
sufficient in early cases
Doxycycline
Ceftriaxone in neurosyphilis
Borrelia





Transmitted to humans through skin
Bite of lice or ticks
B. recurrentis – relapsing fever
B. burgdorferi...
Lyme disease
Leptospira



Lepto – thin
Delicate spirochaetes with large number
of closely wound spirals and
characteristic hooked en...
L. Interrogans - leptospirosis
Selective media


EMJH MEDIUM – (Ellinghausen, Mc
Cullough, Johnson, Harris)
Leptospirosis
Leptospirosis




Fever
Jaundice
Hepato renal damage (Weil’s disease)
Lab diagnosis



Demonstration of leptospira in urine
Serological tests like
sensitized erythrocyte lysis test
complemen...
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
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Spirochaetes

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This is a series of lectures on microbiology useful for undergraduate medical and paramedical students

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Transcript of "Spirochaetes"

  1. 1. SPIROCHAETES Dr. Ashish Jawarkar M.D.
  2. 2. Spirochaetes   Spiro = flexible, motile Three families    Treponema – syphilis Borrelia – relapsing fever, Lyme disease Leptospira - leptospirosis
  3. 3. Treponema pallidum     regular spirals Cannot be seen by ordinary microscopy in wet films, cannot be stain by ordinary stains Can be seen under dark ground microscopy Can be stained by silver impregnation
  4. 4. Syphilis       Acquired by sexual contact Enter through abrasions Multiply at site of lesion Primary Secondary Tertiary
  5. 5. Primary syphilis      Hard chancre – at site of entry Usually on genitalia Covered by thick pus – rich in treponemes Regional lymphnodes swollen and rubbery Heals in 2 weeks – leaving a scar – without treatment
  6. 6. chancre
  7. 7. Secondary syphilis    1-3 months after chancre Rashes in oro pharynx, condylomata at mucocutaneous junctions Spirochetes are abundant in lesions
  8. 8. Condyloma acuminata
  9. 9. Latent syphilis   Following secondary syphilis, there is a latent period During this time, diagnosis is possible only by serological tests
  10. 10. Tertiary syphilis     Months to years after primary lesion Represents delayed hypersensitivity Organisms are not present in lesions Include aneurysms, gummata, neurological manifestations
  11. 11. aneurysm
  12. 12. gumma
  13. 13. Dementia paralytica
  14. 14. Lab diagnosis      Sample – serum from chancre, gumma Collected by scraping base/margin Highly infectious – handle with care Wet films examined under dark background DFA-TP – direct fluoroscent antibody test for Treponema pallidum
  15. 15. Serological tests  Non specific     VDRL (veneral disease research laboratory) RPR (rapid plasma reagin) TPI Specific    FTA-ABS TPHA EIA
  16. 16. VDRL    We use cardiolipin antigen obtained from bovine heart Look for antibodies in serum of patient Mix serum with antigen – look for agglutination under microscope
  17. 17. RPR – rapid plasma reagin test  Antigen is attached to carbon particles – can see agglutination with naked eye
  18. 18. False positive reactions       Leprosy Malaria Relapsing fever Infectious mononucleosis Hepatitis Tropical eosinophlia
  19. 19. FTA-ABS    Fluoroscent treponemal antibody absorption test Mix patients serum with artificial treponemes The artificial treponemes are immotile under dark field microscope
  20. 20. Treatmemt    Penicillin G injection single shot is sufficient in early cases Doxycycline Ceftriaxone in neurosyphilis
  21. 21. Borrelia     Transmitted to humans through skin Bite of lice or ticks B. recurrentis – relapsing fever B. burgdorferi – Lyme disease
  22. 22. Lyme disease
  23. 23. Leptospira   Lepto – thin Delicate spirochaetes with large number of closely wound spirals and characteristic hooked ends
  24. 24. L. Interrogans - leptospirosis
  25. 25. Selective media  EMJH MEDIUM – (Ellinghausen, Mc Cullough, Johnson, Harris)
  26. 26. Leptospirosis
  27. 27. Leptospirosis    Fever Jaundice Hepato renal damage (Weil’s disease)
  28. 28. Lab diagnosis   Demonstration of leptospira in urine Serological tests like sensitized erythrocyte lysis test complement fixation agglutination indirect immunofluorosence
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