Sexually transmitted diseases

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This is a series of lectures on microbiology useful for undergraduate medical and paramedical students

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Sexually transmitted diseases

  1. 1. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Dr. Ashish Jawarkar
  2. 2. Importance  Most STDs are asymptomatic  They may present as genital ulcers or inflammation  Problem is complications  May lead to infertility, pelvic diseases, cervical cancer and may help spread HIV  Early screening and diagnosis may stop complications
  3. 3. Major STDs  Syphilis  Gonorrhoea  Chlamydial infection  AIDS
  4. 4. Neisseria Gonorrhoea  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  5. 5. Morphology  Diplo-cocci  Adjacent sides concave  Kidney shaped  Gram negative  Found within neutrophils
  6. 6.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  7. 7. Growth characteristics  Difficult to grow  Media used  Mueller – Hinton Agar  Thayer martin medium (with VCN)  Vancomycin  Colistin  Nystatin
  8. 8.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  9. 9. Resistance  Very delicate organism  Dies outside the body in 1-2 hrs
  10. 10.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  11. 11. Pathogenicity and virulence  Pili on surface  Help in attachment to mucosal surfaces  Prevent phagocytosis
  12. 12.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  13. 13. Epidemiology  Exclusively human disease  Source – carrier partner  Mode of spread – sexual contact  Except in ophthalmia neonaturum
  14. 14.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  15. 15. Gonorrhoea  Men  Urethritis  Prostatitis  Epididymitis  Stricture formation  Watercan perineum  Proctitis  Women  Urethritis  Cervicitis  Vaginitis  PID  Salpingitis  Carriers in cervix  Proctitis
  16. 16. Complications  If blood invasion occurs  Arthritis  Meningitis  Ulcerative endocarditis
  17. 17. Neonates  Ophtalmia neonaturum  Controlled by instilling 1% silver nitrate solution
  18. 18.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  19. 19. Lab diagnosis  Sample – urethral discharge, cervical swab  Transport media – Stuart’s media  Gram stain  Culture – Thayer Martin medium
  20. 20.  Morphology  Growth characteristics  Biochemical reactions  Resistance  Pathogenicity and virulence  Epidemiology  Diseases caused  Laboratory diagnosis  Treatment
  21. 21. Treatment  Both partners should be treated simultaneously  Resistant to Penicillin  Ceftriaxone  Ciprofloxacin  Doxycycline
  22. 22. NON GONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS H. Ducreyi Chlamydia Trachomatis Mycoplasma Hominis
  23. 23. H. Ducreyi  Causes soft chancre  Gram negative cocco bacillus  School of fish appearance
  24. 24. Chlamydia Trachomatis  Intracellular pathogens  Survive inside squamous epithelial cells and macrophages of respiratory and gastrointestinal / urogenital tract
  25. 25. Diseases caused  Genital chlamydiasis  Lymphogranuloma venerum (LGV)  Trachoma – leading cause of preventable blindness
  26. 26. Genital chlamydiasis  Non specific urethritis
  27. 27. LGV  Ulcer on external genitalia  Lymphatic spread  Involves inguinal lymphnodes
  28. 28. Trachoma
  29. 29. Lab diagnosis  Sample – urethral scrapings, from bubo (inguinal lymphnode), eye discharge  Spread on slide, stain with Lugol’s iodine/giemsa/immunofluorosence  Cultured in yolk sac of embryonated eggs or in McCoy cell culture  Serological tests – demonstration of antigen/antibodies
  30. 30. Treatment  Both partners should be treated simultaneously

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