respiratory infections - microbiology


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this is a series of lectures on microbiology useful for undergraduate and postgraduate, medical and paramedical students

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respiratory infections - microbiology

  1. 1. Diseases of the Respiratory System Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  2. 2. The Upper Respiratory System Consists of: Nose Pharynx (throat) Middle ear Eustachian tubes Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  3. 3. The Lower Respiratory System Consists of: Larynx Trachea Bronchial Alveoli Pleura Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar tubes
  4. 4. Upper Respiratory System defense •Coarse hairs in the nose filter large particles from air entering the respiratory tract. •The ciliated mucous membranes of the nose and throat trap airborne particles and remove them from the body. •Lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids provide immunity to certain infections. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  5. 5. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  6. 6. Lower respiratory tract defense The lower respiratory system is usually sterile because of the action of the ciliary escalator. Microorganisms hoping to infect the respiratory tract are caught in the sticky mucus and moved up by the mucociliary escalator. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  7. 7. Upper Respiratory System Diseases Most respiratory tract infections are self-limiting. Often caused by bacteria & viruses in combination Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  8. 8. Upper Respiratory System Diseases Pharyngitis: inflammation of the pharynx Laryngitis: swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx) Tonsillitis: inflammation of the tonsils Sinusitis: inflammation of the sinuses Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  9. 9. Agents of URTi S. pneumonia – pharyngitis/tonsillitis S. Pyogenes – pharyngitis / tonsillitis C. diphtheria - diptheria B. pertussis – whooping cough Common cold – rhino virus Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  10. 10. Streptococcal Pharyngitis Also called strep throat Streptococcus pyogenes / strep. pneumoniae Gram positive cocci chains Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  11. 11. Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Gram positive club shaped rod Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  12. 12. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  13. 13. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  14. 14. Diphtheria Diphtheria membrane: Fibrin, tissue, bacterial cells ••Leading infectious killer of children in U.S. in 1935 Leading infectious killer of children in U.S. in 1935 Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  15. 15. Diphtheria Still common in developing countries where immunizations aren't given routinely. Up to 40% to 50% of those who don't get treated can die. The exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis, and heart, kidney, or nerve damage may result. Prevented by DTP vaccine Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  16. 16. Lab diagnosis Microscopy – Gram’s , Albert’s Culture – selective media containing tellurite, Loeffler’s serum slope Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  17. 17. Pertussis / whooping cough Causes whooping cough Mostly in children Coughing thru strained vocal cords produces sound Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  18. 18. diagnosis Mostly clinical Bacteria does not grow on ordinary media Prevented by vaccination – DPT Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  19. 19. Lower Respiratory System Diseases Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause  Bronchitis – S. pneumoniae  Pneumonia – S. pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Mycoplasma  Tuberculosis - M. tuberculosis Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  20. 20. Mycoplasma Bacteria with no cell walls Gram negative, better stained with Giemsa stain Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  21. 21. Grow on media enriched with serum Colonies give fried egg appearance Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  22. 22. Mycoplasmal Pneumonia Primary atypical pneumonia; walking pneumonia   No physical signs/symptoms X ray shows lower lobe pneumonia Genitourinary infections Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  23. 23. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  24. 24. Viral Pneumonia Viral pneumonia occurs as a complication of influenza, measles, or chickenpox Viral etiology suspected if no other cause is determined Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  25. 25. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) The most common viral respiratory disease in infants; 4500 deaths annually Causes cell fusion (syncytium) in cell culture Symptoms: Pneumonia in infants Diagnosis: Serological test for viruses and antibodies Treatment: Ribavirin, palivizumab Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  26. 26. Influenza (Flu) Symptoms: Chills, fever, headache, and muscle aches  No intestinal symptoms 1% mortality, very young and very old Treatment: Zanamivir and oseltamivir inhibit neuraminidase Prophylaxis: Multivalent vaccine (currently grown in Embryonated egg cultures Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  27. 27. The Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin (HA) spikes used for attachment to host cells Neuraminidase (NA) spikes used to release virus from cell Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  28. 28. Fungal Infections Fungal spores are easily inhaled; they may germinate in the lower respiratory tract. The incidence of fungal diseases has been increasing in recent years. The mycoses can be treated with amphotericin B. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar
  29. 29. Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar