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  1. 1. Weaves
  2. 2. A woven cloth is formed by the interlacement of two sets of threads, namely warp & weft threads. These threads are interlaced with one another according to the type of weaves or design.
  3. 3. Classification of woven structures: <ul><li>Woven structures are classified into the following categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In case of simple structures, there is only one series of warp and weft. Warp and weft interlace with one another perpendicularly. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Compound structures </li></ul><ul><li>In case of compound structures, there may be more than one series of threads, of which one set forms the body or ground and the other forms the figuring or ornamentation. Unlike the simple structures, the neighbouring threads need not be parallel to one another. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Weave Repeat <ul><ul><li>The repeat of a weave is a quantitative expression of any given weave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It indicates the minimum number of warp and weft threads for a given weave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It comprises of warp and weft repeat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The size of the repeat may be even or uneven depending upon the nature of the weave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In elementary weaves such as plain, twill, satin etc. the repeat size is normally even. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However in weaves such as honeycomb, huckaback the repeat size may be even or uneven. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For any weave the repeat size is the sum of the warp and weft floats. Thus in case of 2/1 twill the repeat size is 3x3. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is common practice to denote one repeat of a weave on design paper. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Methods of weave representation: <ul><li>A weave is the interlacing pattern of the warp and weft. </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of interlacing are possible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warp overlap in which warp is above weft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weft overlap in which weft is above warp. </li></ul></ul>Warp up Warp Down
  6. 6. Basic Elements of a woven design. <ul><ul><li>The three basic elements in a woven design are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft or drawing plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peg or lifting plan </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Design <ul><ul><li>The design indicates the interlacement of warp and weft threads in the repeat of the design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is made up of a number of squares, which constitute the repeat size of a design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vertical direction of the squares indicate the ends and the horizontal direction indicates the picks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A blank in a square indicates that a warp goes below the corresponding weft and ‘X’ mark in the square indicates that the warp floats above the weft. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Draft or Drawing Plan <ul><ul><li>The draft or drawing plan indicates the manner of drawing the ends through the heald eyes and it also denotes the number of heald shaft required for a given weave repeat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice of the type of drafting plan depends upon the type of fabric woven. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Peg Plan or Lifting Plan <ul><ul><li>The peg or lifting plan provides useful information to the weaver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It denotes the order of lifting of heald shafts. In a peg plan the vertical spaces indicate the heald shafts and the horizontal spaces indicate the picks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The peg plan depends upon the drafting plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of a straight draft, the peg plan will be the same as the design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence no peg plan is necessary in the case of a straight draft. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Design Peg Plan Drafting Plan The design, draft and peg plan are illustrated with the aid of an example shown below: picks ends
  11. 11. Types of drafts plans The various drafts are classified as follows: 1. Straight 2. Pointed 3. Skip & Sateen 4. Broken 5. Divided 6. Grouped 7. Curved 8. Combination
  12. 12. Straight Draft
  13. 13. Pointed Draft
  14. 14. Plain Weave <ul><ul><li>Is also known as “Calico” or “tabby” weave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is simplest of all the weaves having a repeat size of 2. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The range of application of this weave is wide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has the maximum number of binding points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The threads interlace on alternate order of 1 up & 1 down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The thread density is limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloth thickness & mass per unit area are limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It produces a relatively stronger fabric. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Derivatives of plain <ul><ul><li>Warp Rib </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weft Rib </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matt </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Twill Weave <ul><ul><li>The main feature of these weaves that distinguish from other types is the presence of pronounced diagonal lines that run along the width of the fabric. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide range of application. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They form diagonal lines from one selvedge to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More ends per unit area and picks per unit area than plain cloth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less binding points than plain cloth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better cover than plain weave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More cloth thickness & mass per unit area. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>TEXTURE: A term describing the surface effect of a fabric, such as dull, lustrous, wooly, stiff, soft, fine, coarse, open, or closely woven; the structural quality of a fabric. </li></ul></ul>