Sciences & Technology
Arunesh Chand Mankotia
The aim of this presentation is to understand & underline
the role of Indian Sub-continent in the field of Science
(categorized into Natural, Physical & Applied Sciences),
Science & Technology in India
India is one of the leading nations in the world in terms of science and
technology. India has the second largest pool of scientists and engineers in
the world. In terms of technological advancements and scientific
achievements India is second to none. India belongs to the select group of
countries who have developed indigenous nuclear technology. India is
among the few countries which have developed ballistic missiles. In the field
of space science India is among the few countries which have the capability
to launch GSLV satellite. India's achievements in the field of IT and
software are acknowledged all over the world.
CONTRIBUTION IN SCIENCE
The natural sciences are the sciences that seek to elucidate the rules that govern
the natural world through scientific methods.
In India Natural sciences are further divided into the following –
Physical science is a term that covers natural science and science that studies non
living systems. However, many branches of physical science also study some for
of biological phenomena.
General principles of the physical sciences in India evolve around –
Basic principles of physics
Basic principles of astronomy
Basic principles of chemistry
Basic principles of earth science
Basic principles of atmospheric science
Applied science is a discipline of science that applies existing scientific
knowledge to develop more practical applications, such as technology
Fields of applied sciences in India include
Applied engineering, Applied linguistics, Applied mathematics, Applied
physics, Archaeology, Artificial intelligence, Ceramic engineering,
Computing technology, Electronics, Energy technology & storage,
Environmental engineering science & Technology, Engineering
physics & Technology, Nuclear technology, Medicine, Materials
science and engineering and more.
All tools and procedures. It is the state of knowledge and development at any given
time on controlling our surroundings, and includes all tools (utensils, devices,
machinery, inventions, and structures), all methods (skills, processes, and
techniques), and all applied materials (both raw and manufactured). In the most
general sense, technology is man's ability to control Nature.
Major fields of Technology in India Applied science
Artificial intelligence| Ceramic engineering| Computing
technology| Electronics| Energy| Energy storage| Engineering
physics| Environmental technology| Materials science| Materials
engineering| Microtechnology| Nanotechnology| Nuclear technology| Optical
Athletics and Recreation
Camping equipment| Playground| Sports| Sports equipment
Information and Communication
Communication| Graphics| Music technology| Speech recognition| Visual technology
Construction| Financial engineering| Manufacturing| Machinery
Military technology| Weapon systems| Military equipment|
Domestic / Residential
Domestic appliances| Domestic technology | Educational technology| Agriculture|
Aerospace engineering| Agricultural engineering| Bioengineering| Biochemical
engineering| Biomedical technology| Chemical engineering| Civil engineering|
Computer engineering| Electrical engineering| Electronics engineering|
Environmental engineering| Industrial engineering| Materials engineering|
Mechanical engineering| Metallurgical engineering| Nuclear engineering|
Petroleum engineering| Software engineering| Structural engineering| Tissue
Health and Safety
Biomedical engineering| Bioinformatics| Biotechnology| Cheminformatics|
Fire protection technology| Health technologies| Pharmaceuticals|
Aerospace| Aerospace engineering| Marine engineering| Motor vehicles| Space
High tech sectors
ANCIENT INDIAN CONTRIBUTION
Epics like Ramayana & Mahabharata, we learn the social structure, standard of living, their
ways of daily life. Science & Technology reflects when the book mentions advance laser
rays, destructive weapons, missiles, drugs, water systems study of planets, airplanes etc.
But they were imaginations as these epics are dated as old as 2nd Century BC, and if we
see developments today this has become reality.
Around 1500 BC, Shalva-Sutra was written, It proposed the principles of measurements
length was measured with ropes; hence people started identifying rope as Shalva, it also
defines the relationship between radius and circumference.
In 498 AD, Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata, stated that "sthānāt sthānaṁ
daśaguņaṁ syāt―. The oldest known text to use a decimal place-value system, including a
zero, is the Jain text from India entitled the Lokavibhâga, dated 458 AD,
where shunya("void" or "empty")
Great sage Kanaad conjectured for the first time some elements of theory of atoms in fifth
century BC. He put forward the theory that every substance was made of atoms.
A great mathematician was born during 450 BC and 585 BC. His name was Varahmihir. He
used to state that there were some attractive forces in the stars of the universe. Due to the
sum total of such forces the Vasundhara(the earth) was able to float. This was just a step
before the most talked about Gravitational Forces.
In 'Arybhatiya' poem, for which he worked for about six months, he said, ―Even if we feel the
sun and the stars are rotating around us, in fact they are fixed and the earth is only rotating
around them.‖ He mathematically calculated the circumference of the earth as 39,736 KM. It
is believed today that to be 39,843 KM. Arybhata had calculated that there are 365 days, 6
hrs, 12 minutes and 30 seconds in one year.
Bhaskaracharya of 12th century was the next great mathematician after Aryabhat. In 1658, well
known French mathematician Pierre de Firma asked question to his friend Bernard Frenicle
de Bessy‘, If X and Y both are integers, then how do we solve the following equation?
61X**2 + 1 = Y2
Bhaskaracharya had solved this problem in the year 1150.
India had made great progress in medicines too. We had tradition of medicines since 3000 BC.
This knowledge is known as AyurVed (knowledge of Life).
Since Vedic period, we had Gurukul system. The universities of Takshshila, Varanasi and
Nalanda were well known all over the world. One could acquire education on arts, literature,
music, philosophy, religion (Hindu and Buddha), law, chemistry, biology, medicine,
astronomy, architecture, sculpture, history and geography.
Hand-propelled wheel cart, Indus Valley
Civilization (3000–1500 BCE).
View of the Asokan Pillar at Vaishali, One of
the edicts of Ashoka,(272—231 BCE) reads:
"Everywhere King Piyadasi (Asoka) erected
two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and
hospitals for animals. Where there were no
healing herbs for people and animals, he
ordered that they be bought and planted
Model of a Chola(200–848 CE) ship's hull, built
by the ASI, based on a wreck 19 miles off the
coast of Poombuhar
Jantar Mantar, Delhi—consisting of 13
architectural astronomy instruments, built by
Jai Singh II, of Jaipur, from 1724 onwards.
INDIA 19TH CENTURTY ONWARDS…
Our first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru aimed "to convert India‘s economy into
that of a modern state and to fit her into the nuclear age and do it quickly.―
On 18 August 1951 the Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur in West Bengal
Aimed to develop advanced military technology, Defence Research and
Development Organization was formed in 1958.
The Indian Government acquired the EVS EM computers from the Soviet Union,
which were used in large companies and research laboratories.
Tata Consultancy Services – established in 1968 by the Tata Group – were the
country's largest software producers during the 1960s.
India accounts for about 10% of all expenditure on research and development in
Asia and the number of scientific publications grew by 45% over the past years.
Five of our Indian Institutes of Technology units are listed among the top 10 science
and technology schools in Asia & globally.
The Government of India launched the Nano Mission in May 2007 as an umbrella
capacity-building programme. The Nano Mission has resulted in about 5000
research papers and about 900 Ph.Ds.
The office of the Hijli Detention
Camp (photographed September
1951) served as the first
academic building of IIT
India's first reactor (Apsara) and a
plutonium reprocessing facility, as
photographed by a US satellite on
19 February 1966.
Infosys Media Centre in Bangalore.
INDIAN SCIETIFIC & TECHNOLOGICAL
INVENTIONS & MILESTONES
Ammonium nitrite, synthesis in pure form (synthesized NH4NO2 ).
Ashtekar variables: In theoretical physics, Ashtekar (new) variables, named
after Abhay Ashtekar who invented them, represent an unusual way to rewrite
Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance: Invented jointly by Shanti
Swarup Bhatnagar and K.N. Mathur in 1928, the so-called 'Bhatnagar-Mathur
Magnetic Interference Balance' was a modern instrument used for measuring
various magnetic properties.
Bhabha scattering: In 1935, Indian nuclear physicist Homi J. Bhabha published
a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which he
performed the first calculation to determine the cross section of electronpositron scattering. Electron-positron scattering was later named Bhabha
scattering, in honor of his contributions in the field.
Stellar structure and Stellar evolution by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.
Earth's rotation was invented by Aryabhata.
Galena, applied use in electronics of: Bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra
Bose effectively used Galena crystals for constructing radio receivers.
AKS primality test: The AKS primality test is a deterministic primalityproving algorithm created and published by three Indian Institute of Technology
Hindu number system: With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this
system was the ancestor of the widely-used Arabic numeral system. It was
developed in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in
an early form in India by the 6th century.
Trigonometric functions sine and versine originated in Indian astronomy.
Shrikhande graph: Graph invented by the Indian mathematician S.S. Shrikhande
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine: Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient and
traditional systems of medicine.
Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta
(6th century BCE).
Cure for Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is
described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE).
Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery was being carried out in India by 2000 BCE.
Lithiasis treatment: The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations
of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE)
18. Diamond mining and diamond tools: Diamonds were first recognized and mined in
19. Zinc mining and medicinal zinc: Zinc was first smelted from zinc ore in India.
20. Button: were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by
2000 BCE. Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes
pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing by using a thread. The
earliest made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old.―
21. Crescograph: The crescograph, a device for measuring growth in plants, was
invented in the early 20th century by the Bengali scientist SirJagadish Chandra
22. Crucible steel: Perhaps as early as 300 BCE—although certainly by 200 CE—
high quality steel was being produced in southern India also by what Europeans
would later call the crucible technique.
23. Mysorean rockets: The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets were developed
by Tipu Sultan, ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore.
24. Prefabricated home and movable structure: The first prefabricated homes and
movable structures were invented in 16th-century Mughal India by Akbar.
25. Ruler: Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what
today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE.
26. Shampoo: The word shampoo in english is derived from Hindi chāmpo to
1762.The shampoo itself originated in the eastern regions of the Mughal Empire.
27. Cashmere wool: The fiber is also known as pashm or pashmina for its use in the
handmade shawls of Kashmir, India.
28. Cotton cultivation: Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley
Civilization by the 5th millennium BCE - 4th millennium BCE.
29. Indigo dye: Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also
the earliest major center for its production and processing.
30. Jute cultivation: Jute has been cultivated in India since ancient times.
31. Pharmacology and Toxicology the Western pharmacology is just a few centuries
old. But herbal products and minerals have been, for millennia, in use in
India. 'Karela' (bitter melon) fruits look like the human pancreas and ancient
literature mentions that it is the best remedy for diabetes mellitus.
32. The origin of surgery in India can be traced back to the Indus-Saraswati valley
civilisation. In fact, recent findings suggest that the origin could be pushed even
further. Excavations from the Mehrgarh area of the present-day Pakistan have
revealed that the practice of drilling human teeth existed even 9000 years ago.
33. Green revolution: Dr M S Swaminathan, better known as the "Father of the
Green Revolution‖; India developed into a country that fed itself. Under the aegis
of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, more than 2300 high yielding, hybrid
varieties of food grains and cash crops have been developed. National Bureau of
Plant Genetic Resources, has preserved more than 1, 50,000 accessions and
34. World‘s first hybrid cotton, pearl millet, the first hybrid sorghum, the first hybrid
castor, the first hybrid mango are some of the amazing achievements of Indian
35. After China, India is only the second country in the world to develop its very own
36. The first amber colored commercial Triticale dwarf and very high-yielding wheat
varieties were developed by India.
37. Yellow revolution in oil seeds, White revolution in milk production, Blue revolution
in fish production and Golden revolution in horticulture bear ample testimony to
the contribution of our agricultural scientists.
38. Bhakra Dam: The Bhakra Nangal dam in itself stands as a proud testimony to
the technical prowess of Indian engineers. NRIs who love to gawk at America‘s
Hoover dam, it would come as a surprise that the Bhakra at 741 feet is one of the
highest gravity dams (compare Hoover Dam at 732 ft). The dam provides
irrigation to 10 million acres.
39. Defence Research and Development : By far the most remarkable achievement
of India in the S&T sphere is the triumph over innumerable international
sanctions to develop indigenous defense infrastructure.
40. Kaveri Engine: he GTX-35VS Kaveri is a low-bypass-ratio afterburning turbofan
developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under
DRDO. Kaveri engine is an indigenous Indian design intended to power
production models of the HAL‘s Tejas fighter, also known as ―Light Combat
Aircraft" (LCA) as well as the proposed twin-engine Medium Combat Aircraft
41. Tejas: Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) is India‘s answer to the F-16s, understanding
the pressing need to be self reliant in defence it was developed indigenously by
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. HAL‘s Tejas is an advanced, lightweight,
supersonic multi-role fighter aircraft.
42. Sonars: DRDO, Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and the Indian Navy have
developed a range of Sonars for the Navy`s frontline combat ships. These
include the APSOH (Advanced Panoramic Sonar Hull mounted), HUMVAD (Hull
Mounted Variable Depth sonar) and the HUMSA (Hull Mounted Sonar Array),
Panchendriya Submarine sonar and fire control system, sonobuoy Tadpole,
Simhika. DRDO is currently developing multiple Torpedoes. These include a
lightweight torpedo (Advanced Experimental Torpedo).
43. Prithvi : Prithvi Short Range Ballistic Missile: Three variants exist- the Prithvi I, II
and III. Another submarine launched variant known as the K-15 is under
development. The Prithvi is an exceptionally precise liquid fuelled missile with a
range of up to 350 km.
44. Agni : Agni Missile series: The Agni-II is an Intermediate range ballistic missile
with a range of up to 2500 km. The Agni-I is a shorter ranged unit with a range of
up to 800 km.
45. Akash : The Akash, a medium range SAM (surface to air missile) system
comprising the command guided Akash missile and its specific launchers.
46. Indian Satellite Systems : Indian Remote Sensing: The IRS system is by far the
world‘s biggest constellation of remote sensing satellites. These satellites provide
data for applications in agriculture, forestry, water harnessing, land use and land
cover mapping, fold mapping and ocean resources survey.
47. INSAT: The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is a shining example of
what all has been achieved by India‘s space technology. The INSAT series is the
largest domestic communication system in the Asia-Pacific Region. Active
satellites of this series include INSAT-2E, INSAT-3A, INSAT-3B, INSAT-3C,
INSAT-3E, KALPANA-1 (METSAT), GSAT-2, EDUSAT (GSAT-3) and INSAT-4A.
INSAT satellites provide transponders (about 150) in various bands (C, S,
Extended C and Ku) to serve the television and communication needs of India.
48. Launch Vehicles: The Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) was a project started
in the early 1970s by ISRO to develop the technology needed to launch satellites.
The project leader was Dr APJ Abdul Kalam. The first launch of the SLV took
place in Sriharikota on 10 August 1979.
49. PARAM: is the series of supercomputers developed by the Centre for
Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). The development of the same
was taken up as a challenge to break the hegemony of the western world when it
came to super-fast computing.
50. The latest machine in the series is the PARAM Padma, which reached No. 171
on the TOP500 in 2003. Others include PARAM 10000 and PARAM 9000/SS.
The PARAM 10000 was India`s first TFLOPS computer. C-DAC has also
developed a high performance System Area Network called the PARAMNet-II
having transfer speeds of up to 2.5 bit/s.The major applications of PARAM 10000
are in weather forecasting, remote sensing, drug design and molecular modelling.
PARAMs have also helped in India`s space programme.
Cotton being dyed manually in contemporary
The Great Stupa at Sanchi(4th-1st century BCE).
The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a
commemorative monument associated with
storing sacred relics.
Jute plants Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus
capsularis cultivated first in India.
India's first satellite named after Aryabhata.
version of the
by the Indian
by the 6th century
668) states that
AF = FD
NH4NO2 in its pure
February 6, 1946)
Stibamine, a treatment
which helped nearly
plot generated from
the protein PCNA,
a human DNA
clamp protein that
is composed of
both beta sheets
and alpha helices
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA
India's IT-business process outsourcing (BPO) industry revenue is expected to cross
US$ 225 billion mark by 2020, according to a Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
report, titled 'The SMAC Code-Embracing New Technologies for Future Business'.
India is expected to become world's second-largest online community after China
with 213 million internet users by December 2013 and 243 million by June 2014.
India‘s total IT industry‘s (including hardware) share in the global market stands at 7
per cent; in the IT segment the share is 4 per cent while in the ITeS space the share
is 2 per cent. India's IT and BPO sector exports are expected to grow by 12-14 per
cent in FY14 to touch US$ 84 billion - US$ 87 billion, according to Nasscom.
The enterprise software market in India is expected to reach US$ 3.92 billion in
2013, registering a growth of 13.9 per cent over 2012 revenue of US$ 3.45 billion
India plans to spend around US$ 3.9 billion on cloud services during 2013-2017, of
which US$ 1.7 billion will be spent on software-as-a-service (SaaS).
TOP 5 INDIAN IT COMPANIES AROUND THE WORLD
1. Tata Consultancy Services with Revenues over $11.57
billion and 254,076 employees worldwide.
2. Cognizant Technology Solutions with Revenues over $7.05
billion and 185,045 employees worldwide.
3. Infosys with Revenues over $6.69 billion and 153,761
4. Wipro with Revenues over $5.73 billion and 140,569
5. HCL Technologies with Revenues over $4.3 billion and
85,335 employees worldwide.
PHARMA INDUSTRY IN INDIA
India‘s pharmaceutical sector will touch US$ 45 billion by 2020, according to a major
study by global management and consulting firm, McKinsey & Company. The reasons
for this optimism are well founded. In the period 2002–2012, the country‘s healthcare
sector grew three times in size, touching US$ 70 billion from US$ 23 billion. India's
pharmaceutical market experienced a similar boom, reaching US$ 18 billion in 2012
from US$6 billion in 2005. The report further states that the Indian pharmaceutical
market will be the sixth largest in the world by 2020.
India currently exports drug intermediates, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs),
Finished Dosage Formulations (FDFs), Bio-Pharmaceuticals, and Clinical Services
across the globe. The exports of pharmaceuticals from India grew to US$ 14.6 billion
in 2012–13 from US$ 6.23 billion in 2006–07, registering a compound annual growth
rate (CAGR) of around 15.2 per cent
The Department of Pharmaceuticals has projected an investment of Rs 3,000 crore
(US$ 489.19 million) to set up 10 more National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education
and Research (NIPER) over the next few years.
TOP TEN INDIAN PHARMA COMPANIES IN THE WORLD
1. Ranbaxy Labs: With total net sales of Rs 7686.59 crore, Ranbaxy is the largest
pharmaceutical company in India.
2. Cipla: With total net sales of Rs 6,977.50 crore Cipla is the second largest
pharmaceutical company in India.
3. Dr Reddys Labs: With total net sales of Rs 6,686.30 crore Dr Reddys Labs is the
third largest pharmaceutical company in India.
4. Lupin: Lupin is the fourth largest pharma company in India with the total net sales
of Rs 5,364.37 crore.
5. Aurobindo Pharma: Aurobindo Pharma is on 5th position with the total net sales
of Rs 4,284.63 crore.
6. Sun Pharma: Net Sales revenues stood at Rs 4,015.56 crore makes it the sixth
largest pharmaceutical company in India.
7. Cadila Health: Cadila Health is the seventh largest pharma company with the
total sales revenue of Rs 3,152.20 crore.
8. Jubilant Life: Eight largest company has the total sale revenue at Rs 2,641.07
9. Ipca Laboratories
Revenue of Rs 2,352.59 crore makes Ipca India's 10th largest pharma firm by
MANUFACTURING IN INDIA
The manufacturing sector in India could grow six-fold to US$ 1 trillion, by 2025. The
rising demand in the country and the aspirations of multinational companies (MNCs)
to establish low-cost plants in India, are seen as reasons for this possible growth.
Up to 90 million domestic jobs could be created by that time, with the sector
generating about 25–30 per cent of the country‘s gross domestic product (GDP).
India‘s rapidly expanding economy gives domestic entrepreneurs and international
players vast opportunities to invest and grow.
Manufacturing companies in Japan view India as the top destination for investments
for the next three years, as per Mr Masanori Nakano, Consul General of Japan.
India is among the least affected by the global economic slowdown and continues to
grow at about 5 per cent.
India is the fourth most competitive manufacturing nation. The country‘s economy
saw massive expansion in the period 2006–2011, attaining a five-year Compound
Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 7.8 per cent.
TOP INDIAN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES
1. Aditya Birla Group
| Turnover – 40 Billion Dollar | Business – Conglomerate | Employees – 136000+.
2. Larsen & Toubro
Turnover – 13.5 Billion Dollar | Business – Technology, Engineering, Construction
and Manufacturing | Employees – 45000+.
3. Bombay Dyeing
Turnover – 310 Million Dollar | Business – Textile Manufacturing | Employees –
4. Hindustan Lever Network
| Turnover – 4 Billion Dollar | Business – Consumer Goods | Employees – 40000+.
5. Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd.
Turnover – 2 Billion Dollar | Business – Petro Chemicals | Employees – 1000+.
6. Apollo Tyres
Turnover – 2.5 Billion Dollar | Business – Tyres | Employees – 16000+.
7. Jindal Steel
Turnover – 2.5 Billion Dollar | Business – Steel |Employees – 7600+.
8. Videocon Group
Turnover – 2.3 Billion Dollar | Business – Conglomerate | Employees – 9000+.
9. Asian Paints
Turnover – 1.7 Billion Dollar | Business – Chemicals |Employees – 4900+.
10. MRF Limited Ltd.
| Establishment – 1946 | Business – Tyres, Sports Goods, Toys and Paints &
Coats |Turnover – US$ 2.1 billion| Employees – 15,494 +.
LETS TAKE 5 SECONDS OF BREATHER!
(?) Did anyone notice in the last slide a boy with brush and paint, BUT NO BRAND
FOR ROHIT (presenter) ONLY
That was Asian Paints
and DID YOU KNOW - Forbes
Global magazine USA ranked Asian
Paints among the 200 Best Small Companies in the World
for 2002 and 2003 and presented the 'Best under a Billion'
AEROSPACE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Indian aerospace industry has witnessed an impressive growth during the past few
years, with major contribution from the civil aviation segment. The market has been
strongly supported by the government and private sector participation, which fueled
domestic and international passenger arrivals and acted as catalyst for the overall
India is the 9th largest aviation market in the world. Although the passenger traffic
went into negative growth territory in FY 2009, it posted a remarkable recovery in FY
2010 and grew around 13.6% Y-O-Y, which was amongst the highest globally.
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited , a Defence PSU, is a major player in the global
aviation arena HAL has produced over 3550 aircraft, 3650 aero-engines and
overhauled around 8750 aircraft & 28400 engines besides manufacture/overhaul of
related accessories and avionics.
MKI, HAL is also developing the following products through design and development:
-- Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT)
-- Light combat helicopter (LCH)
-- Weaponization of Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)
-- Tejas-Light Combat Aircraft
TOP INDIAN AEROSPACE COMPANIES
1. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL)
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited fully owned by the Government of India is among the
premier aerospace companies in Bangalore and ranked 34th in the list of world‘s
top 100 defence companies. It has 19 production units and 10 R & D centers at 8
locations in India and has produced over 4178 Engines , 3658 Aircraft/Helicopters,
Upgraded 272 Aircraft and overhauled over 29775 Engines and 9643 Aircraft.
2. BrahMos Aerospace Private Ltd.
BrahMos Aerospace Private Ltd. a joint venture between Federal State Unitary
Enterprise NPO of Russia and the Defence Research and Development
Organization (DRDO) of India is involved in the designing, development and
production of BRAHMOS-supersonic cruise missile which is used in various
platforms which includes silos, ships, mobile launchers, submarines and aircrafts
against sea and land targets.
3. Bharat Electronics Ltd.
BEL manufactures specialized electronics equipments/products for the Indian
defence services. Company‘s product range includes Naval systems, Radars,
Defence Communication, Electronic Warfare,
WHAT ARE THE OTHER SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY FED INDUSTRIES UPTO ……….
Top Analytics Companies in India
1. Wipro Analytics - Wipro analytics a recognized data analytics company in
Bangalore uses its experience and expertise to provide analytics services to its
customers in various sectors like Financial Services, Manufacturing & High Tech,
Retail, Transportation, Media & Telecom and Healthcare & Life Sciences.
2. TCS Analytics - TCS Analytics mainly focuses on Marketing analytics, Spend
analytics, Supply chain analytics, Risk analytics, Financial insights and Customer
3. HCL Analytics - Analytics services provided by an experienced HCL team helps
its customers to analyze their business data and take smart and quick business
4. Latent View – Latent View is an analytics company founded in 2006 and having
offices in New Jersey and San Jose in United States, Chennai and Mumbai in India
and Singapore. Among the top business analytics companies in India LatentView
helps clients‘ in the consumer goods, financial services and retail sector improve
business performance by providing analytics solutions.
Top 10 Mining companies in India
1. National Mineral Development Corporation - A government of India organization
and comes under the Ministry of steel, it is the largest iron ore producer in the
country. The company has total 5 mines which produces iron, dolomite, limestone,
gypsum, bentonite, copper, diamond etc.
2. Hindustan Zinc Limited - Hindustan Zinc is a leading producer of zinc and among
the best mining companies in India.
3. National Aluminium Company limited - The company is rated best in mining
industry in India and largest producer of Aluminium and bauxite.
4. Hindalco Industries - Hindalco Industries is a flagship company of Aditya Birla and
one among the top 10 mining companies in India.
5. Hindustan Copper Limited - The company is a well known name in mining industry
in India and also produces gold, silver, tellurium and nickel sulphate.
6. Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Limited - BALCO is also engaged in the
production of aluminium alloys and special aluminium for transmission lines and
7. Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Limited - The company is engaged in Non
Metallic mining of Lignite, Rock phosphate, limestone and gypsum.
Top 10 chemical Companies in India
Tata Chemicals - It manufacturers various types of chemicals for human, industries
and agriculture needs such as Salt, Pesticides, fertilizers etc.
UPL Limited - UPL formerly known as united phosphorus limited is a chemical and
crop seeds Company.
India Glycols Limited - India Glycols is a green petrochemical company in India
which manufacturer glycols, natural gums and Ethoxylates.
BASF- It has been serving in India for more than a century and has total 9
production units, 2 Research & development centesr and more than 2000
employees. It offers various chemical products to chemical, agriculture and oil & gas
Pidilite Industries limited - The company‘s most well known brands are Dr. Fixit,
fevicol, M Seal, Fevi kwik etc.
Vikas WSP Limited - Vikas WSP is a guar gum power producer which is catering to
the food industry sector.
Gujarat Heavy Chemicals limited - Gujarat heavy chemicals is specialized in soap
ingredients and soda ash manufacturing
FAMOUS INDIAN TECHNOLOGY INVENTORS AROUND
FOUND THE WORLD
1. FC KOHLI: Father of IT industry in INDIA • Industrialist and technocrat • Founder
and the first CEO of Tata Consultancy Services.
2. Narayan Murthy • Guru of Information Technology • Co-founder and CEO of
Infosys Technologies • Programmer since a kid.
3. Ajay Bhatt • Co-founder of USB • Developer of AGP,PCI Express, PPMA, etc •
Also known as Intel rockstar.
4. Vinod Khosla • Co-founder of Sun Microsystems and the 1st Chairman and CEO
there. • Also founded Daisy Systems & khosla ventures.
5. Vinod Dham • Father of pentium chip • Co-inventors of Flash Memory.
6. Ajit Balakrishnan • The founder of rediff.com as well as current Chairman and
CEO of Rediff.com • Mr. Balakrishnan , at the age of 22 , cofounded Rediffusion.
7. Sabeer Bhatiya • Co-founder of Hotmail.com – the world‘s first webmail service •
Has started JaxtrSMS
8. Azim Premji • Software tycoon and better known as India‘s ―Bill Gates‖ • Founder
and the chairman of Wipro Technologies.
9. Satyanarayan Pitroda • He is well known as Dr Sam Pitroda • ―The father of
India‘s communication revolution‖ .
10. Nandan Nilekani • One of the co-founder of Infosys with Narayan Murthy and he is
the 2nd CEO and managing director of the Infosys after Narayan Murthy.
11. Narinder Singh Kapany • Narinder Singh Kapany is best known as ‗Father of fiber
12. Krishna Bharat •Creator of Google News •Major work Hilltop Algorithm.
13. Raju Vanapala •Founder of Way2sms.
14. Sashi Reddi •Founder and chairman of ‗applabs‘ •Founded FXLabs.
15. Pranav Mistry • A Guju computer scientist • Founder of the sixsense and the
16. Ankit Fadia •One of the best, youngest Indian Ethical Hackers .
NOBLE PRIZE WINNERS IN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
1. 1979: Abdus Salam (1926-1996) - Nobel Prize for Physics.
Shared a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, with Steven Weinberg, for his work on
electroweak unification, one of the important puzzles of modern theoretical
2. 1930: Sir C.V. Raman (1888 - 1970) - Nobel Prize for Physics.
By 11, he had finished school and went on to earn fame for his work in the field of
molecular physics. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his "RAMAN" effect in
3. 1968: Dr. Hargobind Khorana (1922 - ) - Nobel Prize for Medicine and
Physiology, Khorana was responsible for producing the first man-made gene in a
lab. This won him the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968, which he shared with
Marshall Nuremberg and Robert Holley.
4. 1983: Dr. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekar (1910 - 1995) - Nobel Prize for
Physics, He was the nephew of another Nobel winner, C. V. Raman. He won the
Nobel Prize in 1983 for his work on stars and their evolution.
CONCLUSION with Albert Einstein's famous quote!
"We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to
count, without which no worthwhile scientific
discovery could have been made."