CommunicationCommunication - the evoking of a shared or commonmeaning in another personInterpersonal Communication - communicationbetween two or more people in an organizationCommunicator - the person originating the messageReceiver - the person receiving a messagePerceptual Screen - a window through which weinteract with people that influences the quality,accuracy, and clarity of the communication.
CommunicationMessage - the thoughts and feelings that thecommunicator is attempting to elicit in thereceiver.Feedback Loop - the pathway thatcompletes two-way communication.Language - the words, their pronunciation,and the methods of combining them used& understood by a group of people.
CommunicationData - uninterrupted and unanalyzed facts.Information - data that have been interpreted,analyzed, & have some meaning to user.Richness - the ability of a medium or channelto extract or evoke meaning in the receiver.
Reflective ListeningReflective Listening - the skill of listening carefully toanother person and repeating back to the speaker theheard message to correct any inaccuracies ormisunderstandingsThis complexprocess needsto be divided tobe understoodWhat I heard yousay was we willunderstand theprocess better if webreak it into steps
Reflective Listening Emphasizes receiver’s role. Helps the receiver & communicator clearly &fully understand the message sent. Useful in problem solving.
Reflective ListeningReflective listening emphasizes the personal elements of the communicationprocess the feelings communicated in the message responding to the communicator, not leading thecommunicator the role or receiver or audience understanding people by reducing perceptualdistortions and interpersonal barriers
Reflective Listening:4 Levels of Verbal ResponseAffirm contactParaphrase the expressedClarify the implicitReflect “core” feelings
One-way vs. Two-wayCommunicationsOne-WayCommunication - aperson sends a messageto another person and noquestions, feedback, orinteraction follow Good for givingsimple directions Fast but often lessaccurate than 2-waycommunicationTwo-WayCommunication - thecommunicator & receiverinteract Good for problemsolving
Five Keys to EffectiveSupervisory Communication Expressive speaking Empathetic listening Persuasive leadership Sensitivity to feelings Informative management
Barriers to Communication Physical separation Status differences Gender differences Cultural diversity LanguageCommunicationBarriers -factors that blockor significantlydistort successfulcommunication
Defensive CommunicationDefensive Communication - communication thatcan be aggressive, attacking & angry, or passive& withdrawing.Leads to injured feelings communication breakdowns alienation retaliatory behaviors nonproductive efforts problem solving failures
Non-defensive CommunicationNondefensive Communication -communication that is assertive, direct,& powerful.Provides basis for defense when attacked restores order, balance, andeffectiveness
Two Defensiveness PatternsDominant Defensiveness -characterized by active,aggressive, attacking behaviorSubordinate Defensiveness -characterized by passive,submissive, withdrawingbehavior
Defensive TacticsDefensive Tactic Speaker ExamplePower Play Boss “Finish this report by month’send or lose your promotion.”Put-Down Boss “A capable manager wouldalready be done with this report.”Labeling Boss “You must be a slow learner.Your report is still not done?”Raising Doubts Boss “How can I trust you, Chris, ifyou can’t finish an easy report?”
Defensive TacticsDefensive Tactic Speaker ExampleMisleadingInformationEmployee “Morgan has not gone over withme the information I need forthe report.” [Morgan left Chriswith a copy of the report.]Scapegoating Employee “Morgan did not give me inputuntil just today.”Hostile Jokes Employee “You can’t be serious! Thereport isn’t that important.”Deception Employee “I gave it to the secretary. Didshe lose it?”
Nondefensive Communication:A Powerful Tool Speaker seen as centered, assertive, controlled,informative, realistic, and honest Speaker exhibits self-control & self possession Listener feels accepted rather than rejected Catherine Crier’s rules to non-defensivecommunication:-1. Define the situation2. Clarify the person’s position3. Acknowledge the person’s feelings4. Bring the focus back to the facts
Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal Communication - all elements of communicationthat do not involve wordsFour basic types Proxemics - an individual’s perception & use of space Kinesics - study of body movements, including posture Facial & Eye Behavior - movements that add cues for thereceiver Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch,loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying
cc = social 4-12’bb = personal 1.5-4’Proxemics: Territorial SpaceTerritorial Space - bands of space extendingoutward from the body; territorial space differsfrom culture to cultureaa = intimate <1.5’dd = public >12’
Proxemics: Seating DynamicsSeating Dynamics - seating people in certainpositions according to the person’s purpose incommunicationCooperationX ONon-CommunicationO X OCompetitionXOXCommunicationO
New Technologiesfor Communication Informational databases Electronic mail systems Voice mail systems Fax machine systems Cellular phone systems
How Do New TechnologiesAffect Behavior? Fast, immediate access to information Immediate access to people in power Instant information exchange across distance Makes schedules & office hours irrelevant May equalize group power May equalize group participation
Communication can become more impersonal—interaction with a machine Interpersonal skills may diminish—less tact, lessgraciousness Non-verbal cues lacking Alters social context Easy to become overwhelmed with information Encourages polyphasic activityHow Do New TechnologiesAffect Behavior?
Strive formessagecompletenessTips for Effective Use of NewCommunication TechnologiesBuild infeedbackopportunitiesProvidesocialinteractionopportunitiesDon’tassumeimmediateresponseIs themessagereallynecessary?Regularlydisconnectfrom thetechnologyProvidesocialinteractionopportunities