Asserts moral rights of the author* to a fixed expression of an idea for minimum of life-plus-fifty years
Established, recognized and enforced by governments around the world
Exceptions to author rights: “work for hire” (US) or “contract for service” (UK)
Text: books, articles, research papers (published and unpublished, library resources and web resources, out of print)
Sound recordings, video recordings (analog and digital, broadcasts and web resources)
Drawings, paintings, maps, logos (analog and digital, web resources)
text: books, articles, research papers
published and unpublished
library resources and web resources
out of print
sound recordings, video recordings
analog and digital
broadcasts and web resources
drawings, paintings, maps, logos
analog and digital
Definition: Fair Use
Limited, free usage of copyrighted work: “Fair Use” (US), “Fair Dealing” (UK), or “Fair Practice” (Berne Convention)
Limitations: quotation (review, criticism, parody), illustration (educational usage), and citation (sources and author)
US guidelines for Fair Use
purpose of usage
nature of copyrighted work
amount and substantiality of work used
effect upon market or value
Text: limited copying for educational purposes
Audio/visual content: limited performance for educational purposes
Graphical content: limited display for educational purposes
Is This Fair Use?
Definition: Public Domain
“Creative materials that are not protected by intellectual property laws such as copyright, trademark or patent laws.”
old: the copyright has expired.
wrong: the owner failed to follow copyright renewal rules.
deliberate: the owner deliberately places it in the public domain.
obvious: copyright law does not protect this type of work.
Welcome to the public domain. (2004). Copyright and Fair Use. Retrieved March 18, 2007, from The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University Web site: http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter8/8-a.html
An author-granted license for copyrighted work to be used with some restrictions
Sometimes seen as “Some rights reserved”
Definition: Creative Commons
“Reasonable, flexible copyright” at www.creativecommons.org
Copyleft-like licenses for creative work
No Derivative Works
“Wanna Work Together?” from the Creative Commons website at
archive.org - texts
“If you should accidentally tear a speaker off” (1960)
from the Ephemeral Films collection at www.archive.org
What about copyright? Creative Commons, Copyleft and the Public Domain Creative Commons, Copyleft and the Public Domain Aaron Tyo-Dickerson The American School of The Hague
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.