3. Landscape: integrations & connections The landscape of the school 2 Looking out 8 Placing relocatables within school Is plasticity for climate possible in landscapes 3 relocatable design? What are the essential drivers of adaptation for Creating informal and formal spaces relocatables? 10 between relocatable classrooms 4 What might the school landscape be Creating outside spaces 5 like with relocatables? 11 Messy, unstructured and flexible spaces References and further reading 12 outside 6 Moving in and out 7
What happens when relocatables join or This brochure presents an overview for In new learning environments using start a school’s built environment? competition entrants to guide their ideas relocatables, knowledge from education in relation to: and play about the role of external school How can we position one or more environments needs to be considered. relocatables in relation to each other • how relocatable buildings need to be and to the rest of the school to maximise integrated into school landscapes Fundamentally, newer knowledge places variety, play, education and delightful landscape as a vital element of school life spaces? • the types of spaces that might be and learning. created between relocatables and existing or permanent buildings • the importance of visual and physical connections between indoors and outdoors, and • the important role of landscape in learning and teaching.The landscape of the school>“The campus landscape What do we remember of our schooldays?should not be consid- Much of our memory is of the school grounds ―ered just an aesthetic the yard, the playground, the oval, the external spaces, andamenity, but as im- what we might have been able to see out the windows of ourportant as the school classrooms.buildings themselves.”[Matsuoka, 2010: 281]Cover Images (clockwise from left):Wiluna Remote Community School, WesternAustralia; Currambine Primary School,Western Australia; Primary School,Queensland.Images this page:1. Astrid Lindgren School, Beilefeld,GermanyArchitect and Photographer: Monika Marasz2. Europaschule Harmonie School, Eitorf,GermanyArchitect: Guido CasperPhoto: Montag Stiftung Urbane Räume, Bonn(www.lernraeume-aktuell.de) 2 Future Proofing Schools | Landscape: integrations & connections
Facilitating making spaces in deliberate waysPlacing relocatableswithin school landscapes> Where Placed? Where is the Floor Multi-storey/Stacked How Placed? Level? In inner-urban high density areas a Aerial overviews of schools in Australia, The way a relocatable meets the ground vertical arrangement of classrooms and visits to schools, reveal that can be critical to how well the building can be an appropriate design solution relocatables in Australia are often placed integrates with the school landscape, and to minimise loss of play space when in exisiting schools in such a way that how temporary the building appears. new relocatables are simply added into they have poor integration into the wider ‘vacant’ spaces or flat spaces in the landscape of the school.1 Many have school grounds. Coping with Slope difficult or complex connnections to other On sloping sites, stacked classrooms buildings (including toilets) or landscape A building at ground level has might create interesting connections attributes, and resultant loss of play opportunities to integrate with its to different ground levels. For example,We ask: What sort of spaces. surroundings, and provide easy flows use of multiple storeys might create between inside and outside. opportunities for classrooms to open ontospaces might be made Flat ground is often consumed, with the loss of playgrounds ― such as hopscotch Existing relocatable classrooms in the rooftop space of the classroom below.with your 21st century and other loved social or solitary games ― Australia are generally raised above Stacked or elevated relocatables mightrelocatable? as well as garden beds. ground level (minimum 300mm) to also be able to provide shelter from sun enable straightforward on-site mounting and rain, and playspaces. The position of electricity services often and subsequent removal. Visually, this dictates the placement of relocatables can create a clumsy connection with the to the detriment of opportunities for landscape, highlighting the temporary Can relocatables cope with flood by best spatial placement in relation to nature of the building. being raised? existing school buildings and other new relocatables. Decks, terraces and sheltered verandahs can be used to create a progression of How can your design create delightful spaces between indoors and different Images above: outdoor spaces, and to visually integrate spaces between buildings? a building into the school landscape. Collège “L’Esplanade”, Begnins, Switzerland Architect: Pascal de Benoit & Martin How can your design accommodate Wagner Architectes SA different slopes? Photos: C.Cuendet, Clarens/Lignum Vaud (left) & Pascal de Benoit (right) 1. See ‘21st Century Learning’. Landscape: integrations & connections | Future Proofing Schools 3
unstructured shade and shelter diversity structured social spaces 1 2 transparency microclimate big spacesinterstitial spaces sense of enclosure play different age needs messy spaces outdoor learning intimate spaces Creating informal and formal spaces between relocatable classrooms> 1. Jardín infantil El Porvenir, Bogotá, 3. The Country School, California, USA The placement of buildings within a school ground can promote a diversity of 3 Columbia Architect: Office of Mobile Design Architect: Mazzanti Arquitectos Photo: Dave Lauridsen outdoor spaces and hence opportunities Photo: Rodrigo Davila for various outdoor experiences. 4. Geschwister-Scholl School, Lünen, 2. Gesamtschule in der Höh, Volketswil, Germany It is important to provide both open and Switzerland Architect: Hans Scharoun dynamic outdoor environments, as well Architect: Gafner + Horisberger Architekten Photo: Montag Stiftung Urbane Räume, Bonn as enclosed and intimate spaces (Tovey, GmbH Landscape Architect: Guido Hager (www.lernraeume-aktuell.de) 16). Herrington (1997) describes the Photo: Gesamtschule in der Höh importance of ‘embracing’ landscapes – landscapes can be carefully designed to 4 provide seclusion in more enclosed and intimate spaces, providing the security and stability that can be lacking in open environments. The arrangement of buildings on a site, both in relation to each other and in relation to their surrounds and the broader landscape is critical in achieving quality, and diverse outdoor spaces. The arrangement of buildings, combined with the façade design, the internal use of buildings and the connections between inside and outside, will influence the comfort and use of the adjoining outdoor spaces. Can your design include landscape elements that could be provided to schools as a part of the relocatable building?2 2. See ‘Prefabrication’. 4 Future Proofing Schools | Landscape: integrations & connections
Why are Because being outside for a child assists: spaces outside imagination spatial different combatting awareness learning obesity social styles important? wellbeing mathematical restoration understandings learning from mental fitness about nature fatigue wonder specifically inquiry fun! stillness attention environmentalCreating outside spaces> literacy spans inside 1. Glamorgan Primary 2 & 3. The Country 4. Comet Bay Primary1 2 3 4 School, Toorak, School, California, USA School, Western Australia Victoria Architect: Office of 5. Currambine Primary Architect: Mary Mobile Design School, Western Australia Featherston Design Photo: Dave Lauridsen Surface Reflectivity Level of reflected Material UV radiation Lawn grass summer/winter 2% - 5% Grasslands 0.8% - 1.6% Soil, clay/humus 4% - 6% Asphalt roadway, new (black, old (grey) 4.1% - 8.9% Concrete footpath 8.2%- 12% House paint, white 22% Source: Cancer Council Victoria, 2010Light and Shade Noise and Acoustics Services and Their ImpactAustralia has the highest levels of skin The experience of the outdoor space from on Outdoor Spacescancer in the world, with high levels of an acoustic perspective is critical for a The aim for prefabricated learning environments 5ultra-violet (UV) radiation during school comfortable environment for students. is for them to be comfortable without the needmonths, even outside of summer. Schools Noisier outdoor play spaces in childcare for substantial heating and cooling systems.3require shade structures, and most centres with primarily hard surfaces, little However, the huge variation in climate and sitechildren in Australian primary schools vegetation or soft materials, and close to conditions means that, in some cases, this may(aged approximately 5-12) are required traffic noise, create stress in children and be unavoidable.to wear hats outside. External, but teachers (Herrington et al., 2007).undercover, areas for eating lunch areessential. How can these and other services be How will your design and materials integrated into the design to minimiseHow Much Rain? function acoustically, and how does intrusion into outdoor areas, in terms ofYes it rains in Australia! Good connections placement of relocatable classrooms space, sound, appearance, temperature andare required between buildings. affect noise levels between and within air quality? your relocatables?3. See ‘Sustainable School Environments’. Landscape: integrations & connections | Future Proofing Schools 5
“Schools are 2 3 overdesigned; they leave no active role for the learner.” [Jilk, 2005: 32] Messy, unstructured and flexible spaces outside> What is This All About? Berlin schools have embraced1 untidiness and created exciting Often when educators speak about outdoor school spaces they are talking and uncontrolled play landscapes about the school grounds in terms of 1, 2 & 3: Grounds for Learning/Learning Through ‘educational’ spaces or ‘learning spaces’, Landscapes (www.ltl.org.uk/scotland) and how the teacher can take learning into the outdoors.Thinking about messy Children outside and unstructured spaces in schools is not about formal educational spaces but There has been a considerable movement in the about the very opposite, unstructured last twenty years to acknowledge the benefits to learning.4 children of being outside, whether in schools or not. The concept of the benefits of engagement There need to be opportunities for with nature go beyond any ideas of ‘outdoor not doing anything specific at all. How learning’ or using external spaces as extensions of the classroom. might you be able to frame relocatables for unstructured spaces? In his book “Last Child in the Woods”, Richard Louv (2008) articulated the disconnection The outdoors is more expansive, can between young people and the outdoors, and provide for freer movement, noise and outlined links between a lack of exposure to mess, providing for a very different play nature and childhood obesity, attention disorders experience to that possible indoors and depression. Louv’s book has influenced (Tovey, 2007). national policy in the US and spurred international debate. Flexible Space The world of education is placing An outdoor space changes constantly as increased emphasis on the need to it is inhabited by its users. It should be a create generous, flexible spaces and a place that children play with, rather than ‘loose-fit’ architectural form that can be in, and should not contain equipment adapted over time as the needs of the for children to play on (Herrington, 1997; school community change (Koralek and Tovey, 2007). Mitchell, 2005). 4. See ‘21st Century Learning’ 6 Future Proofing Schools | Landscape: integrations & connections
1. Mason Pilot Elementary, 2. Meriden State College,Massachusetts, USA Queensland, Australia 1 2 3Boston Schoolyard Initiative 3. Kita Taka-Tuka-Land(www.schoolyards.org) Kindergarten, Berlin, GermanyLandscape Architect: Klopfer Architect: Susanne HofmannMartin Design Group Architects/Baupiloten2. Geschwister-Scholl School, (www.baupiloten.com)Lünen, Germany Photo: Jan BitterArchitect: Hans ScharounPhoto: Montag Stiftung UrbaneRäume, Bonn(www.lernraeume-aktuell.de)Moving in and out>Getting In and Out Thinking About theConsideration needs to be given to Floor Levelmovement between the indoors and the Existing relocatable classrooms are 4outdoors: generally raised off the ground, and• Might doors be transparent and of connected to the ground level by stairs generous width and open directly and ramps. These structures can create onto usable open space areas? bottlenecks and restrict access.• Are structures that connect indoor The design of connecting structures, and outdoor space generous? Do and the surrounding landscape design they enable free movement? and vegetation are important in creating physical connections with landscape.• How might your design accommodate the addition of overhead structures such as Children Learning and verandahs, pergolas, shade Playing Out structures, breezeways, or underfoot structures including The ability for teachers to make good use stairs, ramps, decks and terraces? of outdoor environments for structured and unstructured learning can be strongly• What might the relationships influenced by the ability to move freely between internal and external use between indoor and outdoor space. of space be like? How can you Outdoor space can become an extension provide useful outdoor space with a of the classroom. direct connection to indoor space? How can your design encourage movement and flexible learning, and for the school to be more delightful for both children and their teachers? Landscape: integrations & connections | Future Proofing Schools 7
1. Strawberry Vale School, Victoria, Canada 1 2 Architect & Photographer: Patkau Architects 2. Kindergarden Kekec, Lubljana, Slovenia Architect: Arhitektura Jure Kotnik Photo: Miran KambicLooking out>Children looking out Providing visual GreenStar (the Green Building Council Eye Height of Students connections Australia’s voluntary environmental ratingWhile not facilitating movement between system)5 recognises the value of external When considering the provision of viewsindoors and outdoors, windows that can Providing views to the outside is views from buildings, and encourages to the outdoors, an obvious (but oftenbe opened and closed by the users of the recognised as an important element of designs which provide a visual connection overlooked) consideration is the eyebuilding in response to climatic conditions school design, because it broadens the to the external environment or to an height of the students who will be usingcan also provide a greater level of control horizons of students and connects them adequately sized internal, day-lit atrium the room.and an increased sense of connection to to the world beyond the classroom (Nair & (GreenStar IEQ-14).the outdoors (Nair & Fielding, 2005). Fielding, 2005). Eye Health We encourage views to the externalFrom inside the relocatable, opportunities The quality of the view is also important. For eye health, external views shouldexist for good views to the outside. landscape. extend as far as possible beyond the Studies of high school students haveWindow heights need to enable the child, shown that providing views from work area (at least 15 metres) to allowwhatever their age, to see outside. Little classroom and cafeteria windows with Transparency a change in focal length. This exercisespeople like a view too! a high proportion of trees and shrubs Creating transparency, through providing and provides relief for tired eyes (Nair & improves school performance and a high level of visibility, light and Fielding, 2005). Recent medical studiesWhy is a view important? behaviour compared to schools with views openness in school building design while suggest that too much attention close of featureless landscapes such as lawns, maintaining acoustic separation, conveys in, such as to the computer, can lead to sports fields and car parks (Matsuoka, a message that learning should be on myopia! 2010). display and celebrated (Nair & Fielding, 2005). 5. See ‘Sustainable School Environments’.8 Future Proofing Schools | Landscape: integrations & connections
1. Kindergarden Kekec, Lubljana, Slovenia 2. Suresnes Open Air School, France 1 Architect: Arhitektura Jure Kotnik Architect: Beaudouin and Lods Photo: Miran Kambic Photo: Christoph Theurer Open Air School Movement ‘Open Air Schools’ began in Europe The open air school at Suresnes, near at the beginning of the 20th century, Paris, designed by Beaudouin and Lods in with a formal movement between the 1935 (see below), had a large influence First and Second World Wars. Open Air on school design. Its 8 classroom units School designs were based on principles have retractable glazing panels on 3 of maximising the visual and physical sides which can be opened open up to relationships between inside and outside the surrounding garden, and integrate in order to create a healthy school with roof terraces with the school (Dudek, light and air. 2000; Imagine: Inspirational School Design - www.imagineschooldesign.org). 2Distraction Facades and theThe benefits of creating a nurturing relationship betweenlearning environment through views to the relocatables and theiroutdoors and green areas would offset landscapeany concerns about distraction caused byactivities outside the classroom. Distraction The design and finish of a building’sand loss of concentration can take place exterior is critical to how well the buildingwhether these views are provided or not, integrates into its context. This includesand the level of engagement is more an its relationship to surrounding buildings,indicator of a student’s interest in what is to landscape character, materials andhappening inside the classroom (Nair & surfaces.Fielding, 2005). Prefabrication can enable a flexible building design and tailoring of theGlazing and Climate facade to respond to an individual site.Providing strong visual connections to the The Kekec Kindergarten in Ljubljanaoutdoors requires clear glazing to enable (above) creates a facade that becomesstudents to see outside. a dynamic part of the play landscape,Full length glazing might be suitable in as well as providing visual interest andsome southern Australian climates but in shading for the windowsother climates screening devices might beneeded to protect the classroom from thesun. Glare has been identified by teachersas a nuisance in the classroom. Landscape: integrations & connections | Future Proofing Schools 9
Plasticity means that your relocatable can change shape in response to site, whether it be to slope or the spatial possibilities within the school. Consider tailoring for: Shade Flood Surfaces and Shelter Colours Fire Solar Access CycloneIs plasticity for climate possible in relocatable design?>What are the essential drivers of adaptation for relocatables?>There is a great diversity of climatic Shade and Shelter Extreme Weather There is an opportunity to create resilientconditions across the Australian landscapes in conjunction with newcontinent, yet relocatables are Providing shade in schools is critical to Climatic conditions in Australia are prefabricated learning environments inrequired to fit most of them. This Ideas reducing exposure to UV radiation. New highly variable, with a range of extreme schools, and to tailor these to the siteCompetition is asking you to consider relocatables will incorporate shade and weather events seen in various parts of and local climatic conditions in a way thatthe many climatic conditions found in shelter while factoring in the existing the country in recent years, e.g. bushfires, can be adapted over time and respond toAustralia and how your design ideas shade provided within the school. flooding and cyclones. change.might be plastic enough to accommodate Shading of outdoor spaces associated Extreme weather events reinforce thedifferent climatic conditions. For example, in the State of Victoria, with relocatable classrooms will need to need to provide for an uncertain future approximately 30% of schools are in highThe supply of relocatables is controlled include the following considerations: in the way that we plan for and provide fire risk areas. These will need to bewithin the States and Territories of • Balancing the provision of summer school landscapes. adapted to comply with new requirementsAustralia by the respective Education shade with maintaining solar access for clearance to vegetation and structuresDepartments. They need to send in winter in temperate climates, but around school buildings.relocatable classrooms where needed, ensuring year-round shade in tropicaland require assistance in re-imagining climates.these classrooms. • Providing a combination of builtIn thinking about a new type of relocatable, and natural shade from direct andis plasticity for climate possible? indirect UV radiation. • Surface materials and colours canA kit of parts approach that includes reduce the reflection of UV radiationvarious options for the school to choose into shaded areas (refer to Surfacemight be a catalyst in terms of both a Reflectivity table above).starting point as well as creating ideas forthe outdoor landscape. • Providing shade and shelter to areas of high activity such as movement corridors between classrooms and gathering spaces. • Ensuring that shade is attractive to encourage use, preferably Marymede College, South incorporating both natural and built Morang, Victora shade elements.10 Future Proofing Schools | Landscape: integrations & connections
1 1. Winship Elementary, Massachusetts, USA Landscape Architect: Klopfer Martin Design Group Photo: Boston Schoolyard Initiative, www.schoolyards.org 2. Children playing with parts of the trunk of an Australian ‘balga’ (grasstree) at school in Perth. Image provdied by a teacher.What might the school landscape be like with relocatables?> 2What will children born in the 21st centuryremember of their school’s outdoor spaces?We have no excuse to provide inferiorquality landscapes in schools withrelocatable classrooms.How can your design of the relocatableclassroom direct and inform better qualityspaces for children and teachers?How can your design provide plasticity toenable rapid or dynamic change ― withina particular site to respond to new needs,or for different climatic demands?How can you ensure that a school’slandscape can be integrated ― withpermanent buildings, with a family ofrelocatables, with internal educationalspaces, and with the needs of shade,play, exploration, fun and quiet?Let us envisage new designs forrelocatables which allow for the creationof memorable and gorgeous spacesbetween and surrounding these dynamicbuildings in our future schools. Landscape: integrations & connections | Future Proofing Schools 11
Wiluna Remote Community School, Western AustraliaReferences>Further readingBoston Schoolyard Initiative: http://www. Herrington, S. et al. (2007) 7Cs: anschoolyards.org informational guide to young children’s outdoor play spaces, Outside CriteriaBroda, H. W. (2007) Schoolyard-enhanced & Consortium for Health, Intervention,learning: using the outdoors as an Learning and Development (CHILD)instructional tool, K-8, Portland, Me.:Stenhouse Publishers. Herrington (1997) ‘The received view of play and the subculture of infants’,Cancer Council Victoria (2010) Developing Landscape Journal, 20: 30-34.Quality Shade in Schools, Cancer Council& VicHealth (www.sunsmart.com.au/ Hille, R.T. (2011) Modern Schools: asun_protection/seek/) century of design for education, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.Danks, S. G. (2010) Asphalt toecosystems: design ideas for schoolyard Imagine: Inspirational School Design:transformation, Oakland, Calif.: New http://www.imagineschooldesign.org/Village Press. Jilk, B. (2005) Place making and change Louv, R. (2008) Last child in the woods: Montag Stiftung Urbane Räume, Bonn/Dudek, M. (2000). Architecture of in learning environments’, in Dudek, saving our children from nature-deficit Lernraeume Aktuell : http://www.schools: the new learning environments M. (Ed.) Children’s spaces, Amsterdam: disorder, Chapel Hill, N.C.: Algonquin lernraeume-aktuell.de/suche/alle-/ Mark Dudek. Oxford [England]: Elsevier/Architectural Press. Books of Chapel Hill. beispiele/Architectural Press. Koralek, B. & Mitchell, M. (2005), Nair, P. & Fielding, R. (2005) The Playscapes Blog: http://Dudek, M. (2007). Schools and ‘The schools we’d like: young people’s language of school design: design playgrounddesigns.blogspot.com/kindergartens: a Design Manual, participation in architecture’, in Dudek, patterns for 21st century schools,(contributions by Dorothea Baumann et M. (Ed.) Children’s spaces, Amsterdam: Minneapolis, Minn.: DesignShare. Tovey, H. (2007) Playing outdoors:al.), Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkaeuser. Elsevier/Architectural Press. spaces and places, risk and challenge, Matsuoka, R. (2010) ‘Student Maidenhead, England; New York:Dudek, M. (2000) Kindergarten Learning Through Landscapes/Grounds performance and high school landscapes: McGraw Hill/Open University Press.architecture: space for the imagination, for Learning: http://www.ltl.org.uk/ Berlin examining the links’, Landscape andLondon: Spon Press. Schools Film: http://www.youtube.com/ Urban Planning 97 (2010): 273-282. White, J. (2008). Playing and learning watch?v=r1SkzHu3LoQ outdoors : making provision for high-Grounds for Learning (2011) Lessons quality experiences in the outdoorfrom Berlin’s school playgrounds, GFL/ environment / Jan White. London:LFL: www.ltl.org.uk/scotland/ Routledge.12 Future Proofing Schools | Landscape: integrations & connections
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