Sustainable School Environments

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Sustainable School Environments

  1. 1. “I want a classroom ...where the roof opens up to the sky, like a BMW convertible, so I can see the clouds, that uses windows with colourful glass which glows in the sunshine, where there are cool breezes [from outside] and limitless supplies of icecream, that is quiet [other than the birds] while the teacher reads, ...and...a classroom I can watch arrive on the back of a truck because I think that is cool!” [a compilation of responses from Queenskand primary school children, aged 9,y.o, on how to design a relocatable classroom that highlights their interest in biofilic design and passive solutions] 2. Sustainable school environments Overview Looking Forward Inspiration This brochure 2 3D textbooks: Hands on learning 9 Case Study 1: Project Frog 14 Inspiration 3 3D textbooks: Green schools 10 Case Study 2: Gen 7 15 Key Issues: Energy, Water 4 Big Issues: Design for Change 11 Further Reading 16 Key Issues: IEQ 5 Future concepts: New materials 12 Key Issues: Light 6 Future concepts: New relocatables 13 Key Issues: HVAC & Acoustics 7 Key Issues: Materials, Waste 8 Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 1
  2. 2. How might sustainability - from environmental through to social - impact on the design of future relocatable classrooms? How can the design of prefabricated learning environments best address issues of indoor environment quality?This Brochure>“I want a classroom that Overview Case Studies Challengesgives me the freedom This brochure outlines aspects of International, national and mini case Problems found internationally in sustainability and how they might impact studies are presented in this brochure to relocatables can be summarised asto teach appropriately, on the design of future relocatable describe: follows. They tend to:with different approaches classrooms. It concentrates on • what is happening around Australia • use more energy than traditional environmental, and to a lesser extent, currently involving the design and classrooms;for different children social sustainability. performance of green schools and • have poorly functioning HVACand classes... but it’s The key issues presented are on: relocatable classrooms, and systems that provide minimalalso important that it’s • energy & water; • what is happening internationally ventilation with outside air; as far as producing ‘sustainable’ • have poor acoustics due to louda classroom where the • materials; relocatable classrooms. ventilation systems; • indoor environment quality;children don’t get too • construction waste; The case studies summarise key best- • have chemical off-gassing from practice approaches and raise issues that pressed wood and other high-distracted by light, • climate change; and need to be considered in the design of emission materials, of greaternoise and temperature.” • the ability to teach a green relocatable classrooms of the future. concern because of rapid occupancy curriculum by using the buildings as after construction;[a teacher] 3 dimensional text books. Methodology • have water entry and mould growth, Irrespective of whether a classroom The international and national case and; is a reloactable or a permament studies were compiled following literature • are often placed haphazardly on a structure it is not sustainable if it does reviews, site visits and interviews with site with minimal consideration of Aspirational targets, not support teaching and learning. the designers|manufacturers of green connectivity to the site and other which are statements schools and relocatable classrooms buildings, often eroding playspace. about a desired Green Star Guide The mini case studies draw on Many of these problems are due to light condition, will be set in preliminary results from current research weight construction. This is an important this brochure in relation The brochure will link the issues to the being undertaken over 12 months in consideration for the future design of requirements set out in Green Star, 2010/2011, involving the environmental sustainable relocatables. to sustainability in which is a voluntary environmental monitoring of 8 Australian prefabricated future relocatable rating system for buildings in Australia. classrooms across 5 climate zones. classrooms2 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  3. 3. This is not a ‘relocatable’classroom...However this building was designed so that allMain Image: National case study: The GeneralPurpose Classroom in Victoria by eme designs elements could be screwed together to make disassembly possible if there was a future(www.emegroup.com.au). For more information onthis building refer to page 10. requirement for the building to be relocated. The building is designed using first principles and looks and feels different from other buildings on the campus. ThisInset image: A thermal image of the GeneralPurpose Classroom taken by a student exploring motivates the student to ask and want to explore why?how the building is different from otherbuildings on the school campus.Inspiration>“Relocatables can be thegreenest of solutions;they are a plannedresponse to a studentnumber spike. It meanswe can provide usablespace quickly that willbe used and not standthere empty. They touchthe ground lightly, leavea small footprint and canbe very efficient.”[Ms Leanne Taylor, Director Planning andInfrastructure, Department of Education andTraining Northern Territory Government] To design and build classrooms that motivate student enquiry... (see page 9 & 10) Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 3
  4. 4. 1: Energy Neutral Portable classroom, 1 2 2Anderson Anderson Architects(http://andersonanderson.com)2: Photos from an Eco-cubby workshop(www.eco-cubby.com/) where children aged 8-12added Solar Photovoltanic Panels and Watertanks to their cardboard cubby house (seecompleted cubby house on page 11)Key Issues>Energy, Water Water Energy Solar Energy Green Star: Water Water efficiency is an important aspect Energy use in classrooms is mainly for Design the classroom so that the building Rain water should be used to flush of all new building designs in Australia. HVAC (heating , ventilation, air cooling) toilets and be a 5A standard – can be placed at the correct orientation In southern parts of Australia it is not systems, lighting and equipment. on any site to enable solar photo voltanic integrated rainwater collection. uncommon to have water tanks and water To improve energy efficiency, consider panels to be used on the roof. PV panels Where possible, integrate with a efficient fixtures incorporated into the can be used to offset energy used by the design. In the school context, this creates how to design the building to reduce teaching landscape. the heating and cooling loads on the classroom and, depending on the size of opportunities for integrated learning the array, may even generate solar credits Integrate meters and monitoring if where the tanks and the associated HVAC system. This can be done through considering building orientation and for energy used elsewhere by the school. water is being used. plumbing become teaching tools when made visible (see pages 9 & 10). external sun shading, wall and ceiling Reduce potable water consumption insulation with high R-values, double and Green Star: Energy from heat rejection systems by 50%, While it is common for relocatable triple glazed windows with low emissivity 90% or 100%, for example by using a refer Aim for zero net production of CO2, classrooms to have running water, toilets glass, white roofs and thermal breaks. but try to limit energy use within each geothermal coupled system to remove heat. 3 are generally not integrated into the design and these classrooms are often Building occupant behaviour will also have an impact on energy consumption. general purpose classroom. Integrate regionally appropriate low not located in close proximity to toilet Green star sets a benchmark of blocks. For example, in a temperate climate, the 108kgCO2/m2/p.a., which varies water vegetation – roof, wall, interior National Australian Built Environment (refer to landscaping brochure and depending on the function and An international study by Vernon et Rating System recommends that rooms location in Australia. image 2 on page 12) al [2003] into 9-11 year old student be heated to between 18-20°C in attitudes to school toilets found that winter and cooled to between 24-27°C Green Star also gives credits for: inadequately located school toilets, along in summer. Every one degree higher in • the integration of energy with bullying and lack of cleanliness, winter will increase energy usage by 15%, monitoring & display energy use, led to students not using the facilities while every one degree lower in summer Can you make your and later suffering from dehydration, will increase energy usage by 10%. • putting in place strategies for peak building CO2 positive in constipation, urinary tract infections or energy demand; operation and water incontinence. Energy savings can also be made through • installing motion and light level maximising daylight, using energy sensors; and neutral with embodied In a recent workshop, primary students efficient lighting, and ensuring that energy paid back in ten in Queensland voted that the inclusion equipment is not left on standby power. • ensuring unoccupied areas have years? of a toilet was one of the top 10 things wider temperature ranges or are they would change about their current not air conditioned. relocatable classroom.4 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  5. 5. Many of the issues outlined here are not only a problem of relocatable classrooms but all teaching spaces. They are presented here because they require consideration in the design of all newKey Issues> learning spaces – including relocatables.IEQ IntroductionImpact on Learning Indoor Environment Green Star: IAQ Mould, Dust, Pollen andThere have been several studies Quality or IEQ Asthma • Dry bulb temperature of 20-24°Cundertaken on school effectiveness and An integral part of the entire building and a mean radiant temp of 20- Mould, dust and pollen have an impactthe influence of the learning environment performance is IEQ [Ali et al 2009]. 27°C or shading so that there is on indoor air quality (IAQ) and can affecton education [Fraser 1986; Sammons et IEQ relates to the combined impact of no radiant load on the glass children with asthma. The impact of theseal 1996; Walberg 1981]. The research environmental parameters such as indoor needs to be minimised by appropriateunderlines the complexity of effective • Relative Humidity 40-60% air quality (IAQ), thermal comfort, light air filtration, education of building usersschool environments, emphasising that and acoustics. IAQ is an assessment of • Air velocity <0.2 m/s unless about when to close windows and controlsuccess is not dependent on one solution dust particle matter (PM), mould, pollen, occupants have control of air of moisture.or single characteristic. CO2 and Volatile Organic Compounds direction (VOCs) in the air. There is a direct • Double glazing to 90% of There is a direct link between poor airStudies into Indoor Environment Quality quality and respiratory illness such as(IEQ) and occupant productivity show that relationship between IEQ and the comfort glass 100% of N W E and 15% and productivity of building inhabitants improvement on BCA glazing asthma. In the US asthma is the cause ofthe quality of the indoor environment can an average 4.6 missed days of school perimpact both positively and negatively on [Ahmed 2010]. compliance child annually [Wakefield 2002].effective learning [Heschong Mahone IEQ is impacted on by thermal comfort • IEQ-1 ventilation rates 95%Group 1999; Wakefield 2002; Cox-Ganser which includes: air temperature, mean natural ventilation in accordance These findings are consistent with thoseet al 2005]. Some of these impacts are radiant temperature, relative humidity, air to AS1668.2-2001; if mechanical of Cox-Ganser and colleagues [2005]touched upon in the following pages. velocity and rate of air change. then a 50%/ 100%/ 150% who found that between 1994 and 1996,For more detail refer to the studies improvement over AS1668.2- asthma was the cause of 14 million daysreferenced. Research into IEQ is important. Studies 1991 (10l/s/p over 16yrs, 12l/s/p of school loss or around 3.4 school days reveal that a child spends 15,000 under 16yrs) – CO2 – set point per child. compulsory hours in the school 800ppm/700ppm/640ppm Can you provide thermal environment during their formative years (3,2,and 1 credit) Green Star: Mould comfort primarily through [Rutter 1979] and of this, 85 to 90% of NOTE: increasing air changes and their time indoors [Johnson et al 2010]. Humidity levels to be less than 60% in passive and radiant ventilation rates can have an impact space and 80% in ducts on energy use for heating and cooling. sources and fresh air at no additional energy • Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) using CO2 sensors is a way to input? achieve both good IAQ and energy efficiency. Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 5
  6. 6. 1: Graph mapping average natural and 1 2artificial light levels against the levels set “...the kids love theout in the Australian Standards daylight but the glare2: Image from a mini case study hightlighting is awful.”how the teacher has set up the classroom to [a teacher working in a relocatable, 2011]control daylight levels. The windows arecovered with coloured paper and student work. “...I use coloured paper to block the sun - it’s like stained glass...”Key Issues> [a teacher working in a relocatable, 2010]IEQ: Light Light - Current Research Effective Learning Green Star: Lighting Daylight – 95% of area has a daylight Natural or Artificial? Australian Case Studies Melatonin & Serotonin factor of 2% There is a significant body of research Data collected on the lux levels of existing Much of the scientific research on that identifies the visual environment Australian relocatable classrooms reveals lighting and its effects on people relates Glare – shading which ensures 80% that the combined levels of artificial and as one of the most important factors to the natural production of melatonin of work surfaces are protected from natural light greatly exceed the minimum in learning. It effects students’ mental (the hormone that induces sleep) and direct sunlight or where there are standards (Graph 1), through a mix of too attitude, class attendance and serotonin (the hormone associated blinds and screens. much daylight or too much artificial light. performance [Hathaway 1995; Heschong with memory, learning, temperature Lighting – high frequency ballasts Mahone Group 1999]. regulation, mood and behaviour [Kuller & In mini case study 1, small windows and lux levels do not go above 25% of Lindsten 1992]). However, there is no single approach that equivalent to 7% of the floor area were those specified in AS 1680.2.3 1994 found to let in very low levels of natural can provide universally good lighting. The Melatonin levels decrease with bright table E1 – for a GPC 240 lux. Energy light. This had been overcompensated for refer design of classroom lighting is complex light (both natural and artificial) making impact of less than 28 kg CO2eq/year for lighting and requires careful integration of artificial and natural lighting systems that consider: in the artificial lighting design. The 13m x 9m classroom was designed with 36 fluorescent tubes. Over the period the 1 people more alert, while serotonin levels increase with daylight but decrease with artificial light, impacting on concentration Views – 60% of space has views to the outside or an internal atrium measurements were taken, only 26 of the and attention levels [Ott 1973]. • the range of activities or tasks to be tubes were in operation. The average lux undertaken in the classroom and the level across the day was 470lux, with the There is inconclusive research on the people who will perform them [Veitch highest average 655lux. In this space one ability to substitute daylight with full & McColl 1994]; student commented that the light “hurt” spectrum fluorescent tubes [Tanner the back of her eyes. 2008; Hughes 1980; Vietch & McColl • the site orientation and neighbouring 2001]. buildings; Mini case study 2, with large windows Can you provide diffuse, (oriented east/west ) equivalent to 40% This research may explain why teachers • energy efficiency; and in mini case study 1 experienced high indirect daylight with of the floor area, had an average lux level artificial light between refer • the integration of new technologies across the day of 970lux. At one set point levels of hyperactivity. The students were (such as I-Pads, laptops and in the room the lux level fluctuated from alert but unable to concentrate. Teachers 240-400lux which can be blocked out when AV equipment is in use? 1 electronic whiteboards) that have their own built-in light source. 2750lux (at 8am) to 760lux (at 12pm) to 54lux (at 3pm). Having little to no control in this classroom were responsible for removing fluorescent tubes and explained of the daylight, the teacher blocked it that sometimes they turned the lights off using blinds, coloured paper and student when they wanted to calm students down. work.6 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  7. 7. 1: Images taken in a classroom by Bendigo 2 3Relocatables (www.brb-buildings.com) to informoccupants on how to get the best performancefrom the building HVAC system.2. Displacement ventilatiom used by ProjectFrog (see page 14). Diffent coloured lights are illuminated to communicate the corresponding messages to the building occupants3. Overhead ventilation used by Triumph about the HVAC opeartion (Bendigo Relocatables).Modular (www.triumphmodular.com)Key Issues>HVAC systemsThermal Comfort & IAQ “Ongoing research Acoustics Australian Case StudiesResearch into thermal comfort showed and scientific A holistic approach must be taken to Research into acceptable levels ofthat being comfortable positively address acoustics. A wide range of background noise in classroomsimpacted on students’ performance in analysis contributes internal and external factors such as recommends 35dB(A).terms of attention, comprehension and to provide evidence traffic, plant, lighting, finishes, ventilationlearning levels [Corgnati et al 2007]. This system and adjoining rooms impact on Acoustic testing of background noisefinding is supported by other international that IAQ [Indoor Air background noise and reverberation was carried out in mini case study 3 andresearch [Seppänen et al 2004; Pepler times [Ecophon 2002]. the results revealed the sound level to& Warner 1968; Wyon 1970; Wargocki & Quality] in schools be a 38dB(A). This increased to 43dB(A)Wyon 2006 and 2007] which concluded can cause acute health There is a direct relationship between with the addition of fans and there wasthat students were less distracted and good acoustics and effective learning a further increase to a constant 53dB(A)less likely to become ill if the classroom symptoms,increase [Evans & Maxwell 1997]. Consideration with fans and air-conditioning.environment stayed between the comfort of classroom acoustics is particularly absenteeism, and refer important with changing pedagogical “An increase or decrease by 10dB isband of 20-27°C. perceived as a doubling or halving of the directly and indirectly models as they involve more group andResearch also shows that inadequateventilation can also lead to a build up affect student and 1 project work [Ecophon 2002]. sound level” [Ecophon 2002] Hathaway [1997] pointed out that an airof CO2 levels in the classroom making Poor classroom acoustics is also teacher performance... attributed to voice disorders and stress conditioning unit could be downsizedstudents feel lethargic impacting on their reducing noise if appropriate daylighting amongst teachers [Wakefield 2002,performance [Daisey 2003; Shorrock experts in the field Ecophon 2002]. (that did not add heat load) was used.2006]. generally agree that A reduction in the total area of hard healthy indoor school surfaces in a space is key for embedding Green Star: Acoustics Reverberation times of no good acoustics. Careful consideration more than 0.4-0.5 seconds; environments are a should also be given to selection of If mechanically ventilated and Heating Ventilation and Air Conditing conditioned then 95% of the space mechanical noise no more necessity if a high (HVAC) systems. Sound absorbing ceilings must not go over satisfactory ambient than NR40; traffic noise internal noise AS/NZS2107:2000. no more than 40dB(A); standard of education and acoustic wall panels also effectively reduce the noise levels experienced in a For a GPC this should be 35 dB(A)with rain noise no more than is to be expected.” classroom. [GBCA, 2008, Technical Manual Green Star – a recommended reverberation time 45dB(A)10mm/hr between 0.4-0.5 seconds. Education Version 1, Sydney: GBCA, p62] Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 7
  8. 8. 1: ‘Eco-Villlages Worldwide’ manufactured 1 2 3 homes are highly insulated and feature compressed straw panels and decking made from recycled milk bottles (www.ecovill.com.au) 2: Children in an Eco-cubby workshop nominate recycled bricks in their carboard cubby. 3.The waste from two large houses fits into two small skips at Baufritz’s factory in Erkheim, Germany (www.baufritz.com) Key Issues> Materials, Waste Materials Australian Case Studies Green Star: Materials Wasterefer The materials used is a key consideration In an arid climate on a 43°C summer day, • Use of post-consumer recycled to There are two vital aspects associated for the design and development mini case study 4, a newly commissioned be 20% or greater; with waste.4 of relocatable classrooms. There are inherent waste and efficiency relocatable classroom orientated north- south with sunshading, R1.5 wall • • Reuse of materials - 2% or greater; Minimise Portland cement use; The first is in the design and construction of the classroom itself and choice of opportunities that off-site manufacture insulation and R1.8 ceiling insulation presents. reached a maximum temperature of substitute with industrial waste materials. (Information on ‘emerging’ 43°C. Meanwhile, an older relocatable such as flyash; use recycled materials is available on page 12.) It is important to consider the choice classroom on the same site with equal or aggregate; of materials, optimising re-use and Using recycled and reclaimed materials lower R-values of insulation, orientated • Steel should be 50% post shows an understanding of the value of recycling where possible and minimizing east-west with sunshading, reached a embodied energy - but not at the cost of consumer recycled steel or be materials. There is also value in ensuring maximum temperature of 52°C. reused; that benefits in using prefabrication are maintainability, strength and longevity. • Minimise PVC usage; part of the information that is passed Examples such as those of Eco Villages Green Star: VOC on to the schools and teachers for them Worldwide and Gen 7 highlight innovative • Timber should be FSC certified, to use in their teaching. The German VOC level guidance post consumer recycled or reused. use of insulating materials. prefabricated timber house manufacturer • Paint – TVOC walls 14-16 g/L, trim • Design for ease of disassembly; Baufritz limits the waste of two large Results from monitoring the internal 75 g/L, primer 30, latex 60, one houses to two small skips (photo 3). temperatures of mini case study 4 • Plan dematerialisation, for or two pack 140 Other solvent Baufritz has developed an insulation highlight that current levels of insulation example minimise need for based 200 product that uses the wood shavings from in Australian relocatable classrooms may painting, ductwork, piping; • Sealants meet TVOC – 50-100 g/L their own manufacturing processes. be inadequate • Use durable flooring that is low • Carpets– TVOC 0.5mg/m2 per maintenance, modular, low The second important aspect associated hour and 4-PC 0.05mg/m2 emission and low impact; with waste is ensuring that there is Can the design be low in • Fitouts– TVOC 0.5mg/item/hour • Joinery and furniture to be sufficient room in the classroom for the embodied energy (less • Formaldehyde – low to no – E0 to low emission, durable, low collection and storage of recyclables, than 10GJ/m2 and be super E0 maintenance, modular and low compostables and materials for reuse. able to be successfully • All materials, refrigerants, impact; relocated over a life insulation materials have a zero • Integrate space for recycled span of 40 years? ozone depleting potential and materials and waste materials for green warming potential under 10. recycling. 8 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  9. 9. 1 & 2: While exploring heat transfer using the 1 3thermal camera, students make a “bum flower”and take a photo of the results3: Students use environmental monitoringequipment to explore their classroom3D textbooks>Hands on learningInforming Our future Green Star: Buildings Green Star: Buildings “…the new building‘Green Ambassadors’ as Teachers as Teachers...continued has resulted in lotsThere is a significant opportunity in • Include landscaping within or of questions fromschool design to integrate possibilities Include actual built attributes that demonstrate an environmental benefit adjacent to a school boundary.for teachers to use the classroom relevant to the Green Star- educational Ensure students manage a students: why strawas a teaching tool, to demonstrate natural habitat such as a wetland.environmental responsibility and teach credit. For example: bale? why the air This must include a display thatabout light, temperature, acoustics, good • Easily interpreted electricity shows the building occupants the lock? why..? Therepassive design, materials, etc [Nair & meters displayed in classrooms biodiversity and environmentalFielding 1997] or functional areas showing the benefits of the habitat. is clear learning impact of electricity use, weather,Yet the opportunity for students goes or time of day on building energy NOTE: Signage that informs occupants about sustainabilitybeyond simply observing a building’s use, or renewable energy source of what the built attribute is achieveing happening by the factperformance through its integrated with live data on energy generated is an important form of educationalmonitoring equipment. A most exciting and CO2 reduced material but is not regarded by Green that the buildingopportunity is to create a knowing eye in Star as a being an initiative in itself.the students. This means developing a • Equipment providing alternative exists and mostdeeper understanding of how a building heating such as solar thermal or geothermal with display of how it Input From the School importantly it isworks, its impact and what they can dooptimise its performance, through real works and energy saved Designing a building to use as a 3D leading to curiosity” referhands-on experiences [Taylor 2008]. • Clear pipes showing collected textbook should involve input from [a teacher, Thornbury High School 2009] rainwater • Display water consumption, water 1 teachers and students. This input will not only assist teachers in understanding Green Star: Lifestyle Can the classroom be collection - water saved and other what these design initiaves mean • Energy and health – encourage benefits – e.g. costs in terms of curriculum and teaching activity – visible, logical stairways, designed so that the opportunities, They will also have their • Building elements – e.g. cut-away connection to effective outdoor students occupying it can own innovative ideas about what they spaces etc of wall showing building assembly; easily access information would like. Consider how you can package framing; linings; thickness of the • Cycling – one or two spaces peron temperature, wind, rain, some of the documentation about the insulation, etc. Gen 7 clasrooms 5 students over grade 4 level. sun, energy usage etc? building together for the teachers. For do this successfully. Refer to page Ensure bike storage is safe and example teachers could use floor plans to 15 for a photograph. weather protected teach about scale and visual literacy. Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 9
  10. 10. 1: A thermal image taken by a student at 2 3Thorbury High School2: The Environmental Sustainability Centre atWoodleigh School3: Students at Woodleigh School assist duringthe building’s construction3D textbooks>Green Schools“...Students can look Thornbury High School Woodleigh School International Examplesup and see the louvres, The provision of a new recording The school’s decision to invest in a new American Modular Solutions (page studio and general purpose classroom Environmental Sustainability Centre. 15) makes its Gen 7 display classroomand understand the at Thornbury High School created a provided more than just a new building. It available as a venue for workshops oncross ventilation wonderful educational opportunity. The provided a series of hands on educational sustainability. One example was the classroom was designed as a ‘viable opportunities that saw the students Environmental Stewards workshop wherestrategies. They can alternative to the standard relocatable’ as involved in its design and construction. 40 grade 6 students learned how tosee and touch the it could be assembled and disassembled implement a recycling program at their for future relocation (eme designs see The school ran the project as a series school. The value of conducting thiseco-timber. You can builing pictured on page 3). of 8-week sessions that the students workshop in the Gen 7 classroom was could elect to participate in. During that students could see first hand howtalk concepts all you It was designed using passive solar these session they collaborated with the blue denim jeans were recycled for wall principles, use locally sourced, designers whose approach during thelike but they remain sustainable materials was constructed briefing and concept stage was to let the and ceiling insulation, providing them with inspiration for innovative approaches.abstract until the without any metal framing, and was students think big and then explain the designed to operate comfortably in a consequence of their requests in terms Project Frog (page 14) contains astudents can actually temperate climate without heating or of materials, waste, energy, cleaning, monitoring system and dashboard thatexperience them.” cooling. acoustics, etc. tracks the buildings energy use, energy generation and environmental quality,[a teacher, Thornbury High School 2009] Students had the opportunity to use quite During construction the students worked both in and outdoors. This is used as an sophisticated monitoring equipment such with the builder (in a safe, controlled and educational tool by students, staff and as thermal imaging cameras to examine supervised environment) to build the the community. and test the performance of the building. stumps, platform and straw bale walls. Photo 1 (above). This highlighted to Can the design and students why closing the blinds avoided It seemed that engaging the students in placement of the heat gain and assisted in keeping the the design and physical labour helped to “providing a ladder of building involve student building cool. create a lived or actual understanding of what was going on. This translated into learning...and a more consultation? Is there an The equipment also captured the the students having a great respect and educational tool that can sustainable society for imagination of the drama teacher. This understanding of the building. be developed to help them led to a series of innovative drama all” understand their building? performances. This process was fun yet [Christy Rocca, Director of the Chrissy Fields the learning was real and memorable. Centre by Project Frog]10 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  11. 11. 1: A finished Eco-cubby built out of cardboard 3by children aged 8-12 highlights theiremerging understanding of what sustainabilityis. Students will be active participants inthe green classrooms of tomorrow. (www.eco-cubby.com/)2. Interactive tool on Climate Change3. St Leonards School, VictoriaFMSA Architects (www.fmsa.com.au/)Big Issues>Design for change Introduction Climate Change Neutral to Positive Given the aspirational today/tomorrow Climate change is a significant issue for Future buildings will no longer be asked Green today scenario (left), the following text designers to consider. Typical weather, to look at how efficient they can be, elaborates on what this means, and why temperature, wind, rain and humidity but how they can contribute actively • Climate Change this shift is occuring. profiles will change but the extent and and positively, create more energy, frequency is still unclear. The central clear the air, collect water, support • Efficiency Water and Biodiversity issue for designers is to consider how to local biodiversity and support social make designs robust. and ecological regeneration. Main • Productivity Today, central to sustainability are the theorists working in this area are William ideas of climate change and the focus on Recent experience in the floods in (Bill) Reed, John Lyle, Stephen Moore, • Learning Outcomes energy efficiency. Queensland showed that the school Ceridwen Owen in regenerative design infrastructure that was the least affected and development and Janis Birkeland in In the future the issues of water scarcity was the relocatable classroom. Generally and the protection of genetic diversity positive development. their elevation about the ground level by through a focus on biodiversity and around 600mm meant that they were Another interesting area is that of Green tomorrow local specificity will be central. With less affected and less undermined by the biophilic design, which is the medical this will come a focus on producing a flood waters. and psychological evidence-based • Water & Biodiversity world citizen, a student who will actively design approach to the integration of participate in their own learning and Summary of predicted changes in the • Neutral to Positive sustainability. 5 climate zones is shown in image 2 biological references to design. From the Contribution importance of natural light to views out of above. Use this tool to look at specific windows, colour selection and references implication for the region for which you • 3D Textbook are designing1. to nature, this body of work provides 70 design strategies. In particular, this work • Students as active links various aspects of the environment participants and to physical and mental health – from green ambassadors photos and pot plants to wilderness. 1: Interactive tool published by the Federal Government based on the research published in CSIRO (2007) Climate Change in Australia, Technical Report 2007 http://www. climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au, Accessed 1 May 2011 Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 11
  12. 12. 1: Translucent concrete (www.litracon.hu/) 1 2 32: Team Montreal Biowall, US Departmentof Energy Solar Decathlon Challenge 2007(solardecathlondev.nrel.gov/past/2007/team_montreal.cfm)3: CO2 Living glass, Soo-in Yang and DavidBenjamin (inhabitat.com/carbon-dioxide-sensing-living-glass/)Future Concepts>New products 4Introduction CO2 Living Glass PCM PlasterboardThis summary is not intended to form This is a prototype of a glass that senses Phase change materials (PCMs) can storean extensive list, but rather to motivate when there is too much CO2 and expels it much larger amounts of thermal energyreaders to research what is ‘out there’ so that you do not need to mechanically per unit mass than conventional buildingand consider working with a new material ventilate4. materials. PCM Plasterboard is anor an old material in an innovative way. exciting example.7 This allows designers Paperstone to think about the use of thermal massSolar Air Heaters Made from 100% post-consumer recycled (PCM acts like it) and night purge in lightThese provide heating in winter passively. paper and proprietary PetroFree™ weight buildings.To function they need the sun to shine, resins, PaperStone® is a sustainable Translucent Concreteso looking at solar hours is an important solid surface material5. Rainstone is theconsideration to take into account when external cladding material. Provides thermal mass while allowing 5specifying this product1. light and connection to external Cross Laminated Timber conditions8.Smartbreeze This timber structural panel product6This is a solar powered ventilation - also known as CLT - has been used Bio Wallssystem that can help with passive in Europe for the past 20 years. Biowalls (living walls, vertical gardens,heating or cooling. These systems have More recently it has been used on green facades and green walls) arebeen introduced into the Department prefabricated building projects in London exterior walls that are covered with livingof Education and Early Childhood such as the 9 storey high Stadthaus vegetation and used to insulate theDevelopment’s most recent relocatable Tower Murray Grove by Waugh Thistleton building and improve air quality9.classrooms2. and the Kingsdale School Sports and Music Hall by dRMM Architects. It isSolatube Lights used mainly for wall, ceiling and roof 7 Kendrick, C and Walliman, N, 2007, RemovingHigh-performance daylighting systems construction. Unwanted Heat in Lightweight Buildings Usingthat use advanced optics to significantly PCMs in Building Components: Simulation Modelling for PCM Plasterboard, Architecturalimprove the way daylight is harnessed3. 4 www.nbmcw.com/articles/glass/639-living- glass-design-and-health-in-synergy.html Science Review, Volume 50.3, pp 265-2731 www.resourcesmart.vic.gov.au/ 5 www.paperstoneproducts.com/rainstone.php 8 www.litracon.hu/ 4. Solatube (www.solatube.com,au)2 www.smartbreeze.com.au/ 6 http://www.structuremag.org/article. 9 www.mtnhighinspections.com/biowall_ 5. Smartbreeze system (www.smartbreeze.com.au)3 http://www.solatube.com.au/ aspx?articleID=947 inspection.html12 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  13. 13. INTERNATIONAL EXAMPLES: 1 2 31: Hunters Point Community Centre, CaliforniaProject Frog (www.projectfrog.com)2: Gen 7 Classrooms, CaliforniaAmerican Modular Systems (www.gen7schools.com)3: Harvard Childcare Centre, MassachusettsTriumph Modular & Anderson Anderson(www.triumphmodular.com)Future Concepts>New RelocatablesAspirational locations where: (a) vehicles idle, (b) Relocatables,Victoria: Acoustics - Reverberation times noSpecifications water accumulates after rains, or (c) Current Best Practice more than 0.7 seconds at 500Hz; there are other major sources of air mechanical noise no more than NR40;• Ensure you design in accordance pollution. Insulation: walls R2 and ceilings R4, traffic noise no more than 40dB(A); rain with Class 3 building section F1 of • Provide user-controlled ventilation floor R1.5 weather protected: noise no more than 45dB(A) at 10mm/ the BCA; such as operable windows. Include Inorganic insulation materials must hr; average noise over 8 hrs period• Appropriate target internal insect screens and operable shading be biosoluble with an ozone depleting not to exceed 85dB(A) – with no peak temperature and humidity ranges for where appropriate (see Victorian potential (ODP) of zero; greater than 140 dB(C) different climate zones (see Victorian specification for example). specification for example); Glazing: U-Value 3.7W/m2, SHGC 0.51; Monitoring: Innotech Maxim III, • Consider covered entries with an TVLT 0.57 – Argon double glazed with temperature range set at 19-26°C and• Provide climate specific vapour exterior entry mat. 4mm energy advantage outer skin and barriers for exterior wall construction; CO2 controlled if above 600ppm • Low VOC emitting building materials thermally improved frame;• Ensure adequate continuous Sensors: Light and fan sensors off after to be used throughout (see Victorian Ventilation – Smart breeze solar outdoor air intake and that this is 15 mins of no movement; perimeter specification for example); powered ventilation system set to 21°C not located near sources of potential lights only on if below 350 lux and turn dust, pollen, mould and pollutant • Specify complete documentation off when over 500 lux Temperature: Internal range from problems; of operation and maintenance 19°C to 26°C; cooling when room and requirements.• Ensure that at least one supply air outside above 27°C and and heating outlet and return air inlet are located • If possible think about effective ways when room and outside below 19°C; in each enclosed area; of linking multiple classrooms managed by a reverse-cycle air- • Ensure that energy use and conditioning system with a cooling• If required, locate HVAC and air capacity of 7kW and heating of 8kW, handling units as far as possible from temperature can be monitored and displayed piping insulated with material with an teaching areas to reduce noise; ODP of zero.• Provide efficient HVAC air filters for • For general classrooms provide reduction of: airborne dust, pollens Lux levels of 320 (AS 1680), with Carpet: VOC – 0.5mg/m2 per hr: 4-PC and micro-organisms from re- a maximum power density of 8W/ 0.05 mg/m2 per hour; TVOC 50 g/L circulated and outdoor air streams; m2 and Lumens per Watt of 40 (BCA2010) Rainwater: able to be collected via• Ensure easy access to HVAC ducts for 100mm HDPE pipe inspection and cleaning; • Special-use classrooms - chemistry, biology, fine arts, etc - to have local Paint: low VOC (depending on type• Locate classroom away from exhaust ventilation and appropriate below 75 g/L) ventilation rates. Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 13
  14. 14. 1: Hunter Point roof overhang 1 32: Hunter Point interior with clearstorywindows and high ceilings3: Hunter point roof with 7.2kW solar PVFor more information visithttp://www.projectfrog.com/Case Study 1>Project FrogOverview Design Refinement Acoustics Thermal ComfortProject Frog is a design, supply, sales and One of Project Frog’s points of difference Project Frog has an ongoing relationship Frogs use an underfloor heating andmarketing team based in California that is the ongoing research and refinement with its product manufactures as this cooling air distribution system with airwas founded on the notion that there that goes into the design and supply of creates opportuities to be innovative. vents built into the floor tiles than can beis a better and healthier alternative to Frog buildings. One of Project Frog’s aims Frog 2.2 features Epic acoustical ceiling repositioned, giving flexibility. The wallstraditional portable classrooms. is to continue to ungrade the product panels. have a thermally broken stud with an R19 without driving up the price. insulation value. The ceiling insulation isFROG stands for Flexible Response to This solution provides an aestheticallyOngoing Growth. The move from Frog 2.1 (Crissy Field) pleasing design - with significant R30. (Australian equvalients R3.3 & R5.2) to Frog 2.2 (Hunter’s Point) saw energy noise reduction. The panels also offerProject Frog utilses a kit-of-parts efficiency increase by 22% while the cost exceptional light reflectance, reducing Energy Efficiencyapproach to design and construction, as decrease by over 20%. the number of light fixtures needed anddescribed in the prefabrication brochure. The combined lighting, heating and cutting down on energy use and eye cooling requirements of Frog V2.2 is Some of these changes include: strain. The result is a healthier, brighterProject Frog has four pre-approvals 57% less than the 2008 Californianwith the Division of State Architect in • deeper roof overhangs to address and quieter learning environment. Energy Code. To minimise solar gain andCalifornia, enabling permits for new glare (from 2ft to 3.5ft), The panels are also structural which maximise energy efficiency a cool roofbuildings using the Frog kit to be quickly makes for a simpler building assembly. membrane is used to reflect heat. Aand efficiently obtained. The Frog at • higher ceilings to esentutate the 7.2kW Solar PV array is used on the roof sense of space (from 8.3ft to 9.3ft at Further information on the acousticCrissy Field will apply for LEED Platinum treatment can be found at www.usg.com. at Hunter’s Point to generate electricity.and the Frog at Hunter’s Point will apply the lowest point), andfor LEED Gold. • removing columns for flexibility, Materials & Waste Window Design reduced the amount of steel by 20% Project Frog is designed with large areasLife Cycle Assessment Frog Buildings use materials with The next version of buildings will include recycled, renewable and re-used content. of glazing and clerestory windows to letA life cycle assessment shows that over film insulated glass that will reduce the A Frog generates one fifth of the waste in indirect light. The manually operablea 50-year building lifetime, a net zero u-value of the glass from 0.26 to 0.17 and of a conventional construction site and windows are position to enable naturalenergy Frog causes approximately 87% the heat gain coefficient from 0.27 to 0.2. of this waste, 80% is deverted away from cross ventilation.less fossil fuel use, 85% less climate landfill.change, 82% less air pollution, and 73% Waterless water pollution than a comparableaverage building with average energy use. The rooftop rainwater catchment system at Crissy Fields offsets 86% of water needed to flush toilets.14 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments
  15. 15. 1: Gen 7 Classroom, California 1 2Wall section showing range of materials2: Gen 7 Classroom, CaliforniaBuilding Section (www.gen7schools.com)For more information visithttp://www.gen7schools.com/Case Study 2>Gen 7Overview Scalability Lighting InsulationAmerican Modular Systems (AMS) is the The base product is a single storey The classroom uses 90% natural daylight The building has R32 wall insulationcompany behind the creation of Gen 7, rectangular classroom comprised of which translates to an 80% saving in and R40 ceiling insulation (approx R5.6a modular classroom that combines the 10x32ft or 12x40ft module.The overall energy. This is achieved using tubular and R7 equivalents in Australia). Thecleanest materials and latest technology classroom size can be adjusted by the skylights (with adjustable light damper), innovative use of recycled denim forto promote sustainable practices and number of modules that are connected large low E double glazed windows and insulation has an engaging aspect of theeffective learning in schools, while together. A standard classroom in the energy efficient dimming lights that are building for the students occupying it.remaining an affordable and low USA is 960ft. There is also a range of programmed to respond to externalmaintenance solution. customised options. These include a conditions. The occupant can override Acoustics range of automated systems, exterior the sensor and choose to activate 50% The classroom achieves a constantThe Gen 7 classroom is the result of finishes and 6kW photo voltanic array or 100% of the lighting, where 50% 35dB(A). The roof is angled with a$200,000 investment and 2.5years of (attached to window overhang). AMS have controls one lamp per fixture (not 50% of suspended ceiling (layered with acousticresearch and development by AMS. a 2 storey product in development. the whole room). The large expanses of treatment) that is pulled away from theThe building design has been developed glazing are well controlled by generous wall edge, to improve acoustics. At thewith pre-approval by the Department of Delivery & Community overhangs and automatically controlled lowest point, the ceiling is suspended 8ftState Architect and has pre-certificated Because Gen 7 is manufactured off site blinds. The standard option has glazing to 6inches and is 10ft at the highest point.by LEED (Leadership in Energy Efficient and delivered to the site more than 90% 700mm above floor level, and there are ER3 carpet tiles absorb noise.Design) and CHPS (Collaborative for High complete, the project can be completed in options for the glazing to come down toPerformance Schools), giving clients full 90days. This minimises site disturbances the ground, so younger students can see Thermal Comfortconfidence in the ‘green credentials’ of such as noise and dust (which can impact out. An AV switch automatically preparesthe product, while shortening the length the room for use of overhead projection. The Thermal Displacement Ventilation on the IEQ of neighbouring buildings) and (TDV) system used in the Gen 7of the approvals process. lowers demands for energy and water at Materials provides 100% fresh filtered air to theThe Gen 7 has been modelled across the project location. Off site manufacture students at a low velocity. A CO2 sensorall 16 climate zones in California and also allows AMS to eliminate material The chosen materials are low communicates when oxygen levels arethe thermal design exceeds the 2008 waste by recycling it in the factory and maintenance, either contained recycled low. Sensors on the doors and windowsCalifornia Energy Code by more than reduces transport emissions by ordering material or recyclable and have no or switch the TDV from mechanical to26%, equating to $100,000/year in in bulk. A high percentage of fly-ash is low VOCs. The project achieved 100% natural ventilation mode when doorsdirect savings for schools through lower used in the 6inch concrete slab, providing recycled mineral-board sheeting for roof and/or windows have been open formaintenance and running costs. With a both thermal mass and rigidity without and wall backing, 80% recycled content 15minutes. The system saves 35% in6kW Solar PV array on the roof overhang adding extreme weight that would in the steel and 100% recycled denim for energy and is extremely quiet, having nothe classroom is grid-neutral. challenge transport. insulation. detectable impact on acoustics. Sustainable School Environments | Future Proofing Schools 15
  16. 16. 1 2 31-6: A compilation of responses fromQueenskand primary school children, aged9,y.o, on how they would design a classrrom,what makes them comfortable inside theirclassroom and what they would change abouttheir current classroom. 5 6References> 4Further reading“Though educational References Fisk, W., 2000, Estimates of potential nationwide Seppänen, O., Fisk, W, 2004, ‘Summary of productivity and health benefits from better human responses to ventilation’, Indoor Air,researchers have in the Ahmed, O., 2010, Application of microsystem indoor environments: an update, Air Quality vol.14, pp. 102-118 for real time IEQ control. US Patent 7780092;past theorised that Mendell, M, Heath, G., 2005, Do indoor GBCA, 2008, Technical Manual Green Star Shorrock, J., 2006, Systems and methods for pollutants and thermal conditions in schools – Education Version 1, Sydney: GBCA, p144 monitoring room conditions to improve occupantviews out of windows referring to the work of performance, US Patents 7113086 influence student performance? A critical reviewcause unnecessary of the literature, Indoor Air, vol. 15, pp. 27-52; Hathaway, W., 1995, Effects of School Lighting on Taylor, A. & Gousie, G., 1988. The ecology of Ali, H., Almomani, H., Hindeih, M 2009, Physical Development and School Performance, learning environments for children. CEFPI Journal,distractions for children Journal of Educational Research, vol. 88, no. 4, 26(4), 23-28. Evaluating Indoor Environmental Quality of Publicin the classroom, recent School Buildings in Jordan, Indoor and Built pp. 228-242 Wakefield, J., 2002, Learning the Hard Way: Environment, vol. 18, pp.66-76 Heschong Mahone Group, 1999, Daylighting in The poor environment of America’s Schools,research by educational Schools: An Investigation Into The Relationship Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. Corgnati, S., Filippi, M., Viazzo, S 2007,psychologists stresses Perception of the thermal environment in high Between Daylighting and Human Performance, 6, pp. 298-30 school and university classrooms: Subjective Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Fair Oaks; Wargocki, P., Wyon, D, Sundell, J, Clausen, G,the importance of a preferences and thermal comfort, Build. Environ., Johnson, P., Kritsonis, W 2010, Greener Schools, Fanger, P 2000, ‘The effects of outdoor airstimulating visual vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 951-959 Greater Learning, and the LEED Value, Doctoral supply rate in an office on perceived air quality, Cox-Ganser, M., White, S., Jones, R., Hilsbos, Forum, National Journal for publishing and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms andenvironmental to the mentoring Doctorial student research, vol.7, no.1 productivity’, Indoor Air, vol. 10, pp. 222-236 K., Storey, E., Enright, P., Rao, C., Kreiss, Klearning process. Views 2005, Respiratory Morbidity in Office Workers Kellert S.R., Heerwagen J., Mador M. 2008 Wilson, Edward, O., 1984, Biophilia Cambridge: in a Water-Damaged Building, Environ Health Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science and Harvard University Pressto nature are believed Perspect, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 485-49 Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life Wyon, D 2004, The effects of indoor air quality onto improve attention Daisey, J.M., Angell, W.J., Apte, M.G (2003), Pepler, R.D., Warner, R.E. 1968. Temperature performance and productivity, Indoor Air, vol. 14, Indoor air quality, ventilation and health pp. 92-101span... improve learning symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing and learning: an experimental study. ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 74, 211-219, American Societyresults ... and reduce information, Indoor Air, 13, 53-64; of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evans, G., Maxwell, L, 1997, Chronic noiseeye strain.” Engineers, Atlanta, USARutter, M 1979, 15,000 exposure and reading deficits: The mediating hours: Secondary schools and their effect on[GBCA, 2008, Technical Manual Green Star – effects of language acquisition, Environment and children, Open Books Handbook, vol.4, McGraw-Education Version 1, Sydney: GBCA, p144] Behavior, vol. 29 no.5, pp. 638-656 Hill, New York16 Future Proofing Schools | Sustainable School Environments

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