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THE REPRESENTATION
OF AGE
YOUTH
Learning Objective: Key
areas
Tuesday 22nd Apr i l 2014
Pl ease Not e t he f i r st sect i on up
t o sl i de 25 i s what w...
Ideology
• I deol ogy i s a syst emof i deas,
val ues and bel i ef s pr omot ed by
domi nant gr oups t o r ei nf or ce t h...
Karl Marx
• Devel oped t he concept i n
1900s.
• Anal ysed t he way t hose i n
power pr ot ect ed t hei r
i nt er est s by...
The media machine and
Ideology
LO: St udent s wi l l expl or e and def i ne
r epr esent at i on
During the process of medi...
Mediation
Medi at i on i s t he pr ocess of t aki ng somet hi ng r eal (a
per son or an event ) and changi ng i t s f or m...
Recap: Theories of
Representation (Stuart
Hall)
Reflective approach
• Thi s appr oach suggest s t hat r epr esent at i ons ar e a
di r ect r ef l ect i on of r eal i t y.
Intentional Approach
• We bel i eve t eenager s ar e yobs because of t he way
newspaper s por t r ay t hem.
Constructionist Approach
• Thi s i s a mi xt ur e! I t accept s t hat r epr esent at i ons
const r uct meani ng, but t hat...
Constructionists believe:
• Repr esent at i on i s a mi xt ur e of :
• The per son or gr oup bei ng r epr esent ed
• The o...
A charity
advertisement that
represents children as
vulnerable (hand out)
• The person bei ng represent ed:
• The opi ni ons of t hose encodi ng t he represent at i on:
• The react i on of t he t ...
Question…
HOW DO YOU THINK
YOUTHS ARE
REPRESENTED IN THE
MEDIA?
Task: Constructionist
Approach
• Wat ch t he f ol l owi ng cl i p and wor k t hr ough t he f our
par t s of t he Const r u...
Stereotypes…
• The r epr esent at i on of young peopl e you
have j ust anal ysed cr eat es a st er eot ype
of young peopl ...
Stereotypes
• St er eot ypes ar e r epr esent at i ons,
usual l y of a gr oup of peopl e, wher e
a char act er i st i c se...
Representation of Youth
• On t he whol e, t he way t hat young
peopl e ar e r epr esent ed i n t he
medi a i s l ar gel y ...
Analysing stereotypes
• Appearance – physi cal appear ance (wei ght ,
hei ght , hai r col our et c.) cl ot hes, accent ,
p...
Skins
• Now your t ur n t o anal yse:
• Wat ch t he f ol l owi ng compi l at i on of cl i ps f r omSki ns.
Anal yse how yo...
Skins
• Ski ns st er eot ypes young peopl e as…
• Appear ance:
• Behavi our :
• How woul d di f f er ent audi ences r eact...
Print
Learning Objectives
• 1) Hand i n homewor k on audi ence essay quest i on
• 2) Anal yse t hr ee medi a t ext whi ch expl o...
Starter:
Rep of youth in the media
• Thi nk of t hr ee exampl es of t eenager s i n t he medi a –
f i l l out wor ksheet
Theorists
• Di ck Hebdi ge (1979) expl or ed t he pol ar i sed
(cont r adi ct or y) medi a r epr esent at i ons of
t eens ...
The Dominant
Representation of youths
‘Delinquent’
(Michael
Brake).
‘Trouble’
(Dick
Hebdige)
More Theory
• Daren Garrat t (1997) suggest s t hat
negat i ve medi a r epr esent at i ons of
t eens as t r oubl e i nvi t...
One more bit: Stuart Hall
(1978)
• Ar gues t hat t he negat i ve
r epr esent at i ons of young men by t he
medi a, i s del...
Moral panics!
Ideology
❖St anl ey Cohen (1972)
❖A mor al pani c occur s when
soci et y sees i t sel f t hr eat ened
by t h...
Process of a moral panic
1. Occur r ence of devi ant act .
2. Act or pr obl emwi del y r epor t ed i n
medi a: news out l ...
Case Studies
• I t i s i mpor t ant i n or der t o access t he hi gher
gr ades, t hat t he case st udi es you use i n t he...
Representations of Age
• What i s t he medi a (f or mand genr e).
• Who pr oduced t he r epr esent at i on?
• How has t he...
Context and Purpose
• The r epr esent at i on i n a medi a t ext may have
a di f f er ent pur pose. Thi s may change
accor...
Domi nant represent at i on
Representations
which are the same as
the dominant
representation
REINFORCE the
stereotype
Rep...
Deconstruct the film poster. How does it use visual and
technical codes to represent teenagers?
What would cultivation the...
Representation of Youth
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8GvLKTsTuI
How has the representations been constructed
(visual, ...
Attack The Block is a British hybrid film of science fiction, action comedy horror
generic conventions and codes
Deconstru...
How are
the youths
represented
through
Audio
Visual
Technical
Genre
Codes?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cD0gm
7dHKKc
3. What is the denotation and connotation of this
image from the film?
4. How might an audience from Eastbourne react to
t...
7. How is the
older guy
represented
(denotation
and
connotation
)?
8. What type
of lighting
is used?
What is the
effect?
Neknomination
Underage drinking
Alternative Representation =
(depending on your reading:
Skins seems ‘fun’ for a teen
audience, but more like
‘trouble’ fo...
‘
Some Girls
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMqjrXu3ynQ
Some Girls is a British sitcom written by Bernadette Davis that a...
In Real Life…
• ht t ps://www.yout ube.com/wat ch?v=l GKgj mKzXYM
Alternative
Representations?
How are they constructed?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QlOa80Y7nTw
Teen Awards
http://www.bbc.co.uk/events/eqbc6q/video
s/p01klbck#p01ktlxd
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfr
ee/2014/feb/16/hoodies-goodies-teenagers-
makings-good-citizens-young
From hoodies ...
Representation of Older
Age
• What i s t he medi a (f or mand genr e).
• Who pr oduced t he r epr esent at i on?
• How has...
7. Which TV genres often use
negative stereotypes in their
representations of older
people. Why?
How has Catherine Tate
represented ‘Nan’?
Is she stereotypical?
Why? Why not?
Look at her iconography.
What genre of
progr...
Genre: Sitcom
• Humor ous i di osyncr asi es (mode of
behavi our ):
oFor get f ul ness
oSeni l i t y
oGr umpi ness
oSayi n...
• Shr eddi es – ‘Kni t t ed by Nanas’ adver t 2014
• How i s t he r epr esent at i on const r uct ed?
• What t echni cal /...
Saga Magazine
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hd5W
dxGRNG8
Derek
The elderly in the News
• ht t p://www.t heguar di an.com/soci et y/2013/oct /18/ne
gl ect -deat hs-f i ve-el der l y-car ...
Needs to retire
Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth getting too old?
Who can replace Mr Saturday Night?
Representation: Amazing
Greys
ht t p://www.i t v.com/daybr eak/showbi z/amazi ng-gr eys
What do you t hi nk? Posi t i ve o...
Now your turn to analyse:
• Wat ch t hi s t r ai l er f or t he show ‘Young, Dumb and
Li vi ng of f Mum’. Anal yse how t h...
• Audio/visual: Take mul t i pl e scr een shot s of your chosen
t ext - annot at e usi ng t he
audi o/vi sual /genr e/t ec...
A final thought…
• Ther e i s no si ngl e 'medi a
r epr esent at i on' of yout h; t her e may
be domi nant r epr esent at ...
Representation of age 2014
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  • Cultivation leaves people with a misperception of what is true in our world
  • Transcript of "Representation of age 2014"

    1. 1. THE REPRESENTATION OF AGE YOUTH
    2. 2. Learning Objective: Key areas Tuesday 22nd Apr i l 2014 Pl ease Not e t he f i r st sect i on up t o sl i de 25 i s what we st udi es bef or e East er . Pi ck up f r omsl i de 26 and do as much as you can! Thanks.
    3. 3. Ideology • I deol ogy i s a syst emof i deas, val ues and bel i ef s pr omot ed by domi nant gr oups t o r ei nf or ce t hei r power (e.g gover nment s, st at e i nst i t ut i ons, cor por at i ons). IDEOLOGY
    4. 4. Karl Marx • Devel oped t he concept i n 1900s. • Anal ysed t he way t hose i n power pr ot ect ed t hei r i nt er est s by r epr esent i ng t hei r pr i vi l eged posi t i on as bei ng nat ur al . • Consi der how domi nant i deol ogi es ar e r ei nf or ced/chal l enged by medi a t ext s.
    5. 5. The media machine and Ideology LO: St udent s wi l l expl or e and def i ne r epr esent at i on During the process of mediation any media text can carry and convey ideological messages
    6. 6. Mediation Medi at i on i s t he pr ocess of t aki ng somet hi ng r eal (a per son or an event ) and changi ng i t s f or mt o pr oduce a medi a t ext . Medi at i on i s achi eved t hr ough: • Sel ect i on • Or gani sat i on • Focusi ng I n l i f e we make our own deci si ons about what i s wor t h our at t ent i on. Thr ough medi at i on, t he medi a t ext t r i es t o deci de t hi s f or us. As a r esul t our ver si on of r eal i t y i s al t er ed
    7. 7. Recap: Theories of Representation (Stuart Hall)
    8. 8. Reflective approach • Thi s appr oach suggest s t hat r epr esent at i ons ar e a di r ect r ef l ect i on of r eal i t y.
    9. 9. Intentional Approach • We bel i eve t eenager s ar e yobs because of t he way newspaper s por t r ay t hem.
    10. 10. Constructionist Approach • Thi s i s a mi xt ur e! I t accept s t hat r epr esent at i ons const r uct meani ng, but t hat t hi s meani ng i s under st ood t hr ough r ef er ence t o r eal i t y and t he audi ence’s own abi l i t y t o anal yse, accept and r ej ect .
    11. 11. Constructionists believe: • Repr esent at i on i s a mi xt ur e of : • The per son or gr oup bei ng r epr esent ed • The opi ni ons of t hose encodi ng (maki ng) t he r epr esent at i on – t hr ough use of symbol i c, vi sual , t echni cal and wr i t t en codes. • The r eact i on of t he t ar get audi ence (decoder s) • The cont ext of t he soci et y – how t he r epr esent at i on f i t s i n wi t h cer t ai n domi nant i deol ogi es
    12. 12. A charity advertisement that represents children as vulnerable (hand out)
    13. 13. • The person bei ng represent ed: • The opi ni ons of t hose encodi ng t he represent at i on: • The react i on of t he t arget audi ence: • The cont ext of our soci et y and domi nant i deol ogi es: • Al l of t hi s adds up t o why we woul d say t hat t he adver t i sement r epr esent s chi l dr en as vul ner abl e.
    14. 14. Question… HOW DO YOU THINK YOUTHS ARE REPRESENTED IN THE MEDIA?
    15. 15. Task: Constructionist Approach • Wat ch t he f ol l owi ng cl i p and wor k t hr ough t he f our par t s of t he Const r uct i oni st Appr oach t o say how young peopl e ar e r epr esent ed. • ht t ps://www.yout ube.com/wat ch?v=HX0HvD8JQI 8
    16. 16. Stereotypes… • The r epr esent at i on of young peopl e you have j ust anal ysed cr eat es a st er eot ype of young peopl e as vi ol ent and danger ous. But what do we mean when we use t he wor d ‘st er eot ype’?
    17. 17. Stereotypes • St er eot ypes ar e r epr esent at i ons, usual l y of a gr oup of peopl e, wher e a char act er i st i c seen i n a f ew peopl e i s appl i ed t o a whol e gr oup. Over t i me t hi s st er eot ype becomes t he domi nant r epr esent at i on.
    18. 18. Representation of Youth • On t he whol e, t he way t hat young peopl e ar e r epr esent ed i n t he medi a i s l ar gel y negat i ve. • Common st er eot ypes ar e yobbi sh and ant i soci al behavi our , gang cul t ur e, di sr espect f or el der s, dr i nk and dr ug abuse and t een pr egnanci es.
    19. 19. Analysing stereotypes • Appearance – physi cal appear ance (wei ght , hei ght , hai r col our et c.) cl ot hes, accent , pi t ch of voi ce • Behavi our – t hey t ypi cal t hi ngs t hat peopl e i n t he gr oup mi ght do • Medi a Codes and Convent i ons – i n t he medi a t he st er eot ype i s const r uct ed i n a way t hat i s appr opr i at e t o t he codes and convent i ons of speci f i c medi a f or m(cont ext and purpose) e.g. a si t comwi l l use a st er eot ype i n a di f f er ent way t o a news pr ogr amme • I deol ogy – st er eot ypes ar e cr eat ed wi t hi n t he cont ext of what i s seemas nor mal /abnor mal i n soci et y.
    20. 20. Skins • Now your t ur n t o anal yse: • Wat ch t he f ol l owi ng compi l at i on of cl i ps f r omSki ns. Anal yse how young peopl e ar e st er eot yped, by di scussi ng how t he st er eot ype i s const r uct ed: • ht t ps://www.yout ube.com/wat ch?v=Ho69_sCkwyI
    21. 21. Skins • Ski ns st er eot ypes young peopl e as… • Appear ance: • Behavi our : • How woul d di f f er ent audi ences r eact di f f er ent l y t o a t ext l i ke Ski ns?
    22. 22. Print
    23. 23. Learning Objectives • 1) Hand i n homewor k on audi ence essay quest i on • 2) Anal yse t hr ee medi a t ext whi ch expl or e r epr esent at i ons of yout h (domi nant and al t er nat i ve)
    24. 24. Starter: Rep of youth in the media • Thi nk of t hr ee exampl es of t eenager s i n t he medi a – f i l l out wor ksheet
    25. 25. Theorists • Di ck Hebdi ge (1979) expl or ed t he pol ar i sed (cont r adi ct or y) medi a r epr esent at i ons of t eens as “t roubl e” or “f un”. • Mi chael Br ake (1985) cat egor i ses t he medi a r epr esent at i ons of t eens i nt o: o Respect abl e o Del i nquent (usual l y mal e) o Cul t ur al r ebel s o Pol i t i cal l y mi l i t ant
    26. 26. The Dominant Representation of youths ‘Delinquent’ (Michael Brake). ‘Trouble’ (Dick Hebdige)
    27. 27. More Theory • Daren Garrat t (1997) suggest s t hat negat i ve medi a r epr esent at i ons of t eens as t r oubl e i nvi t e t eens t o be trouble. “Media coverage represents how they should behave, even if, largely, they haven’t been.” • Graeme Burt on (1999) ar gues t hat t een subcul t ur e i s i n opposi t i on t o t he domi nant cul t ur e (of adul t s). He uses t he t er m‘pr obl emat i sat i on’ t o descr i be t he i dea of yout hs as pr obl ems.
    28. 28. One more bit: Stuart Hall (1978) • Ar gues t hat t he negat i ve r epr esent at i ons of young men by t he medi a, i s del i ber at e as i t j ust i f i es soci al cont r ol by aut hor i t y f i gur es, such as t he pol i ce and gover nment . • Hal l i dent i f i es t he medi a as havi ng a key r ol e i n t hi s ‘soci al pr oduct i on’ of news. Yout hs ar e of t en por t r ayed by new medi a as a soci al pr obl em.
    29. 29. Moral panics! Ideology ❖St anl ey Cohen (1972) ❖A mor al pani c occur s when soci et y sees i t sel f t hr eat ened by t he val ues and act i vi t i es of a gr oup who ar e st i gmat i sed as devi ant and seen as t hr eat eni ng t o mai nst r eamsoci et y’s val ues, i deol ogi es and /or way of l i f e. ❖Mods & Rocker s (1960s), f oot bal l hool i gans, hoodi es, mugger s, vandal s, mobi l e-phone snat cher s. ❖Today - Musl i ms, I mmi gr ant s,
    30. 30. Process of a moral panic 1. Occur r ence of devi ant act . 2. Act or pr obl emwi del y r epor t ed i n medi a: news out l et s; i nt er net chat r ooms; f i ct i onal nar r at i ves; vi deo games… 3. Cal l f or gover nment cont r ol ei t her f r oml egi sl at i on/pol i cy i ni t i at i ves or t he mor e vi gi l ant oper at i on of al r eady exi st i ng soci al cont r ol s.
    31. 31. Case Studies • I t i s i mpor t ant i n or der t o access t he hi gher gr ades, t hat t he case st udi es you use i n t he exami nat i on ar e f ul l y devel oped t o show your under st andi ng of r epr esent at i on. • Pr i nt – t hi s wi l l i ncl ude; t he l ayout and desi gn, l anguage and mode of addr ess, vi sual codes, camer a shot s/angl es • I n AV - t he cr eat i on of r epr esent at i on i nvol ved: • Camer a shot s and angl es • Edi t i ng • Audi o codes • Vi sual codes
    32. 32. Representations of Age • What i s t he medi a (f or mand genr e). • Who pr oduced t he r epr esent at i on? • How has t he r epr esent at i on been const r uct ed (vi sual and audi o codes)? • What r easons ar e t her e f or t he r epr esent at i on? • How mi ght t he r epr esent at i on af f ect audi ence?
    33. 33. Context and Purpose • The r epr esent at i on i n a medi a t ext may have a di f f er ent pur pose. Thi s may change accor di ng t o t he t ype of t ext i t i s, i .e. t he cont ext . • Ski ns – uses comedy t o r epr esent yout h • Ki dul t hood (f i l m)- i s t r yi ng t o pr esent ‘r eal i t y’
    34. 34. Domi nant represent at i on Representations which are the same as the dominant representation REINFORCE the stereotype Representations which are different from the dominant representation CHALLENGE the stereotype
    35. 35. Deconstruct the film poster. How does it use visual and technical codes to represent teenagers? What would cultivation theorists suggest about the effect of this film on an audience? What would an oppositional reading of this text be?
    36. 36. Representation of Youth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8GvLKTsTuI How has the representations been constructed (visual, technical and audio codes)? Context (Time, place or mindset in which we consume media products) and purpose of the video? Are there any noticeable absences from the text? What has been left out? Who produced the representation? How might the representation affect the audience? Think about oppositional readings of the text Does it create a positive/negative/stereotypical representation of young people? Youth – dominant representation (negative) = delinquent or trouble??
    37. 37. Attack The Block is a British hybrid film of science fiction, action comedy horror generic conventions and codes Deconstruct the poster. How are youths represented through visual and technical codes?
    38. 38. How are the youths represented through Audio Visual Technical Genre Codes? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cD0gm 7dHKKc
    39. 39. 3. What is the denotation and connotation of this image from the film? 4. How might an audience from Eastbourne react to this image? How might an audience from South London react? How might a pensioner react? What about a young man?
    40. 40. 7. How is the older guy represented (denotation and connotation )? 8. What type of lighting is used? What is the effect?
    41. 41. Neknomination Underage drinking
    42. 42. Alternative Representation = (depending on your reading: Skins seems ‘fun’ for a teen audience, but more like ‘trouble’ for an older audience).
    43. 43. ‘ Some Girls https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMqjrXu3ynQ Some Girls is a British sitcom written by Bernadette Davis that airs on BBC Three. It débuted on 6 November 2012 and the first series ran for six episodes.
    44. 44. In Real Life… • ht t ps://www.yout ube.com/wat ch?v=l GKgj mKzXYM
    45. 45. Alternative Representations? How are they constructed? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QlOa80Y7nTw
    46. 46. Teen Awards http://www.bbc.co.uk/events/eqbc6q/video s/p01klbck#p01ktlxd
    47. 47. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfr ee/2014/feb/16/hoodies-goodies-teenagers- makings-good-citizens-young From hoodies to goodies: today's teenagers have the makings of model citizens
    48. 48. Representation of Older Age • What i s t he medi a (f or mand genr e). • Who pr oduced t he r epr esent at i on? • How has t he r epr esent at i on been const r uct ed (vi sual , t echni cal and audi o codes)? • What r easons ar e t her e f or t he r epr esent at i on? • How mi ght t he r epr esent at i on af f ect audi ence?
    49. 49. 7. Which TV genres often use negative stereotypes in their representations of older people. Why?
    50. 50. How has Catherine Tate represented ‘Nan’? Is she stereotypical? Why? Why not? Look at her iconography. What genre of programme does she exist in? How does this affect her representation? http://www.tubechop.com/watch/24 48627 Representation of the Old
    51. 51. Genre: Sitcom • Humor ous i di osyncr asi es (mode of behavi our ): oFor get f ul ness oSeni l i t y oGr umpi ness oSayi ng t he wr ong t hi ng • Does t hi s r ei nf or ce t he st er eot ype?
    52. 52. • Shr eddi es – ‘Kni t t ed by Nanas’ adver t 2014 • How i s t he r epr esent at i on const r uct ed? • What t echni cal /audi o/vi sual codes cr eat e t hi s r epr esent at i on? • Nana Shr eddi es
    53. 53. Saga Magazine
    54. 54. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hd5W dxGRNG8 Derek
    55. 55. The elderly in the News • ht t p://www.t heguar di an.com/soci et y/2013/oct /18/ne gl ect -deat hs-f i ve-el der l y-car e-home-or chi d-vi ew
    56. 56. Needs to retire Bruce Forsyth Bruce Forsyth getting too old? Who can replace Mr Saturday Night?
    57. 57. Representation: Amazing Greys ht t p://www.i t v.com/daybr eak/showbi z/amazi ng-gr eys What do you t hi nk? Posi t i ve or negat i ve??? How ar e t he r epr esent at i ons of bot h young and ol d const r uct ed and why has t hi s been done?
    58. 58. Now your turn to analyse: • Wat ch t hi s t r ai l er f or t he show ‘Young, Dumb and Li vi ng of f Mum’. Anal yse how t he r epr esent at i on of young peopl e have been medi at ed by each st age of t he pr ocess • ht t ps://www.yout ube.com/wat ch?v=xyeFabd_oqY
    59. 59. • Audio/visual: Take mul t i pl e scr een shot s of your chosen t ext - annot at e usi ng t he audi o/vi sual /genr e/t echni cal /nar r at i ve codes. • How and why has t hi s r epr esent at i on been const r uct ed? • Print: Annot at e your chosen t ext (ei t her pr i nt i t and annot at e by hand or annot at e t he i mage on pages). How and why has t hi s r epr esent at i on been const r uct ed? • E-Media: Dependant on t he t ype of e-medi a you have chosen - deconst r uct your t ext . How and why has t hi s r epr esent at i on been const r uct ed? USE MEDIA TERMINOLOGY AND THEORY ANALYSIS OF REPRESENTATIONS
    60. 60. A final thought… • Ther e i s no si ngl e 'medi a r epr esent at i on' of yout h; t her e may be domi nant r epr esent at i ons (del i nquent /t r oubl e), but acr oss f i l ms, TV, f i ct i on and document ar y t her e ar e si gni f i cant di f f er ences and nuances whi ch need t o be t eased out .
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