MS1 Representation of Men 2013
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MS1 Representation of Men 2013

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MS1 Representation of Men 2013 MS1 Representation of Men 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Case Studies: Homework… • The Hunger Games • Beyonce – Who run the world • Magazines, FHM and Cosmopolitan
  • Recap • What is femininity? • What is patriarchy? • What theory did Laura Mulvey write about?
  • Femininity • femininity is culturally determined and matter of choice – it refers to the pattern of behaviour and qualities of behaviour that we normally associate with being female.
  • Patriarchy • A system where men have power and control society.
  • The Male Gaze • Laura Mulvey (1991) argues that in film women are objects to be gazed on as the camera acts as the masculine eye from a male viewpoint – looking at women in a way that reflects masculine desires
  • 1960s: Feminist movement Traditional Representations: 1950s housewife stereotype Femininity Post Feminism: Lady Gaga, Action Heroine and Convergence Continuation of Sexual Objectification/Beauty Myth
  • Representations of Men
  • Objectives • To explore masculinity and how it is represented in the media • To understand the stereotypical representations of men in the media • To understand how representations change over time. • To explore the representation of men in film/TV and advertising – case studies
  • Definitions • Sex – biological grouping – what makes us male and female • Gender –this is effected and created by social and cultural influences (what is means to be a man and or a woman) • Not fixed - This changes over time – think back to representations of women (traditional to modern)
  • Introduction to Representation • Media is a powerful means by which messages are transmitted to the public. How masculinity or ‘maleness’ is shown in those texts can have the power to help define what masculinity is. • These stereotypes are found in fictional and non fictional formats: film, TV, games, magazines, adverts, music, newspapers.
  • Male Stereotypes • Masculinity is often represented in media texts through using stereotypes or set characters (archetypes): encoded via a range of semiotic codes – dress, speech, performance, etc.
  • Introduction to Representation • Stereotypically men in the media are represented differently from women but their representation, like that of women, has changed in order to address changes in society.
  • Masculinity • Task: What do you think it means to be masculine? • Can you think of examples from the media who represent what masculinity is?
  • Traditional Representations of Masculinity – 1970s/80s • The Sweeney, Starsky and Hutch, Magnum (PI) The Sweeney 2012 The Sweeney 1976 Starsky and Hutch (2004)
  • • Task: In groups define the traditional traits/characteristics of masculinity shown in early representations of men.
  • Masculinity as defined in the 1970s/80s: • • • • • • • Rugged features Moustaches and stubble Long hair Demin Open shirt and medallions Being rough and ready Action, violence and general ‘toughness’
  • Masculinity • As you have probably noticed. Those images (70s/80s) are now somewhat dated! • Contrast with modern images of masculinity
  • Contemporary Representations of Masculinity: Modern characters are seen as in being touch with their feminine side, showing emotions, shopping and taking care of their appearance.
  • The Metrosexual and the New Man • In the mid 1990’s – development of representations of masculinity shift • The young, single man with a disposable income, living in the city • The Meterosexual man is not gay but often confused with being homosexual • He is objectified and sexualised (turned into a sex object) which goes against traditional representations of masculinity.
  • Metrosexual: TOWIE • Task: How are men being represented? Do these clips challenge or reinforce male stereotypes? What are their attitudes, values and beliefs of the world (ideology) • Joey Essex • Joey Essex 2 • Mario and Mark
  • Values and beliefs (ideologies)? • Party • Conscious of image/look after body/muscles • Hang out with mates • Get girls • Wealth
  • • Demonstrates that representations of masculinity has a tendency to change over time • This leaves us with a rather mixed bag of the features of masculinity in the media!
  • The Female Gaze • The female gaze • Females are now being placed in a position of the subject, and males are more frequently being placed in the inferior position of the object. Women are more often taking on a position of power when placed in advertisements with men.
  • Analysing Representations: • The main consideration when you are analysing the representations of men and masculinity, will be regarding the issues of fairness and accuracy and what the representation is actually saying to the audience
  • Female Gaze: Representation in adverts • Old Spice Advert • Aero Advert
  • Representation of Men in reality TV • Geordie Shore, Made in Chelsea and the Only Way is Essex. • Geordie Shore, The Only Way is Essex and Made in Chelsea represent our generation's "time capsule" for the future. That's how the people of 2042 will think we look, spoke and behaved. Which is a shame because they're not supposed to be representative. They're supposed to be different from "normal people". They're walking caricatured receptacles for spite. Their job is to make absolutely everyone who tunes in hate them. Instantly hate them. Hate them so much they can't take their eyes off them. Charlie Brooker, The Guardian, 1st July 2012
  • Lesson 2: Learning Aims • To explore masculinity and how it is represented in the media • To understand the stereotypical representations of men in the media • To understand how representations change over time. • To explore the representation of men in film/TV and advertising – case studies
  • • Masculinity has a tendency to change over time • This leaves us with a rather mixed bag of the features of masculinity in the media!
  • Case Study: 1 • Alternative Representation of men the Metrosexual man (heterosexual men with feminine characteristics) • Gavin and Joey Essex Makeover • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qqdcd6 Af6EY
  • Gavin and Joey Essex Makeover • How has the subject been represented? Is this a traditional representation of masculinity? What camera shots are used? Consider use of language, mise en scene, use of non diegetic sound • Why has the subject been represented in this way? Who is the target audience? What about the narrative structure? Is it entertainment?
  • Changes over time… • Although it is clear that representations of masculinity have changed over time, the dominant representation of masculinity still focuses on: • Body image • Physical strength • Sexual attractiveness and relationships with women • Power and independence
  • Alternative Representation of Men – Lifestyle Magazines • One media area that has developed dramatically is men’s lifestyle magazines. • Aspirational – role models • Concentrating on representing body image – the perfect body! • Images manipulated • Magazines refer to ‘sex’ rather than relationships
  • Case Study 2: Representation of Men in magazines
  • Men’s Health • Image – medium/long shot • Celebrity endorsement • Direct mode of address – connotes seductive like approach to a female audience. • Text reflects conventional language of women’s magazine – ’bigger arms now’, ‘drop 5% body fat in 31 days’, reflecting interest in body image/appearance • Sex rather than relationship - If you understand her needs you will get what you want • Target audience – 25-40 • Colour code – grey/black, although sometimes in colour • Female gaze? – David Gauntlett argues that men are presented as beautiful and positioned in such magazines.
  • Kerrang • Image – medium long shot • Niche music magazine with celebrity endorsement on front cover • Direct mode of address- group shot • Masthead is not all visible – covered by image. Representing the strength of identification with the brand • Images and captions clearly relate to genre of magazine. Not specifically related to sex/dating/relationships • Bold typography – fits with genre of magazine • Target audience - Attracting a young male audience (1825), aspiring musicians, interested in gigs/concerts • Not about physical appearance,
  • Representation of men in Action Films: 1980s • Die Hard • Rambo 1982 • Terminator 1984 • When Action movies became big business in Hollywood • Summer blockbusters
  • Representation and Violence: Hypermasculinity • Some writers have talked about a Crisis of Masculinity – as women are adopting roles and qualities once occupied by men, men are said to be confused about what they should be like now.
  • Hypermasculinity • An extreme macho identity aimed at making men distinct from women, e.g. The Lad Tough Guise
  • Representations and Violence • Area which has been researched – males and violence in the media. • Earp and Katz (1999) argue that media is responsible for a ‘steady stream of images which define manhood as connected with dominance, violence and control’. • The media appears to show that this it is ‘normal and accepted’ part of masculinity.
  • Representation of Men in Action Films: Present Day… Captain America Trailer A challenge to the stereotype, Juno Trailer
  • Men in Action Films • Men are often constructed to appear as if they were caught in the midst of action (e.g. action posters often feature a man holding a gun, looking intently at something, as if he was honing in on a target).
  • Case study 3: Dominant Representation of men in Action Film • Skyfall trailer analysis • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kw1UV ovByw • How has the subject been represented? • Why has the subject been represented in this way?
  • How are men represented in SkyFall? Through Bond, hegemonic masculinity (the dominant position of men and the subordination of women) is reinforced throughout the film. In contrast to the representation of women, the male characters, were made to be heroes and masterminds. Gamman & Marshment (1988) argued that men can also be positioned as sexualised objects for the pleasure of the female gaze.
  • • Research conducted in 1999 –by pressure group Children Now, found that there were 7 common stereotypical representations of men in the media.
  • The ‘Strong, Silent’ type • • • • • Decisive In control Independent Unemotional Reliable
  • The ‘Joker’ • • • • • Funny Immature Emotionally retarded Assexual Flippant
  • The ‘Big Shot Businessman’ • • • • • Professional Successful Rich Powerful Arrogant
  • The ‘Lovable Buffoon’ • • • • • • Well Meaning Unintelligent Clumsy Irresponsible Socially Inept Childish
  • The ‘Action Hero’ • • • • • Aggressive Violent Independent Sexual Strong
  • The ‘Outdoors’ Man • • • • • • At one with nature Instinctive Knowledgeable Practical Strong Fearless
  • The ‘Geek or Nerd’ • • • • • • • • Quiet Thoughtful Shy Technically capable Poor social skills Introverted Loner Intellectual
  • Common Representations of Masculinity? • Men are ‘active agents’ (women passive -male gaze). Men ‘do’ things. (the hero’s journey’). • Men can be physical, rational and problemsolving archetypes. • Men can be unemotional or averse to empathy. • Men cannot show weakness or emotion.
  • Conclusions? • Men are overwhelmingly represented positively or sympathetically • Where men are represented negatively they are usually given traits that are often stereotypically ‘feminine’. e.g. physically weak, emotional, untrustworthy, etc. • Men/boys are therefore encouraged to think that certain attributes are inherently male:strength, power, control, rationality, authority , lack of emotion, etc
  • Stretch and Challenge • Pick 3 case studies, can be print magazine cover, TV programme, Film, Reality TV, Music Video • Analyse the representation of men: • For each text answer the following questions:• 1. How are men represented? • 2. Is it a positive, negative or complex representation? • 3. Why do you think are men being represented this way? • 4. Are stereotypes being used? How?