Camera Movements
Definitions & Meaning
• PAN - DEFINITION:
The horizontal movement of a camera from
left to right or vice versa, where the camera
base is static
...
• Thelma and Louise

Pan Example:
• TILT - DEFINITION:
A camera movement in which the base
remains stationary, but the head of the
camera moves up and down
...
Tilt Example
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3wezW4M3M
• TRACKING SHOT DEFINITION:
A camera movement where
the camera follows the action,
traditionally this is done with
a track...
• STEADICAM - DEFINITION:
Has the freedom of a handheld shot but its
stabilisation device smoothens out the bumpiness
of t...
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQv8Oavp
ALQ

Goodfellas – Tracking Shot Example
• CRANE - DEFINITION:
The camera is placed on an arm and allows it
to be lifted into the air, often for high-angle
shots
•...
• Boogie Nights opening sequence
• http://player.vimeo.com/video/56335284

Steadicam, Tracking and Crane
example
• HANDHELD - DEFINITION:
The camera is literally handheld by the
camera operator. Often bumpy/jerky

• DRAMATIC MEANING:
O...
Handheld Example: Cloverfield
• ZOOM - DEFINITION:
Zooming means altering the focal length of
the lens to give the illusion of moving closer
to or furth...
Zoom Out Example
Editing:
Putting shots together & Shot
Transitions
What are we looking for when
analysing editing in a clip?
Task 1:
• Write down as many elements that you can
think of that...
Introduction to Editing
• The way in which shots are put together
to create a particular effect. Editing can be
described ...
Citizen Kane
• Count the cuts (changes) in this clip. Note the
pace and rhythm.
Citizen Kane
• Did it feel real?
• Was is ...
Citizen Kane
• Use of unusual angles, dramatic lighting,
unusual transitions, tracking shots, deep-focus
shots.
Mildred Pierce
• http://thelastdrivein.com/category/1940s/mil
dred-pierce-1945/
What sort of feel does the scene
have?
Are...
What about this opening scene from
The Player…?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0epB5Z6ij
pk

How did the scene make you
...
Long Take
• A long take is an uninterrupted shot in a film
which lasts much longer than the conventional
editing pace eith...
1. Continuity Editing
• The majority of film/TV sequences are edited
so that time seems to flow, uninterrupted,
from shot ...
Continuity Editing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Match on action
Cut
Long take
Dissolves and fades
Cross cutting
Eyeline match
Shot-rever...
Transition
• Cut – the straight cut is the most basic and
common edit. It represents a change of place
or position in the ...
Transition
• Crosscutting (parallel editing)
• Multiple lines of action, occurring in different
places. In most but not al...
Crosscutting
• The earliest use of crosscutting was in The
Great Train Robbery
• Great Train Robbery Clip
Cross Cutting Example – James Bond
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD0h7Wc
gJ5w
Transition
• Dissolve – Shot transition where one image
dissolves into another.
• What does this suggest?
• Dissolves clip
Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following
shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed....
Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following
shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed....
Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot,
resulting in the two shots being superimposed....
Transition
• Fade In/Out– A Fade Out is the gradual
darkening of the shot until the image
disappears, leaving a black scre...
Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following
shot emerges.
Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following
shot emerges.
Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following
shot emerges.
Transition
• Match cut – matching of action or movement
from shot to shot... Hitchcock Match Cut
• Can be used dynamically...
Transition
• Wipe – a transition where one image pushes
another image across the screen.
• What might this indicate?
Star ...
Transition
• Eye line match – term to describe importance
of maintaining eye line continuity across shots
Star Wars - Eye ...
2. Discontinuity
Editing – Editing that
draws attention to
itself!
•
•
•
•

Jump cut
Repetition of shots
or events
Freeze ...
Transition
• Jump Cut – a discontinuous edit that appears
to jump forward/backward often erratically.

Erin Brockovich Jum...
Discontinuity Editing
• Breathless (1960) – Presents a jarring effect
Clip
• Also been used by film makers – Scorsese and
...
Music Videos
• Music videos can often be discontinuous.
Time unfolds unpredictably and without clear
reference points.
• D...
3. Montage Editing
• ‘Visible editing’. Shots connected to create a
greater symbolic meaning or condense action.
• This is...
Montage
• Team America Song
• Hot Fuzz - Montage
Decode the clips and explain how they
make meaning?
Consider pace and rhythm of editing – not just type of editing used

h...
We have now looked at camera shots,
movement and editing. This activity is designed
to get you thinking about how all thre...
Task – watch this extract
• Concentrate on the movement of the camera,
the shots and the editing rather than on what
is ac...
Stretch and Challenge: Editing Clip
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZyOmeXf
P04&list=PL12836B21C8C97627
Stretch and Challenge: Analyse a Music
Video
• In groups analyse and deconstruct a music
video of your choice and ensure t...
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MS1 Editing 2013

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  • 126 – Boogie Nights opening shot
  • Editing will change according to the genre
  • Point of view shot, from Raymond, the butler, as he sees Kane standing at end of long corridor Acting Editing, rampage scene cut in five shots Movement of character Symbolic action, Kane picks up the glass ball Symbolic dialogue, Kane says "Rosebud" Rhythm of movement: compare movement of Kane in rampage to his slow walk down the corridor past the staff Visual metaphor: Kane's reflections in the mirrors
  • The camera shots and movement generally conform to Film Noir's conventions, giving it a familiar feel. Tracking shots, pans and zooms are used to great effect. Unlike modern action/thrillers, editing is quite minimal, meaning shots last for longer and camera movement use needs to be maximised. A slower pace is the result but because of the wide range of camera movement, the audience-engagement is not lost with an added element of mystery, drama and a reflection of characters' emotions.
  • We first need to consider what the purpose of editing is. It is about putting differing shots together to create a seamless flow of images in TV and film. It is crucial to creating what is know as Continuity editing or invisible editing. It helped to maintain the suspension of disbelielf’ we are drawn in to the story and ‘buy into the story’. It also allows different shots scales – which we looked at last week. As well as length of shots, which are known as takes in the industry.
  • Passing of time or to suggest a character may be dreaming, thinking about something
  • They usually signal the beginning and end of a scene, change in location.
  • Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey – one of the most famous match cuts. Thousands of years pass in a single moment
  • Breathless (
  • Erin Brockovich – 10 and 14 secs
  • Montage – time compressed!
  • Dr Who– continuity, Rocky – Montage, The Lord of the Rings – discontinuity editing
  • The Cutting Edge – 15 mins clip
  • Turin Suite task if necessary
  • MS1 Editing 2013

    1. 1. Camera Movements Definitions & Meaning
    2. 2. • PAN - DEFINITION: The horizontal movement of a camera from left to right or vice versa, where the camera base is static • DRAMATIC MEANING: New information is revealed. It could be about the parameters of a location, an important clue, or a hidden character Pan
    3. 3. • Thelma and Louise Pan Example:
    4. 4. • TILT - DEFINITION: A camera movement in which the base remains stationary, but the head of the camera moves up and down • DRAMATIC MEANING: Used as a reveal to- sizing up a building or another character Tilt
    5. 5. Tilt Example • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3wezW4M3M
    6. 6. • TRACKING SHOT DEFINITION: A camera movement where the camera follows the action, traditionally this is done with a track/dolly and more recently a steadicam • DRAMATIC MEANING: Tracking Involves audience in the action Shot
    7. 7. • STEADICAM - DEFINITION: Has the freedom of a handheld shot but its stabilisation device smoothens out the bumpiness of the handheld shot • DRAMATIC MEANING: Can be used for point-of-view shots, tracking shots Used to draw audience into the Action
    8. 8. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQv8Oavp ALQ Goodfellas – Tracking Shot Example
    9. 9. • CRANE - DEFINITION: The camera is placed on an arm and allows it to be lifted into the air, often for high-angle shots • DRAMATIC MEANING: Can be used to reveal secrets and pertinent events Crane
    10. 10. • Boogie Nights opening sequence • http://player.vimeo.com/video/56335284 Steadicam, Tracking and Crane example
    11. 11. • HANDHELD - DEFINITION: The camera is literally handheld by the camera operator. Often bumpy/jerky • DRAMATIC MEANING: Often used to suggest instability or action Handheld
    12. 12. Handheld Example: Cloverfield
    13. 13. • ZOOM - DEFINITION: Zooming means altering the focal length of the lens to give the illusion of moving closer to or further away from the action. • DRAMATIC MEANING: When done very quickly it can displace the audience, but it can also be used to concentrate the viewers’ gaze on something specific Zoom
    14. 14. Zoom Out Example
    15. 15. Editing: Putting shots together & Shot Transitions
    16. 16. What are we looking for when analysing editing in a clip? Task 1: • Write down as many elements that you can think of that may come under editing (2 mins.)
    17. 17. Introduction to Editing • The way in which shots are put together to create a particular effect. Editing can be described in terms of pace and the transitions that are employed. • There are three main types of editing which you will encounter in mainstream films and TV programmes: 1. Continuity, 2. Discontinuity and 3. Montage Editing.
    18. 18. Citizen Kane • Count the cuts (changes) in this clip. Note the pace and rhythm. Citizen Kane • Did it feel real? • Was is condensed or shortened? • Was it smooth or jarring?
    19. 19. Citizen Kane • Use of unusual angles, dramatic lighting, unusual transitions, tracking shots, deep-focus shots.
    20. 20. Mildred Pierce • http://thelastdrivein.com/category/1940s/mil dred-pierce-1945/ What sort of feel does the scene have? Are there many changes in shots and angles? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =8WQkvyVdf28
    21. 21. What about this opening scene from The Player…? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0epB5Z6ij pk How did the scene make you feel?
    22. 22. Long Take • A long take is an uninterrupted shot in a film which lasts much longer than the conventional editing pace either of the film itself or of films in general, usually lasting several minutes. • Used for dramatic and narrative effect if done properly, this is often accomplished through the use of a dolly or Steadicam.
    23. 23. 1. Continuity Editing • The majority of film/TV sequences are edited so that time seems to flow, uninterrupted, from shot to shot. It helps to create realism • It also allows different shots scales, as well as length of shots, which are known as takes in the industry. These are blended to effect audience emotional response.
    24. 24. Continuity Editing • • • • • • • Match on action Cut Long take Dissolves and fades Cross cutting Eyeline match Shot-reverse-shot
    25. 25. Transition • Cut – the straight cut is the most basic and common edit. It represents a change of place or position in the same time frame • basic cut
    26. 26. Transition • Crosscutting (parallel editing) • Multiple lines of action, occurring in different places. In most but not all cases of this technique, these lines of action are occurring at the same time. • Used to add suspense and pace
    27. 27. Crosscutting • The earliest use of crosscutting was in The Great Train Robbery • Great Train Robbery Clip
    28. 28. Cross Cutting Example – James Bond • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD0h7Wc gJ5w
    29. 29. Transition • Dissolve – Shot transition where one image dissolves into another. • What does this suggest? • Dissolves clip
    30. 30. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
    31. 31. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
    32. 32. Dissolve or cross fade – the preceding shot merges into the following shot, resulting in the two shots being superimposed. The longer the dissolve the more noticeable the superimposition becomes.
    33. 33. Transition • Fade In/Out– A Fade Out is the gradual darkening of the shot until the image disappears, leaving a black screen. A Fade In is where a dark screen gradually gets brighter. • What might this indicate?
    34. 34. Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
    35. 35. Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
    36. 36. Fade – the preceding shot fades into black from which the following shot emerges.
    37. 37. Transition • Match cut – matching of action or movement from shot to shot... Hitchcock Match Cut • Can be used dynamically to shift story across time • 2001 - A Space Odysessy
    38. 38. Transition • Wipe – a transition where one image pushes another image across the screen. • What might this indicate? Star Wars revenge of the wipe!
    39. 39. Transition • Eye line match – term to describe importance of maintaining eye line continuity across shots Star Wars - Eye line match
    40. 40. 2. Discontinuity Editing – Editing that draws attention to itself! • • • • Jump cut Repetition of shots or events Freeze frame Any violation of continuity rules
    41. 41. Transition • Jump Cut – a discontinuous edit that appears to jump forward/backward often erratically. Erin Brockovich Jump Cut
    42. 42. Discontinuity Editing • Breathless (1960) – Presents a jarring effect Clip • Also been used by film makers – Scorsese and Tarantino. Making use of freeze frame and jump cut. • Six Feet Under – Meaning is created through juxtaposition and metaphor
    43. 43. Music Videos • Music videos can often be discontinuous. Time unfolds unpredictably and without clear reference points. • Daniel Powter - Bad Day • Lady Gaga -Applause • How many jump cuts?
    44. 44. 3. Montage Editing • ‘Visible editing’. Shots connected to create a greater symbolic meaning or condense action. • This is often used in title sequences. The most famous example of this technique is the Odessa Steps sequence from Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin. Potemkin
    45. 45. Montage • Team America Song • Hot Fuzz - Montage
    46. 46. Decode the clips and explain how they make meaning? Consider pace and rhythm of editing – not just type of editing used http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjO_GAN1BCc Dr Who http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aeGBbm62M2I The Lord of the Rings – Two Towers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DP3MFBzMH2o Rocky
    47. 47. We have now looked at camera shots, movement and editing. This activity is designed to get you thinking about how all three of these combine to create meaning.
    48. 48. Task – watch this extract • Concentrate on the movement of the camera, the shots and the editing rather than on what is actually happening in the scene. • Quantum of Solace 1) What effect does the editing, movement of the camera and the shots have on the scene? 2) Why were they used? 3) How do the editing, camera movements and shots enhance the enjoyment the audience feels when watching the scene?
    49. 49. Stretch and Challenge: Editing Clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZyOmeXf P04&list=PL12836B21C8C97627
    50. 50. Stretch and Challenge: Analyse a Music Video • In groups analyse and deconstruct a music video of your choice and ensure that you include what you have learnt over the last two weeks. Think about the style of editing and camera shots used. • Present your findings next week on Powerpoint
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