World History: Video Summaries By: Alexis Apgar
Journey of Man In the case of the male line, defined by a piece of DNA known as the Y-chromosome, this analysis allows us to trace back to a common male ancestor for everyone alive today. In other words, Adam. By analyzing DNA from people in all regions of the world, geneticist Spencer Wells has concluded that all humans alive today are descended from a single man who lived in Africa around 60,000 years ago.
Journey of Man Blood can help us understand our history discovered in the 1950’s Humans originated in Africa then people left Africa because of the Ice Age One group went from India to southeast Asia then Australia the other took a northern route ending up in Eurasia, North Africa and the Americas.
Catastrophe Mark Bailey uses tree rings to determine climactic changes during a year. Tree rings close together means a harsh year. Sixth century AD the tree rings go haywire show the worst weather in the millennium. A volcano, a comet, or an asteroid could of caused this catastrophe. An asteroid would have to be 4 kilometers and a comet would have to be 6 kilometers To make the world go dark for as long as the tree rings suggest. Once the comet or asteroid hits the Earth’s atmosphere it would take eight seconds to hit sea level. But there isn’t any evidence of an impact that big and according to David Keyes who looked into writings during that time found no support in that theory.
Catastrophe If the cause of the catastrophe was a volcano the polar ice caps would show contamination Such as sulfuric acid. In order for this to be the reason there has to be evidence in both hemispheres. The sixth century catastrophe would have to be a volcano near the equator. Scientists investigated both polar ice caps and confirmed that both that Antarctica and Greenland have sulfur deposits that support this theory. David Keyes feels that we should be looking at the volcanoes next to China.
Little Ice Age From the 14th to the 19th century the Little Ice Age happens. The Little Ice Age was a series of very volatile climactic shifts. Scientists believe that five massive volcanic eruptions happened in each century during the Little Ice Age. Sulfur from a volcanic eruption if strong enough reaches the atmosphere and then turns into sulfuric acid particles that reflect the sun’s rays reducing the amount of radiation reaching Earth’s surface.
Little Ice Age The drenching rains caused the crops to be ruined from soil erosion for five years the rains persisted thousands of people died due to famine. In 1347 the Bubonic plague began in Europe brought on by trading ships returning from Asia. The Stradivarius violin is said to be a product of the Little Ice Age by using tree wood from the coldest period of the Little Ice Age in the high altitude of the Italian Alps. The Little Ice Age caused famine in France and people marched to Paris demanding bread which led to the French Revolution. War victory and defeat depended heavily on the weather during the Little Ice Age. Napoleon's French invasion on Russia ended with a retreat and lost more then three quarters of his troops in the freezing cold on the way home. In 1588 the Spanish Armada took a bold chance to attack England in the English Channel after defeated by the English the Spanish fleet was destroyed by the harsh storm. In 1776 the weather played a part in the American Revolutionary War George Washington wasted to sail across the Delaware River to surprise the British troops in Trento it took nine hours. The surprise worked and is the reason that America won the war.
Phillip II of Macedonia conquered Greece and united it but was killed
before he could attack the Persians.
Phillip’s son Alexander the Great at the age of twenty led the
expedition against Persia.
Alexander’s conquered much of Asia and Egypt only to die before
returning to Greece.
Alexander’s conquests were most important in terms of world history
for the spread of the Hellenistic era.
One of Alexander’s conquests was the city Alexandria in Egypt that
became the city of the world creating a lighthouse and the great Alexandria museum and library.
For the first time knowledge was gathered.
Engineering an Empire:Egypt 3000-2930 B.C. The first dam was built to avoid the annual flood from the Nile River. The Dam was built to protect the city of Memphis by order of the first King of Egypt Menes. The Egyptians used the Nile and dug canals for travel They built tombs believing that they would live there in the after life 80 pyramids still stand today. Djoser was the first ruler to be seen as god and his tomb was the first pyramid before him tombs were just mounds. After Djoser was Snefru he married his half sister who’s blood was more royal. Snefru was obsessed with making the perfect pyramid and he finally did on his third attempt this pyramid is known as the Red Pyramid. Sesostris III was the first pharaoh to build a fortress Hatshepsute took over reign as the next in line pharaoh was too young She had a tomb made for her and when it was time to step down she tried to remind the people that she was a descendent of god. Hatshepsute’s body was never found her step son was a suspect. Amenhotep IV was the next major pharaoh and he made a new capitol of Egypt. Tutenkamen his son moved the capitol back Seti expanded Egypt to the North East and his tomb had a false false burial room. Ramesses II the next pharaoh took up arms against the Hetites in Syria to expend Egypt. Ramesses II would father more then 100 children. Nephratari was Remsses II beloved queen After Ramesses II death Egypt's reign was over Egypt grew weak thanks to weak leadership, depression, and aslo due to being conquered by the Persian and then the Greeks.
When the Moors Ruled Europe In 711 C.E (Common Era) ten thousand North African Muslims invaded and conquered Iberia. Spain become the first and only Muslim states establish in mainland Europe. Before the Muslim invasion, Spain was controlled by the Visigoths. Spain was in a horrible crisis by the time the Muslims came and made life better. Al-Andalus was the name of the Muslim territory in Spain its border stops at France. Abdar-Rahman brought order to the non-governed region. Muslims introduced to Europe: cotton, figs, avocadoes and oranges. The Muslims were very advanced in medicine.
When the Moors Ruled Europe Abdar-RahmanII greatest achievement was the great Masque of Cordoba. Cordoba became the capitol of Al-Andalus Ar-Rahman III in the last year of his life he had a palace built for Him. He paid little attention to the military and the palace was violently destroyed In 1095 the Pope said to free the holy lands and the Christians set fire to the wheat and cut the trees the crusades began. The Renaissance foundations came from Taledo, Spain thanks to the Muslims. Taledo like Alexandria was a place where Muslims kept Manuscripts for learning knowledge. Christians conquered Taledo but let the Muslims stay. By 1250 A.D. only Granada remained Muslim in Spain the Christians had taken back Al-Andalus Castille and Aragon the new regions of Spain Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon got married and united Spain Under Isabella and Ferdinand's reign the Spanish inquisition started and drove the Muslims out
Columbus’ World Columbus was born in 1451 in Venice Italy Genoa is where Columbus was during his early years since the age of four He was serving as a deck hand in his teen years Columbus made his money as a merchant who traveled to the Asian Islands like Indonesia for clothes and spices.
Columbus’ World Columbus wanted a western route to Asia to find the riches that Marco Polo talked about in his book Columbus asked Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to sponsor his plan and promised to bring back gold, spices, and silks. Columbus signed an agreement with Spain naming him admiral, and that he would become governor of any lands discovered, and receive a tax-free ten percent share of any riches found in the new lands. Columbus was granted permission and sailed on August 3, 1492. Christopher Columbus ship was called the Santa Maria. It was completely decked and carried the flag of Columbus as admiral. The other two ships were the Pinta and Nina On October 12, 1492, Columbus and a handful of the excited but weary voyagers set foot on land after 36 days of sailing.