World History: Video Summaries<br />By: Alexis Apgar<br />
Journey of Man<br />In the case of the male line, defined by a piece of DNA known as the Y-chromosome, this analysis allows us to trace back to a common male ancestor for everyone alive today. In other words, Adam.<br />By analyzing DNA from people in all regions of the world, geneticist Spencer Wells has concluded that all humans alive today are descended from a single man who lived in Africa around 60,000 years ago.<br />
Journey of Man<br />Blood can help us understand our history discovered in the 1950’s<br />Humans originated in Africa then people left Africa because of the Ice Age<br />One group went from India to southeast Asia then Australia the other took a northern route ending up in Eurasia, North Africa and the Americas.<br />
Catastrophe<br />Mark Bailey uses tree rings to determine climactic changes during a year. Tree rings close together means a harsh year.<br /> Sixth century AD the tree rings go haywire show the worst weather in the millennium.<br /> A volcano, a comet, or an asteroid could of caused this catastrophe.<br />An asteroid would have to be 4 kilometers and a comet would have to be 6 kilometers<br />To make the world go dark for as long as the tree rings suggest. <br />Once the comet or asteroid hits the Earth’s atmosphere it would take eight seconds to hit sea level.<br />But there isn’t any evidence of an impact that big and according to David Keyes who looked into writings during that time found no support in that theory.<br />
Catastrophe<br />If the cause of the catastrophe was a volcano the polar ice caps would show contamination<br />Such as sulfuric acid.<br />In order for this to be the reason there has to be evidence in both hemispheres.<br />The sixth century catastrophe would have to be a volcano near the equator.<br />Scientists investigated both polar ice caps and confirmed that both that Antarctica and <br />Greenland have sulfur deposits that support this theory.<br />David Keyes feels that we should be looking at the volcanoes next to China. <br />
Little Ice Age<br />From the 14th to the 19th century the Little Ice Age happens.<br />The Little Ice Age was a series of very volatile climactic shifts.<br />Scientists believe that five massive volcanic eruptions happened in each century during the Little Ice Age.<br />Sulfur from a volcanic eruption if strong enough reaches the atmosphere and then turns into sulfuric acid particles that reflect the sun’s rays reducing the amount of radiation reaching Earth’s surface.<br />
Little Ice Age<br />The drenching rains caused the crops to be ruined from soil erosion for five years the rains persisted thousands of people died due to famine.<br />In 1347 the Bubonic plague began in Europe brought on by trading ships returning from Asia.<br />The Stradivarius violin is said to be a product of the Little Ice Age by using tree wood from the coldest period of the Little Ice Age in the high altitude of the Italian Alps.<br />The Little Ice Age caused famine in France and people marched to Paris demanding bread which led to the French Revolution.<br />War victory and defeat depended heavily on the weather during the Little Ice Age.<br />Napoleon's French invasion on Russia ended with a retreat and lost more then three quarters of his troops in the freezing cold on the way home.<br />In 1588 the Spanish Armada took a bold chance to attack England in the English Channel after defeated by the English the Spanish fleet was destroyed by the harsh storm.<br />In 1776 the weather played a part in the American Revolutionary War <br />George Washington wasted to sail across the Delaware River to surprise the British troops in Trento it took nine hours.<br />The surprise worked and is the reason that America won the war. <br />
Engineering an Empire: Greece<br /><ul><li>Phillip II of Macedonia conquered Greece and united it but was killed</li></ul>before he could attack the Persians. <br /><ul><li> Phillip’s son Alexander the Great at the age of twenty led the </li></ul>expedition against Persia. <br /><ul><li> Alexander’s conquered much of Asia and Egypt only to die before</li></ul>returning to Greece. <br /><ul><li> Alexander’s conquests were most important in terms of world history </li></ul>for the spread of the Hellenistic era. <br /><ul><li>One of Alexander’s conquests was the city Alexandria in Egypt that</li></ul>became the city of the world creating a lighthouse and the great<br />Alexandria museum and library.<br /><ul><li>For the first time knowledge was gathered.</li></li></ul><li>Engineering an Empire:Egypt<br />3000-2930 B.C. The first dam was built to avoid the annual flood from the Nile River.<br />The Dam was built to protect the city of Memphis by order of the first King of Egypt Menes.<br />The Egyptians used the Nile and dug canals for travel<br />They built tombs believing that they would live there in the after life 80 pyramids still stand today.<br />Djoser was the first ruler to be seen as god and his tomb was the first pyramid before him tombs were just mounds.<br />After Djoser was Snefru he married his half sister who’s blood was more royal.<br />Snefru was obsessed with making the perfect pyramid and he finally did on his third attempt this pyramid is known as the Red Pyramid.<br />Sesostris III was the first pharaoh to build a fortress<br />Hatshepsute took over reign as the next in line pharaoh was too young<br />She had a tomb made for her and when it was time to step down she tried to remind the people that she was a descendent of god.<br />Hatshepsute’s body was never found her step son was a suspect.<br />Amenhotep IV was the next major pharaoh and he made a new capitol of Egypt.<br />Tutenkamen his son moved the capitol back<br />Seti expanded Egypt to the North East and his tomb had a false false burial room.<br />Ramesses II the next pharaoh took up arms against the Hetites in Syria to expend Egypt.<br />Ramesses II would father more then 100 children.<br />Nephratari was Remsses II beloved queen <br />After Ramesses II death Egypt's reign was over Egypt grew weak thanks to weak leadership, depression, and aslo due to being conquered by the Persian and then the Greeks. <br />
When the Moors Ruled Europe<br />In 711 C.E (Common Era) ten thousand North African Muslims invaded and conquered Iberia.<br />Spain become the first and only Muslim states establish in mainland Europe.<br />Before the Muslim invasion, Spain was controlled by the Visigoths.<br />Spain was in a horrible crisis by the time the Muslims came and made life better.<br />Al-Andalus was the name of the Muslim territory in Spain its border stops at France.<br />Abdar-Rahman brought order to the non-governed region.<br />Muslims introduced to Europe: cotton, figs, avocadoes and oranges.<br />The Muslims were very advanced in medicine.<br />
When the Moors Ruled Europe<br />Abdar-RahmanII greatest achievement was the great Masque of <br />Cordoba. Cordoba became the capitol of Al-Andalus<br />Ar-Rahman III in the last year of his life he had a palace built for <br />Him. He paid little attention to the military and the palace was violently <br />destroyed<br />In 1095 the Pope said to free the holy lands and the Christians set fire <br />to the wheat and cut the trees the crusades began. <br />The Renaissance foundations came from Taledo, Spain thanks to the <br />Muslims. Taledo like Alexandria was a place where Muslims kept <br />Manuscripts for learning knowledge.<br />Christians conquered Taledo but let the Muslims stay.<br />By 1250 A.D. only Granada remained Muslim in Spain the Christians had <br />taken back Al-Andalus<br />Castille and Aragon the new regions of Spain Isabella of Castille and <br />Ferdinand of Aragon got married and united Spain<br />Under Isabella and Ferdinand's reign the Spanish inquisition started and <br />drove the Muslims out<br />
Columbus’ World<br />Columbus was born in 1451 in Venice Italy<br />Genoa is where Columbus was during his early years since the age of four<br />He was serving as a deck hand in his teen years<br />Columbus made his money as a merchant who traveled to the Asian Islands like Indonesia for clothes and spices. <br />
Columbus’ World<br />Columbus wanted a western route to Asia to find the riches that Marco Polo talked about in his book<br />Columbus asked Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to sponsor his plan and promised to bring back gold, spices, and silks.<br />Columbus signed an agreement with Spain naming him admiral, and that he would become governor of any lands discovered, and receive a tax-free ten percent share of any riches found in the new lands.<br />Columbus was granted permission and sailed on August 3, 1492.<br />Christopher Columbus ship was called the Santa Maria. It was completely decked and carried the flag of Columbus as admiral. The other two ships were the Pinta and Nina<br />On October 12, 1492, Columbus and a handful of the excited but weary voyagers set foot on land after 36 days of sailing.<br />
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