First Farmers: The Revolution of AgricultureAssignment 3 By: Alexis Apgar
The Last Ice Age70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE The Agricultural Revolution coincided with the end of the last Ice Age. At the end of the last Ice Age human migration across the earth began.
The Neolithic Age10,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE“Neolithic”“New Stone” Age Gradual shift from: Nomadic lifestyle settled, stationery lifestyle. Hunting/Gathering agricultural production and domestication of animals. Transition to agriculture: 11,000 – 8,500 B.C.E. Extinction of some large animals due to hunting and climate change led to scarce food. Warmer, wetter weather allowed more plants to grow. Gathering and hunting peoples started to establish more permanent homes in resource-rich areas. Growing crops on a regular basis made possible the support of larger populations.
The Agricultural Revolution8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE Agriculture developed independently In different parts of the world. Rise of settled Villages parallels Origin of agriculture.
The Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent was the first region to have a full Agricultural Revolution. Domestication: figs, wheat, barley, rye, peas, lentils, sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle.
Eastern Sahara In Africa animals were Domesticated first unlike Elsewhere where plants Were domesticated first. Africa had scattered Farming practices. In the East was the grain Sorghum. In the highlands Of Ethiopia was the highly Nutritious grain teff. In West Africa yams, oil palm Trees, okra, and the kola Nut. This scattered form of Farming was a less Productive way of farming Then in the region Of the Fertile Crescent.
In the Americas there was an absence of animals that could be domesticated So the peoples of America relied heavily on hunting and fishing. Furthermore, they lacked the rich cereal grains like in Afro-Eurasia instead they had maize.
Advantages & Costs of Agriculture Advantages Steady food supplies Greater populations Leads to organized societies Costs Heavily dependent on certain food crops (failure=starvation) Disease from close contact with animals, humans, and waste Population growth prevents return to the hunting and gathering life.
New Technology Explosion of new technology Pots, vases, and dishes Textiles Metallurgy A new set of technological changes
New uses for domesticated animals milking, riding, hitching them to plows and carts.
Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture Pastoral Societies In Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara, and in parts of eastern and southern Africa people depended heavily on their animals and became herders, pastoralists, or nomads. Agricultural Village Societies Settled village based farms maintenance of equality and freedom: no kings, chiefs, bureaucrats, and aristocrats. Organized by kinship, group, or lineage performed the functions of its government. Chiefdoms Chiefs, unlike kings rely on generosity, ritual status, or charisma to govern, not force. Locations include Mesopotamia, Pacific Islands, and North America.