• Save

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation

on

  • 616 views

This presentation was made by Kimberle Crenshaw during the 2010 Grantmakers in Education Presentation.

This presentation was made by Kimberle Crenshaw during the 2010 Grantmakers in Education Presentation.

(c) African American Policy Forum
www.aapf.org

Statistics

Views

Total Views
616
Views on SlideShare
616
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender By Race/Ethnicity Female MaleAmerican Indian/AK 51.4 47.0Asian/Pacific Islander 80.0 72.6Hispanic 58.5 48Black 56.2 42.8White 77 70.8All Students 72 64.1(Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003)
  • Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, Asian Exclusion Act (43 Statutes-at-Large 153), was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890
  • California Home Teacher Program: had white women come and teach Mexican women how to be good Americans – how to properly cook and clean. Thought that Mexicans were thieves because they ate tortillas, and if they ate ham and cheese sandwiches they wouldn’t steal anymore. When Mexican families resisted, California found that they were almost beyond help.
  • HandwashingChristine L. Case, Ed.D.,Microbiology Professor at Skyline College http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/hand_background.phpLast part about evil spirits from:http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/prevention/a/history_hygiene.htm
  • http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/hand_background.php
  • http://www.library.musc.edu/resources/biomed/InfectCtrl/sld012.htmlSlideshow by H. Biemann Othersen, Jr., M.D.
  • National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender By Race/Ethnicity Female MaleAmerican Indian/AK 51.4 47.0Asian/Pacific Islander 80.0 72.6Hispanic 58.5 48Black 56.2 42.8White 77 70.8All Students 72 64.1(Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003)

AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mapping Structural Racism and
    Race Equity: A Primer
    October 27, 2010
    Presented by the
    African American Policy Forum
    www.AAPF.org
  • 2. “Under our Constitution there can be no such thing as either a creditor or a debtor race. That concept is alien to the Constitution's focus upon the individual.”
    Fulfilling the Dream?
    “It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check that has come back marked "insufficient funds."
    Antonin Scalia, Adarand v. Pena, decided June 12, 1995
    Martin Luther King, “I Have a Dream,” Lincoln Memorial 1963
  • 3. Quotes from Post-Race Rhetoric in Media
    “Barack Hussein Obama was elected the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday, sweeping away the last racial barrier in American politics with ease as the country chose him as its first black chief executive…..” ~New York Times, November 4, 2008
  • 4. The Dream Realized??
  • 5. The Dream Realized?
    • There are no more African Americans in the Senate in 2008 than in 1908
    • 6. More than 70% of Black students and 40% of Latino students now attend predominantly minority schools.
    • 7. Blacks and Latinos earn 62 cents and 68 cents, respectively, for every $1 a White person earns.
    • 8. People of color are more than 3X more likely to have subprime loans than Whites.
  • National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender
    Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003
  • 9. The Need for a Racial Equity Lens on Social Inclusion
    If facts don’t fit the frame, people reject the facts.
  • 10. The Colorblind Framing of Racial Inequity
    SOURCE: FRANK GILLIAM, FRAMEWORKS
    8
  • 11. School-to-prison pipeline
    Racial Profiling
    Wealth Disparity
    Stereotype Threat
    Employment Discrimination
    White advantage
    Racial Inequity in a Structural Race Frame
    9
  • 12. Focus on the Frame
    • Structural Racism is a FRAME that brings into view the SYSTEMIC ways that Racial Inequality is reproduced.
    • 13. FRAMES are important because they shape how problems are interpreted in terms of CAUSES, RESPONSIBILITIES and INTERVENTIONS.
  • The Structural Racism Lens
    Structural Racism is a prism that captures the ways that law, public policies, institutional practices and cultural representations interact both historically and in contemporary America to create and maintain racial inequalities.
  • 14. Internalized
    Interpersonal
    Institutional
    Structural
    Different Levels of Racism
    MICRO LEVEL
    MACRO LEVEL
    Source: Applied Research Center
  • 15. Overlapping Structural Obstacles
    Economy
    Criminal
    Justice
    Politics
    Health Care
    Education
    National Myths
    Punitive means of social control
    Unlimited resources for incarceration
    Reduction in
    Resources
    for schools
    Zero tolerance, warehousing,
    racially disparate punishment, high
    drop-out rates
    Values
    Culture
  • 16. Now fitted with your “specs”…
    You determine how best to use them
    You determine what to create or how to navigate
    You decide when it is time to adjust them.
  • 17. First step….
    Can you read the fine print?
  • 18. The Difference that Frames Make
    • We often don’t see Frames until we realize that we are being “mis-framed” or the issues we care about are distorted by particular ways of looking at the world
  • Framing Structural Racism: Luke’s Story About “Nightline”
    • Elements of the Structural Story
    Hyper-Segregated Community
    Tracking in Schools
    School to Nowhere Pipeline
    • Bridge to Opportunity
    • 19. Caring Adults
    • 20. Life Sustenance
    • 21. Targeted Opportunity Programs
  • Luke Harris on Nightline
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJLeldHpK0o
  • 22. Questions:
    How are the problems framed?
    What kind of problems are these?
    Who is Responsible?
    What are the likely Solutions?
    How was Luke Harris’ story framed?
    How did Harris “get out”
    How was Harris framed?
  • 23. Broadening the Frame
    Archeology
    We stand on historical structures
    Failure to Acknowledge those Structures Distorts Analysis
    Race and State
    Race and Public Policy
    Race and Education
  • 24. Race and State
    “Who we are is Who we Were…”
  • 25. Plessy’s Challenge
    • Inequality of Racial Formation
    • 26. Inequality of “Black/White” Relations
  • The Science of Racial Inequality
    There are natural races
    Attributes can be lost by “race mixing”
    Legal policy must facilitate the natural development of races
  • 27. Scientific Racist Theories
    Spill-over effect:
    Sciences, arts and letters, law…
    Biological arguments for racism may have been common before 1850 but they increased by orders of magnitude following the acceptance of evolutionary theory and white superiority." Stephen J. GouldOntogeny and Phylogeny 1977. p 127, 128. Harvard Press.
  • 28. Race and Public Policy
  • 29. Brief History of Eugenics
    • What was Eugenics?
    • 30. First coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883
    • 31. “Eugenics is the study of agencies under social control that seek to improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally”
    • 32. What Galton saw as a new branch of scientific inquiry, became a dogmatic prescription in the ranking and ordering of human worth
    • 33. Eugenic ideas fed off the fears of white upper and middle class Americans
    • 34. Eugenicists used a flawed and crude interpretation of
    Gregor Mendel’s laws on heredity to argue that criminality,
    intelligence and pauperism were passed down in families
    as simple dominant or recessive hereditary traits
    • Eugenicists marked entire groups to being
    • 35. predisposed to “defective genes”
    • 36. Some Targeted Races: Jews, Africans and Latinos
    Sir Francis Galton, 1865
  • 37. California Home Teacher Program
    • White teachers came to teach the Mexican women how to be good Americans – how to properly cook and clean.
    • 38. Corn tortillas were the cause of stealing and thievery
    • 39. If Mexicans ate ham and cheese sandwiches, they wouldn’t steal anymore.
    • 40. When Mexican families resisted, California deemed them beyond help.
  • EDUCATION – The Great Equalizer
    “To rake a few geniuses from the rubbish” – Thomas Jefferson
    “We want one class of persons to have a liberal education and we want another class of persons, a very much larger class of necessity in every society, to forego the privilege of a liberal education and fit themselves to perform specific difficult manual tasks” – Woodrow Wilson
  • 41. The Color of Wealth:the Story of Levittown
    • ethnic inclusion through racial exclusion
    • 42. subsidized white flight
    • 43. penalty for integrated living
    • 44. whiteness created through government policy
    • 45. how housing money was spent
  • Race and Segregation
    http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/draft/gerard/law/law_race_housing.mov
  • 46. Is there a parallel between housing and education?
  • 47. Ignaz Semmelweis
    • 1847: physician IgnazSemmelweis
    • 48. The medical students who assisted in childbirth often did so after performing autopsies on patients.
    • 49. After instituting a strict policy of hand-washing with a chlorinated antiseptic solution, mortality rates dropped by 10- to 20-fold within 3 months
  • Why Hand Washing was Resisted
    Difficult: The lack of indoor plumbing made it difficult to get water.
    Uncomfortable: In order to make the water comfortably warm, it would have to be heated over a fire.
    Negative Associations: Contact with water was associated with diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever.
    Misinformation: Prior to the discovery of microbial pathogens, many people believed that diseases resulted from evil spirits.
  • 50. Historical Analogue:Hand Washing
    Up into the 20th century, doctors not only did not advocate strict hand washing but believed it was unnecessary.
    In fact, in 1910, doctors protested because “it was ruining medical practice… by keeping babies alive.”
  • 51. … but people still didn’t believe!
    In spite of real proof, Semmelweis’ recommendation were not accepted and he was shunned.
    Eventually he was fired from his job.
    • He died in 1865 after suffering a wound to the hand in an insane asylum.
  • 52. Historical Discrimination
  • 53. The Dream Realized?
    • There are no more African Americans in the Senate in 2008 than in 1908
    • 54. More than 70% of Black students and 40% of Latino students now attend predominantly minority schools.
    • 55. Blacks and Latinos earn 62 cents and 68 cents, respectively, for every $1 a White person earns.
    • 56. People of color are more than 3X more likely to have subprime loans than Whites.
  • National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender
    Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003
  • 57. Gloria Ladson Billings, “From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt”
    Achievement gap vs. Education gap
    Aspects of the Educational Debt:
    • Historical Debt
    • 58. Economic Debt
    • 59. Sociopolitical Debt
    • 60. Moral Debt
  • Stigma and Stereotype Threat
    Inadequacy of Standardized Tests
    Skewed Methods to Measure Merit
  • 61. | K. Crenshaw
    Intervening Against Exclusion and Bias
    Two Metaphors to Frame Inclusion/Exclusion
    The Egg
    The Onion
  • 62. | K. Crenshaw
    “Cracking” Racial Bias and Exclusion
    Egg-Based Interventions
    One shot “Crack” at Inclusion
    Failure Shifts Blame from Excluder to Excluded
    Responsibility is Mitigated over Time
    Ongoing Nature of Bias and Exclusion Remain Unexamined
    Level of Inclusion Will Likely Stagnate
  • 63. | K. Crenshaw
    Onion Based Interventions
    Multi-Layered Approach
    Not one size fits all
    Shared responsibility for Success
    Anticipates New Challenges to Quest for Inclusion
    Valuable Knowledge Development Rather than Stagnation and obsolescence
  • 64. | K. Crenshaw
    Example: Barriers to Integration
    Adjust tools to fairly measure all
    Correct for subtle biases
    Re-think values originating in exclusion
    Multi-racial materials
    Protect against hiring/promotion bias
    Consider relation between equity and core mission
    Checks against in-school segregation
    New Kent County
    Brown v. Bd
    Firm Commitment to Inclusion at all levels
  • 65. Track Metaphor
    http://www.aapf.org/wp-content/uploads/Track_Metaphor.html