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AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation
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AAPF Grantmakers in Education Presentation

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This presentation was made by Kimberle Crenshaw during the 2010 Grantmakers in Education Presentation. …

This presentation was made by Kimberle Crenshaw during the 2010 Grantmakers in Education Presentation.

(c) African American Policy Forum
www.aapf.org

Published in: Spiritual, Education
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  • National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender By Race/Ethnicity Female MaleAmerican Indian/AK 51.4 47.0Asian/Pacific Islander 80.0 72.6Hispanic 58.5 48Black 56.2 42.8White 77 70.8All Students 72 64.1(Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003)
  • Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, Asian Exclusion Act (43 Statutes-at-Large 153), was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890
  • California Home Teacher Program: had white women come and teach Mexican women how to be good Americans – how to properly cook and clean. Thought that Mexicans were thieves because they ate tortillas, and if they ate ham and cheese sandwiches they wouldn’t steal anymore. When Mexican families resisted, California found that they were almost beyond help.
  • HandwashingChristine L. Case, Ed.D.,Microbiology Professor at Skyline College http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/hand_background.phpLast part about evil spirits from:http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/prevention/a/history_hygiene.htm
  • http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/hand_background.php
  • http://www.library.musc.edu/resources/biomed/InfectCtrl/sld012.htmlSlideshow by H. Biemann Othersen, Jr., M.D.
  • National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender By Race/Ethnicity Female MaleAmerican Indian/AK 51.4 47.0Asian/Pacific Islander 80.0 72.6Hispanic 58.5 48Black 56.2 42.8White 77 70.8All Students 72 64.1(Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Mapping Structural Racism and Race Equity: A Primer October 27, 2010 Presented by the African American Policy Forum www.AAPF.org
    • 2. Fulfilling the Dream? “It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check that has come back marked "insufficient funds." “Under our Constitution there can be no such thing as either a creditor or a debtor race. That concept is alien to the Constitution's focus upon the individual.” Antonin Scalia, Adarand v. Pena, decided June 12, 1995 Martin Luther King, “I Have a Dream,” Lincoln Memorial 1963
    • 3. Quotes from Post-Race Rhetoric in Media “Barack Hussein Obama was elected the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday, sweeping away the last racial barrier in American politics with ease as the country chose him as its first black chief executive…..” ~New York Times, November 4, 2008
    • 4. The Dream Realized??
    • 5. The Dream Realized? • There are no more African Americans in the Senate in 2008 than in 1908 • More than 70% of Black students and 40% of Latino students now attend predominantly minority schools. • Blacks and Latinos earn 62 cents and 68 cents, respectively, for every $1 a White person earns. • People of color are more than 3X more likely to have subprime loans than Whites.
    • 6. National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender By Race/Ethnicity Female Male American Indian/AK 51.4 47.0 Asian/Pacific Islander 80.0 72.6 Hispanic 58.5 48.0 Black 56.2 42.8 White 77.0 70.8 All Students 72.0 64.1 Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003
    • 7. The Need for a Racial Equity Lens on Social Inclusion If facts don’t fit the frame, people reject the facts.
    • 8. The Colorblind Framing of Racial Inequity 8SOURCE: FRANK GILLIAM, FRAMEWORKS
    • 9. Racial Inequity in a Structural Race Frame 9 School-to- prison pipeline Stereotype Threat Wealth Disparity Employment Discrimination Racial Profiling White advantage
    • 10. Focus on the Frame • Structural Racism is a FRAME that brings into view the SYSTEMIC ways that Racial Inequality is reproduced. • FRAMES are important because they shape how problems are interpreted in terms of CAUSES, RESPONSIBILITIES and INTERVENTIONS.
    • 11. The Structural Racism Lens Structural Racism is a prism that captures the ways that law, public policies, institutional practices and cultural representations interact both historically and in contemporary America to create and maintain racial inequalities.
    • 12. Different Levels of Racism Internalized Interpersonal Institutional Structural MICRO LEVEL MACRO LEVEL Source: Applied Research Center
    • 13. Overlapping Structural Obstacles Punitive means of social control Unlimited resources for incarceration Economy Education Criminal Justice Reductionin Resources forschools Politics Health Care Culture Values National Myths
    • 14. Now fitted with your “specs”… You determine how best to use them You determine what to create or how to navigate You decide when it is time to adjust them.
    • 15. First step…. Can you read the fine print?
    • 16. The Difference that Frames Make • We often don’t see Frames until we realize that we are being “mis-framed” or the issues we care about are distorted by particular ways of looking at the world
    • 17. Framing Structural Racism: Luke’s Story About “Nightline” • Elements of the Structural Story Hyper-Segregated Community Tracking in Schools School to Nowhere Pipeline • Bridge to Opportunity o Caring Adults o Life Sustenance o Targeted Opportunity Programs
    • 18. Luke Harris on Nightline http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJLeldHpK0o
    • 19. Questions: How are the problems framed? – What kind of problems are these? – Who is Responsible? – What are the likely Solutions? How was Luke Harris’ story framed? – How did Harris “get out” – How was Harris framed?
    • 20. Broadening the Frame Race and State Race and Public Policy Race and Education Archeology We stand on historical structures Failure to Acknowledge those Structures Distorts Analysis
    • 21. Race and State “Who we are is Who we Were…”
    • 22. Plessy’s Challenge  Inequality of Racial Formation  Inequality of “Black/White” Relations
    • 23. The Science of Racial Inequality There are natural races Attributes can be lost by “race mixing” Legal policy must facilitate the natural development of races
    • 24. Scientific Racist Theories Spill-over effect: Sciences, arts and letters, law… Biological arguments for racism may have been common before 1850 but they increased by orders of magnitude following the acceptance of evolutionary theory and white superiority." Stephen J. Gould Ontogeny and Phylogeny 1977. p 127, 128. Harvard Press.
    • 25. Scientific Racism Eugenics Immigration Testing Race and Public Policy
    • 26. Brief History of Eugenics • What was Eugenics? o First coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883 o “Eugenics is the study of agencies under social control that seek to improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally” • What Galton saw as a new branch of scientific inquiry, became a dogmatic prescription in the ranking and ordering of human worth o Eugenic ideas fed off the fears of white upper and middle class Americans • Eugenicists used a flawed and crude interpretation of Gregor Mendel’s laws on heredity to argue that criminality, intelligence and pauperism were passed down in families as simple dominant or recessive hereditary traits • Eugenicists marked entire groups to being predisposed to “defective genes” • Some Targeted Races: Jews, Africans and Latinos Sir Francis Galton, 1865
    • 27. California Home Teacher Program White teachers came to teach the Mexican women how to be good Americans – how to properly cook and clean. Corn tortillas were the cause of stealing and thievery If Mexicans ate ham and cheese sandwiches, they wouldn’t steal anymore. When Mexican families resisted, California deemed them beyond help.
    • 28. “To rake a few geniuses from the rubbish” – Thomas Jefferson “We want one class of persons to have a liberal education and we want another class of persons, a very much larger class of necessity in every society, to forego the privilege of a liberal education and fit themselves to perform specific difficult manual tasks” – Woodrow Wilson EDUCATION – The Great Equalizer
    • 29. The Color of Wealth: the Story of Levittown  ethnic inclusion through racial exclusion  subsidized white flight  penalty for integrated living  whiteness created through government policy  how housing money was spent
    • 30. Race and Segregation http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/draft/gerard/law/law _race_housing.mov
    • 31. Is there a parallel between housing and education?
    • 32. Ignaz Semmelweis • 1847: physician Ignaz Semmelweis • The medical students who assisted in childbirth often did so after performing autopsies on patients. •After instituting a strict policy of hand-washing with a chlorinated antiseptic solution, mortality rates dropped by 10- to 20-fold within 3 months
    • 33. Why Hand Washing was Resisted Difficult: The lack of indoor plumbing made it difficult to get water. Uncomfortable: In order to make the water comfortably warm, it would have to be heated over a fire. Negative Associations: Contact with water was associated with diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever. Misinformation: Prior to the discovery of microbial pathogens, many people believed that diseases resulted from evil spirits.
    • 34. Historical Analogue: Hand Washing Up into the 20th century, doctors not only did not advocate strict hand washing but believed it was unnecessary. In fact, in 1910, doctors protested because “it was ruining medical practice… by keeping babies alive.”
    • 35. … but people still didn’t believe! In spite of real proof, Semmelweis’ recommendation were not accepted and he was shunned. Eventually he was fired from his job. • He died in 1865 after suffering a wound to the hand in an insane asylum.
    • 36. Refuse to acknowledge bacteria is there Refuse to acknowledge proof that hand washing works No appropriate interventions to clean hands and prevent disease Refuse to acknowledge race is there Refuse to acknowledge proof that race consciousness is necessary No appropriate interventions to remediate and prevent discrimination
    • 37. Historical Discrimination
    • 38. The Dream Realized? • There are no more African Americans in the Senate in 2008 than in 1908 • More than 70% of Black students and 40% of Latino students now attend predominantly minority schools. • Blacks and Latinos earn 62 cents and 68 cents, respectively, for every $1 a White person earns. • People of color are more than 3X more likely to have subprime loans than Whites.
    • 39. National Graduation Rates By Race and Gender By Race/Ethnicity Female Male American Indian/AK 51.4 47.0 Asian/Pacific Islander 80.0 72.6 Hispanic 58.5 48.0 Black 56.2 42.8 White 77.0 70.8 All Students 72.0 64.1 Orfield, Losen and Wald, 2003
    • 40. Achievement gap vs. Education gap Aspects of the Educational Debt: -Historical Debt -Economic Debt -Sociopolitical Debt -Moral Debt Gloria Ladson Billings, “From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt”
    • 41. Stigma and Stereotype Threat Inadequacy of Standardized Tests Skewed Methods to Measure Merit
    • 42. | K. Crenshaw Intervening Against Exclusion and Bias Two Metaphors to Frame Inclusion/Exclusion The Egg The Onion
    • 43. | K. Crenshaw “Cracking” Racial Bias and Exclusion Egg-Based Interventions – One shot “Crack” at Inclusion – Failure Shifts Blame from Excluder to Excluded – Responsibility is Mitigated over Time – Ongoing Nature of Bias and Exclusion Remain Unexamined – Level of Inclusion Will Likely Stagnate
    • 44. | K. Crenshaw Onion Based Interventions – Multi-Layered Approach – Not one size fits all – Shared responsibility for Success – Anticipates New Challenges to Quest for Inclusion – Valuable Knowledge Development Rather than Stagnation and obsolescence
    • 45. | K. Crenshaw Example: Barriers to Integration Brown v. Bd New Kent County Checks against in- school segregation Protect against hiring/promoti on bias Multi-racial materials Correct for subtle biases Adjust tools to fairly measure allRe-think values originating in exclusion Consider relation between equity and core mission Firm Commitment to Inclusion at all levels
    • 46. Track Metaphor http://www.aapf.org/wp-content/uploads/Track_Metaphor.html

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