Inclusive Design
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Inclusive Design Inclusive Design Presentation Transcript

  • Designing for Social Inclusion Gloria Gomez, PhD Assistant Professor of Experience Design (Posting from August 1, 2012) The University of Southern Denmark gloria@gloriagomez.com
  • Two definitions What is Universal Design? Universal Design is a movement that encourages the design of products so that everyone can use them, without regard for physical or age differences. Universal Design is also known as inclusive design, in that it attempts to include all humans. (Kolko, 2007, p. 153) Kolko, J. (2007) Thoughts on Interaction Design. Brown Bear LLC. What is Inclusive Design? Inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to the design of mainstream products to better satisfy the needs of more people. Source: http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com/
  • UNIVERSAL DESIGN: Opening Every Door, By: Adelson, Rachel, Inside MS, 07399774, OctDec 2004, Vol. 22, Issue 4
  • Designers and Inclusive Design Designers: •  Instinctively provide utilities for someone with their physical and skill capabilities (Keaton and Clarkson, 2003) •  To get to the main stream, to influence design practice o  Last 15 years Universal Design concepts have become part of design classrooms   Pratt, North Carolina State, RCA , Carnegie Mellon University, Parsons The New School for Design, and many others. o  Methods have been developed to help us when designing for users with special requirements   Trans-generational Design - Elderly   Rehabilitation Design - Different Impairment types   Universal Design - US/Japanese Methods to Inclusive Design   User Pyramid Approach - Europe   Countering Design Exclusion – UK Read a two-page summary Inclusive design primer: current thinking, By: Coleman, R. http://www.education.edean.org/pdf/Intro020.pdf Accessed July 13, 2012
  • Source: http://www.lssproducts.com/armd Accessed in July 15, 2012 Macula degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition which usually affects older adults and results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage to the retina. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macular_degeneration Accessed July 15, 2012
  • A few facts and implications of vision impairment Of the estimated 70 out of the 124 million people with low vision who require services, approximately 5 - 10% has access to services. •  The demands for low vision services will continue to grow due to the emerging global trends in aging populations and changes in the epidemiology of vision impairment. (see Chiang, 2009, p.3) Multiples studies report vision impairment has been found to: •  Affect quality of life more than type two diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hearing impairment. •  Lead to a loss of social independence and impeded social relationships, functional ability such as reduced mobility, and the ability to care for oneself, among other issues. •  Have psychological implications such as depression. •  One study found that elderly people with vision impairment are more likely to be admitted to nursing homes earlier. •  (see Chiang, 2009, p. 13) The Global Mapping of Low Vision Services, By: Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang, Doctoral Thesis, The University of Melbourne, 2009 http://tinyurl.com/c4psn5x Accessed June 29, 2012
  • Some Design Principles
  • http://www.oxo.com/p-1048-corkscrew.aspx# OXO Kitchen Utensils –  Team led by Betsey Wells Farber (architect with arthritis), Stephan Allendorf (design development). –  Kitchen, gardening, and measuring tools of Good Grips are examples of inclusive design (Keates & Clarkson, 2005)
  • Universal Design (US, Japan) Seven Principles 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  Equitable Use for people with diverse abilities Flexibility in Use Simple and Intuitive Use Perceptible Information Tolerance for Error Low Physical Effort Size and Space for Approach and Use UNIVERSAL DESIGN: Opening Every Door, By: Adelson, Rachel, Inside MS, 07399774, Oct-Dec 2004, Vol. 22, Issue 4 Ronald Mace’s last speech, creator of the term and advocate of Universal Design http://www.humancentereddesign.org/adp/profiles/1_mace.php The Ronald L. Mace Universal Design Institute, see definition at http://www.udinstitute.org/principles.php
  • Inclusive Design Approach (UK) Knowing your Users 1.  User with different capabilities: frequent users of the system, or installers or support staff or maintenance. 2.  User Acceptability •  Social acceptability attributes (User Wants) -  Does the product look nice? -  Do I trust the product? -  Does this product stigmatize me in anyway? -  Do I want this product? -  Is this product cool ? •  Practical Acceptability attributes -  Cost -  Compatibility -  Reliability -  Usefulness: usability, utility, accessibility ---> (User Needs) Countering Design Exclusion by Keates and Clarkson (2003) My auntie (age 55) hated this prescription glasses for people very sensitive to bright light… So ugly! she thought, but had to wear them. No choice. Source: http://sangabrielmnts.myfreeforum.org/archive/ very-dark-sunglasses__o_t__t_3168.html Accessed July 15, 2012
  • Lowest Capability Increasing Motor Capability Excluded Population Increasing Cognitive Capability Increasing Sensory Capability Highest Capability Included Population The inclusive design cube models the whole population in three dimensions, with regard to capability Countering Design Exclusion by Keates and Clarkson (2003)
  • More than one impairment Use of an alternative keyboard that mitigates limited dexterity to complete classroom assignments. Use of a closed-circuit television device that provides an enlarged, highcontrast view of printed text. Freedom Machines Documentary: http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2004/freedommachines/special_whatis.html Accessed March, 2005
  • The Concept of Design Exclusion Identify WHY and HOW users cannot use a product enables to counter such exclusion. The underlying principle of design exclusion is that •  By identifying the capability demands placed upon the user by the features of the product, •  It is possible to establish the users who cannot use the product irrespective of the cause of their functional impairment. Consequently, •  By re-designing the product to lessen capability demand, users from a wider range of user groups can potentially be included and no-one is excluded unnecessarily by considering one cause to the detriment of others. Countering Design Exclusion by Keates and Clarkson (2003) see pp. 67-68
  • A bar chart of groups at risk of design exclusion in the UK (Keates and Clarkson, 2003)
  • Excluding technology designs … People [with a disability] in general wish to see devices that are uncomplicated to use and that do not require comprehension of extensive instructions. Training is a major issue… no access to one-toone training The ‘buy often and cheaply’ culture… excludes people [with a disability] Mobile telephones and the fashion for ever smaller devices, was criticised. Some respondents had been able to use mobiles when they were first on the market (large models) but had been successively excluded through this trend. Button size is a particular issue, as is the size of the screen, particularly for users with visual impairment. As mobiles have become more complex, they have become more confusing for many disabled people. The use, application and role of advanced technologies in the lives of disabled people, By: Harris, Jennifer et al (2008). Full Research Report ESRC http://www.esrc.ac.uk/my-esrc/grants/RES-062-23-0177/read http://www.lssproducts.com/category/cooking-helpers Accessed July 15, 2012
  • Seven-Level Approach to Inclusive Design 1.  Problem Requirements what is the aim of the system? 2.  Functional Specifications What are the systems requirements? 3.  Output to User How does the user receive information from it? 4.  User Mental Model - Does the user understand what is happening? 5.  Input from Users What are the physical demands on the user for entering inputs? 6.  Functional Verification Does the system meet the practical acceptability requirements? 7.  Solution Validation Does the system meet the stated aim and social acceptability requirements? Countering Design Exclusion” by Keates and Clarkson (2003)
  • How can I/we develop products for social inclusion as part of my design student project, practice, and/or research?
  • Can we really design for all? 10% Population 50% Population 100% Population Exclusive Design Moderately Inclusive Inclusive Design Products for the: Youth Functionally capable Elderly Computer Literates Braille books Language Products: Audiovisual programs Books Products: Public toilets signage OXO Kitchen tools Non-slip flooring Curb cuts Grab shower bars Population and their context (Intended audience plus casual visitors to these communities): Learners in a classroom School community Museum visitors Hospital community Kitchen solutions of people with low vision
  • Facial recognition resource for children with autism Ceiri Hopley, Guy Hopley, Ryan Hamilton – 2011 summer school project, DESI335, University of Otago Initial ideas before engaging with the user community The user community engaging with this resource – it has to work for everyone Functional prototype resulting from an 8week research process Functional prototype trialed with a child with autism and his family
  • Designing for diverse literacy abilities Gloria Gomez’s PhD research The Authoring Concept Mapping Kit for Preschool Settings •  Teachers, preliterate children and emergent writers can work together or independently in building concept maps which promote active learning •  It addresses each community member’s uniqueness and minimizes barriers. •  Early findings show can work for children with autism and severe/mild speech problems
  • •  •  Gomez, G. (2009) Enhancing Autonomy, Active Inquiry and Meaning Negotiation in Preschool Concept Mapping, Book chapter, available at http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/enhancing-autonomy-active-inquiry-meaning/36305 Download publications reporting on this project at http://www.gloriagomez.com/phd-research.htm Unexpected research outcomes have shown the Kit can also work for children with autism and mild speech problems Colleagues in the Netherlands, teachers of gifted and talented children, reported in private communication that a child with severe speech problems spoke for the first time in a session with the Kit
  • Teacher Donna talking about a children with special needs in her classroom: Some of the children that have a problem, you know, have a little bit of special needs, this would be a wonderful tool for them. Because they need that extra reinforcement, and you know, a teacher can't always be doing the same thing over and over again. This way they can go back and help themselves. (Transcript excerpt, 00:47:00 approx.)
  • A process for building Bridging Design Prototypes how do I design for user-centeredness and inclusion? – “my approach” 15/07/12 9:31 PM ORGANISING PARTICIPATION 1st principle MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM APPROACH TO RESEARCH THE MARKET Seven-step iterative approach of the Human-Centered Product Development process (Norman, 1999) SHAPING THE PRODUCT 2nd principle MAKING ACTIVITIES SIMPLER The seven-steps for transforming complex tasks into simple ones (Norman, 2002) 3rd principle BRODENING PARTICIPATION Counter exclusion and accessibility by considering user community members’ common functional capabilities: common cognitive, motor, and social factors (Keates and Clarkson 2003) 4th principle SIMILAR MENTAL MODELS A designer’s mental model for a product’s system image = the users’ mental model (Norman, 1999) 5th principle PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND FAMILIAR INTERACTIONS The learner must have prior knowledge and the learning must be prepared with familiar languages --- conditions for meaningful learning (Ausubel, 1968) 6th principle PARTICIPATING IN DESIGN By applying principles 1st to 5th, the user community becomes a design participant (Schuman 1993) in the process Gaining entry to real settings with Bridging Design Prototypes, By Gomez, G. CHINZ 2009 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1577786 Product Development in an small IT firm: an interaction design perspective, By Gomez, G & Tamblyn, R. PIN-C 2012 http://gloriagomez.com/pubs/gomez-pinc2012.pdf The key idea
  • Designing products with people
  • Working with people, collecting data for my BDPs a concept map Gaining entry to real settings with Bridging Design Prototypes, By Gomez, G. CHINZ 2009 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1577786 Product Development in an small IT firm: an interaction design perspective, By Gomez, G & Tamblyn, R. PIN-C 2012 http://gloriagomez.com/pubs/gomez-pinc2012.pdf
  • Summary of interview with Pandora - a person with low vision •  Occupation •  My condition •  A typical day •  Good designs and how they improve my life •  Lessons for designers •  Poor designs and how they impact my life •  Five most important “things” in my life •  Message for designers Designing with People, By RCA and Cambridge University, Meet real people who present a range of capability, http://designingwithpeople.rca.ac.uk/people
  • Trends •  Smaller homes and more single person households (UK) •  Design need: multi-functional space and appliances in kitchens •  Many single home occupants are independent older adults (loss of dexterity and visual acuity) •  Inclusively designed kitchens are crucial: maintenance of independence at home Web page includes •  Insights: physical, visual, and cognitive barriers to opening a package, full cycle of consumer interactions •  Images, videos, quotes, case studies Designing with People Website, By RCA and Cambridge University, http://designingwithpeople.rca.ac.uk/activities/meal-preparation
  • Exclusion-Inclusion Framework Lee, Y and Cassim, J. (2009) How the inclusive design process enables social inclusion. Presented at International Association of Societies of Design Research - IASDR 2009. Access at http://tinyurl.com/483dyvk
  • How to use it… comments of people with a disability See p. 38: The role and use, and application of advanced technology in the lives of disabled people. By, Harris and colleagues (2008) Final Report for the Economic and Social Research Council, Reference No. RES-062-23-0177,
  • Web Design for Accessibility For the Highly Capable wwww.tesco.com For the Blind Impaired www.tesco.com/access Critic on Tesco s http://siteusability.com/tesco2.html Quick tips for designing accessible websites in the Future Machine website Use tools, checklist, and guidelines at http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG For an analysis on the WCAG guidelines read: Forcing standardization or accommodating diversity?: a framework for applying the WCAG in the real world by Kelly and colleagues (2005). Available at http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1061820
  • Design opportunities that can work Minor and major adaptations to home environments according to a UK survey •  Minor adaptations (rails, ramps, over-bath showers, and door entry systems, for example) – most costing less than £500 – produced a range of lasting, positive consequences for virtually all recipients •  Major adaptations (bathroom conversions, extensions, lifts, for example) in most cases had transformed people’s lives. Before adaptations: a “prisoner”, “degraded”, and “afraid   Following adaptations: “independent”, “useful”, and “confident”.   •  Major adaptations failed because of weaknesses in the original specification (e.g. cheap or child growth) •  Successful adaptations keep people out of hospitals, reduce strain on carers, and promote social inclusion.   Benefits were most pronounced where careful consultation with users took place, where the needs of the whole family had been considered, and where the integrity of the home had been respected. •  Adaptations appear to be a highly effective use of public resources, justifying investment in health and rehabilitation resources. Further research is needed in diverse contexts and settings. See p. 100 in The World Report on Disability, By: World Health Organization and the World Bank, 2009 http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/en/ index.html Accessed June 12, 2012
  • Thank you
  • Donald Norman’s User-Centered Design principles I have applied in my research and practice Norman s Human-centered Product Development Process Transforming Complex Tasks into Simple Ones principles 1.  Observations of prospective users in their natural setting during market research 1.  Use both knowledge in the world and knowledge in the head 2.  Use of rapid prototyping techniques to visualise and analyse users interactions with the product 3.  Work in iterative, collaborative and multidisciplinary teams, 4.  Building of a technology that fits the design specifications, mock-ups and prototypes based on the team inputs. 5.  Rapid Ethnography The Invisible Computer, By: Norman, D. (1998) 2.  Simplify the structure of tasks 3.  Make things visible: bridge the gulf of execution and evaluation 4.  Get the mapping right 5.  Exploit the power of constrains, both natural and artificial 6.  Design for error 7.  When all else fails, standardize The Design of Everyday Things, By: Norman, D. (2002)