12,200 people died and a huge population of them lost their houses during an earthquake (Ms=7.2) in Bo'in Zahra (1962).
During the Loma Prieta, California earthquake (Ms=7.1) only 62 people were killed.
How do you analyze this huge difference ?
Disaster Management in Iran
Disaster risk management in Iran is under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior ( Law of Foundation of National Committee for Mitigation of Natural Disaster Effects).
The responsibilities and functions related to natural and other man-made disasters are assigned to MOI by virtue of the Budget Act of the same year.
Disaster Management Organizations
The Bureau for Research and Coordination of Safety and Reconstruction Affairs (BRCRA)
Formulation of preparedness and mitigation plans
Collection, analysis and dissemination of information
Coordinating reconstruction and rehabilitation activities
Disaster Management Organizations (cont’d)
The National Disaster Task Force (NDTF)
An inter-organizational coordinating body
Instituted for emergency relief operations in the national territory
Disaster Management Regulations
The Government adopted the National Plan on Natural Disasters Prevention including policies, actions and programs considering financial, educational and research aspects of disaster prevention (1998).
Three main components of the plan:
Monitoring and early warning
Mitigation and response
Earthquake Risk in Tehran
Tehran with a land area of 254 square miles and a population of ten millions, is the most populous city in the country.
It is located in a high-earthquake-risk zone.
At least 100 known fault lines surrounded the city (esp. in the northern part).
Faulting Systems Near Tehran
Why Tehran is so vulnerable?
Tehran has suffered lots of destructive events in its history.
Tehran has not experienced any major earthquake since 1830,so it is now in a high risk of a strong earthquake.
Approximately 66% of the buildings in Tehran are constructed by weak or non-reinforced masonry which is one of the most vulnerable construction systems in terms of seismic- resistant capacity.
Tehran Disaster Management Organizations
Tehran Comprehensive emergency Management Plan (TCEMP)
Tehran Disaster Mitigation and management Center (TDMMC)
Tehran Master Plan on Emergency Management
The Tehran Master Plan on emergency management prepared in 2004 proposing a lot of projects to reduce the impacts of a potential earthquake in Tehran
Three objectives of this master plan are:
To secure residents lives and properties
To protect residents lives after the event
To prepare rehabilitation and reconstruction procedure
Strengthening existing buildings
Improvement of existing urban structure
Identification of safety evacuation space
Strengthening of infrastructure and lifeline
Provision of earthquake information and education
Establishment of insurance system
Establishment of community level disaster management organization
There are lots of rules, regulations and plans on the subject of earthquake, but a few of them have been implemented in vulnerable areas so far.
People are not completely aware of earthquake hazard and its impacts, so earthquake management plans are often ignored due to more immediate and basic needs.
Activities for earthquake risk reduction and in Tehran, do not cover all aspects of the issue. So, additional research is needed to improve the existing regulations and some new guidelines and standards should be prepared based on the international experiences.
Factors affecting the process of earthquake risk management in Iran:
Rapid urban growth
Lack of government funds to support hazard mitigation programs
Poorly constructed dwellings
Lack of enforcement of existing building codes
Jafari, M. K., Amini Hosseini, K. et al (2005) Earthquake studies in Master Plan of Tehran, International Institute of Earthquake Eng. And Seismology, Tehran, Iran
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), also available at: http:// www.unisdr.org
Developing a Seismic Damage Evaluation Model for Tehran’s Buildings in a GIS Environment, A. Bazgard, B. Omidvar, A. Mansourian
International Institute of earthquake Engineering and Seismology website at: www.iiees.ac.ir
Geological Survey of Iran, Also available at: www.gsi.ir
Iran's strategy on natural disaster risk management, Ghanefar, S.J. ; Tabar, A., Also available at: http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-32144331_ITM
Developing a Seismic Damage Evaluation Model for Tehran’s Buildings in a GIS Environment , A. Bazgard, B. Omidvar, A. Mansourian
Disaster management , D.P.Rao Director, National Remote Sensing Agency, (Department of Space, Govt. of India), Balanagar, Hyderabad - 500 037, also available at: www.gisdevelopment.net
Tehran, Iran, Disaster Risk Management Profile, Last update: July 2008, at: http://emi.pdc.org/cities/CP-Tehran-July2006.pdf
Development Guidelines for Disaster Risk Management in Tehran
K. Amini Hosseini, M. K. Jafari, also available at: http://www.edm.bosai.go.jp/old/Phase2/1Documents/8_Proceeding/7_PT1_P.pdf
Establishment of regulations and criteria for urban development in seismic areas, Case Study: Tehran Metropolitan, Kambod Amini Hosseini
Human Settlement Country Profile The Islamic Republic of Iran
Earthquake Management in Iran, a compilation of literature on earthquake management, Iranian Studies Group at MIT
The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, available at: www.emdat.net