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Psychodynamic Model


The document aims to provide a comprehensive view of psycho-dynamic model, its assumptions, historical background, Freud's contribution, causes of abnormality, and role and contribution of other …

The document aims to provide a comprehensive view of psycho-dynamic model, its assumptions, historical background, Freud's contribution, causes of abnormality, and role and contribution of other contributors

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  • 1. Definition of model: A representation of a system that allows for investigation of the properties of the system and, in some cases, prediction of future outcomes. Models are often used in quantitative analysis and technical analysis, and sometimes also used in fundamental analysis. In psychology we take a model as “A system for representing a psychological phenomenon more clearly” There can be different perspectives or models broader or narrow, dealing with particular aspects of people for example, Biological model  genetic influences Behavioral model overt behavior Cognitive model thought processes These models or perspectives however are of limited scope, although each serves a purpose. Single perspective do not present the complete view of human beings and do not tell the whole truth about them. Psychodynamic model: Psychodynamic is a systemized study and theory of psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the inter play between unconscious and conscious motivation and the functions. This model is largely based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Freud believed that the mind is made up of three parts, the conscious, subconscious and unconscious, altogether forming the “mental iceberg”. The psychodynamic model is interested in how childhood relationships and experiences affect future mental health. Introduction: The term psychodynamic refers to a wide group of theories that emphasizing the overriding influences of instincts, drives and forces and the importance of developmental experience in shaping personality. Instinct or drive: Strong internal forces known as instincts motivate the human behavior. They are also called drives. There are two major types of instincts.
  • 2. 1. Life instincts: it refers to libido Seeking pleasure behavior, satisfying their basic needs e.g. friendship, love etc 2. Death instincts: it refers to Thanatos unconscious desire to die, aggressiveness, and self-destruction. Early in their development, these theories focus on the influence of conscious drive and forces; out they received much criticism and subsequent revision. Most recent psychodynamic theory places greater emphasis on conscious experience and its interaction with the unconscious, in addition to the role that social factors play in development. The psychodynamic model is more concerned with the unconscious forces determining behavior. Assumptions of psychodynamic model: The essence of the psychodynamic model is that • The most significant forces shaping human behavior operate at the unconscious level. • People are not aware of the most critical motivations or of their most important conflicts and frustrations. • Similarly the anxiety generated by conflicts may be disguised as defenses, which are used to reduce the stress, operate at the unconscious level. History of psychodynamic model: Ernst von Brucke, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Adler and Melanie Klein initially developed psychodynamic. By the mid 1940 and into 1950, the general application of the psychodynamic theory had been well established. In 1988, in book introduction to psychodynamics, psychologist Horowists states that his own interest and fascination with psychodynamic began during 1950’s, when he heard Ralph green son, a popular local psychoanalyst, who spoke to the public on topic such as people who hate. Horowits vividly described neurotic behavior and unconscious mental process and linked psychodynamic theory directly to everyday life. Freud and psychodynamic model: The psychodynamic approach was largely the result of the work of Sigmund Freud, who developed the theory and technique of psychoanalysis. Freud’s work was the beginning of the psychodynamic model and his theories dominated this approach throughout the first half of the present century. Freud was a brilliant young Viennese physician who at first specialized in neurology and received an appointment as lecturer on nervous disease at the University of Vienna. He was impressed by their use of hypnosis with hysterical
  • 3. patients and came way convinced that powerful mental processes could remain hidden from consciousness. He directed the patients under from hypnosis to talk freely about their problems and about what bothered them. Under these circumstances the patient usually displayed considerable emotions and on awakening from the hypnotic state felt considerably relieved. Because of the emotional releases involved, this method was called cathartic method. This simple innovation in the use of hypnosis proved to be of great significance, thus was made the discovery of the unconscious that portion of the mind that contains experiences of which we are unaware and with it, the belief, that processes outside the awareness of the person can play an important role in the determination of behavior. Free association, a psychotherapeutic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind. Freud goal in his system of psychoanalysis was to bring into conscious awareness the repressed memories, which were the source of abnormality. Freud had also learned that a patients dream could be a source of significant emotional material and contain clues to the underlying causes of a disturbance. Transference, is a process by which a patient respond to the therapist as if the therapist were a significant person in the patient’s life Topography of mind: Freud postulates the three states of mental activity conscious, preconscious and unconscious. 1. Conscious: It consists of those mental events and activities of which the organism is immediately aware. The law of logic governs conscious mental thoughts. 2. Pre conscious: It is intermediate state, separating the contents of the conscious and the unconscious. The contents of the preconscious are not as directly accessible as that of conscious. But it’s more easily retrievable than that of unconscious. 3. Unconscious: The unconscious is the repository of all sorts of activity repressed material, such as unpleasant or socially unacceptable libidinal strivings, and conflicts. The laws of logic do not govern the contents of unconscious. Levels of personality Within the mind there are three aspects of your personality that determine how you behave. 1. Id 2. Ego
  • 4. 3. Super ego 1) Id The id is completely selfish, immediate gratification of needs without reference to reality or moral considerations. He related it with pleasure principle. 2) Ego: The part that mediated between the demands of the id and the realities of the external world, basic purpose is to meet id demands, but in such a way as to ensure the well being and survival of the individual. He relates it with reality principle. 3) Super ego: This is a part that contains your morals and is concerned with right and wrong and strives to control the ego inhibit desires that are considered wrong or immoral. According to Freud ego is the part, which sees battling with three forces, the id, the ego and the super ego and the outside world. Hence the basic psychodynamic model focuses on dynamic inter actions between the id, Ego and super ego. 2.Conflict between id, ego and super ego: Sometimes the same situation may provide cues for more than one response. If both responses can occur, there is no particular difficulty. However a situation if provides cues for two incompatible responses, there is conflict. As said that according to Freud there are three aspects to your personality that determine how you behave, the id, ego and superego. The id demands immediate satisfaction of needs, the superego contains your morals and the ego that controls the fight between the two. Conflict is a central issue in psychoanalytic theory and Freud talk about intrapsychic conflicts. The ego is the mediator between two, this causes the ego to experience conflicts, which turns into anxiety. So the fight between id and superego causing abnormality because of the conflict between the two. It assumes that mental illness is the result of psychological rather than physical causes. Causes of abnormality It assumes that mental illness arises from unconscious and repressed conflicts at a young age, like Freud’s Oedipus complex. It explains the causes for mental illness as behavior that can be explained in terms of the factors that motivate it. Unresolved, unconscious conflicts form in early childhood and create anxiety, like the death of a parent and then repressing the associated feelings. If the associated feelings are then re-experienced later in life for example, it could lead to previously unexpressed anger directed inwards towards the self, causing depression
  • 5. 1. Guilt and anxiety: Guilt and anxiety is a result of the feelings of stress involving sexuality, hostility, status and dependency, a characteristic emotional state consists of a generalized psychological tension called anxiety, which is combined with the psychological attitude of the guilt. Anxiety is basically an emotional experience similar to but not identical with feelings of nervousness, worry agitating and pain Freud gave three types of anxiety. a) Realistic b) Neurotic c) Moral A. Realistic anxiety: The anxiety that is felt in response to some actual physical danger in surroundings is known as realistic anxiety. B. Neurotic anxiety: The second kind of anxiety is neurotic anxiety that is felt whenever some of the unpredictable content from the unconscious mind is about to enter consciousness. C. Mental anxiety: The fear that the internalized values of the superego are about to be compromised is called moral anxiety. Basic response of anxiety: One of the most basic responses of anxiety and guilt is the release of the hormone adrenaline by the adrenal glands, this result in speeding up heart rate, increased blood pressure, more rapid breathing. The psychodynamic model maintains that the awareness of the psychological changes in the body is anxiety and that is appearing when unconscious conflicts threaten to become consciousness. Guilt is potentially damaging attitude, which according to the psychodynamic view can be either conscious or unconscious. Guilt and anxiety feelings, according to the psychodynamic model are largely responsible for disturbed behavior.
  • 6. 3. Childhood experiences: According to psychodynamic model, adult mental disorder develops because of unconscious conflicts originated in childhood. It causes fixation at a psychosexual stage due to conflict. 4.Fixation at psychosexual stages: Freud believed there were numerous stages that individuals go through during development, they are psychosexual stages. Each stage has an erogenous zone. Associated with it that is the greatest source of pleasure for the person. Major conflicts can cause an individual to become fixated at that stage, at times of great emotional stress a person may regress to that earlier stage of development. Freud gave five psychosexual stages. 1. Oral stage: It spans approximately first 18months of life. Erogenous zone is the mouth. Pleasure comes from sucking, biting, chewing etc. Deficiency, excessive gratification at this stage leads to pathology. Person may also choose profession in which mouth is used such as professor. 2. Anal stage: The focus of pleasure is the anus. Holding it in and letting it go are greatly enjoyed. Toilet training occurs in this period. 3. Phallic stage: Genital area is the pleasure zone. It occurs when the child is approximately three to six years old. This is one of the most complicated and controversial of Freud’s stages. The male child experiences the Oedipus complex named for the Greek mythological character that unknowingly marries his mother. According to Freud the male child is attracted towards the mother and feels resentments for the father because he views him as rival for the mother’s attention. The boy begins to fear father and this ear become Castration anxiety. This means that the boy is afraid that he may loose his sex organ assumed to be responsible for the conflict between him and his father. Oedipus complex is resolved when boy repress his desire for mother and hostility for his father. Next, the boy identifies with the father. In a sense he becomes father and there by shares the mother. For example child the situation is much more complex. She goes through the Electra complex; the female child develops strong positive feelings for the mother because she satisfies her needs. However this affection is reduced when she discovers that she does not possess a penis. The girl holds her mother
  • 7. responsible for deliberately depriving her of this valued organ. As for her father, the girl is attracted towards him because he does have the valued organ and she wants to share it with him. However this attraction is mingled with envy since he has something she does not. She said to be suffering from the penis envy. So the girl child has positive and negative feelings for both parents. According to Freud the only hope for her is to eventually have a baby boy of her own whereby she will finally obtain a penis, through only symbolically. 4. Latency stage: It lasts from about six to twelve years. This is a time when sexual interests are temporarily forgotten and activities such as learning, athletics and peer group interaction take place precedence. 5. Genital stage: It occurs following puberty. This is marked with a resurgence of sexual and aggressive impulses with an increases interest in the opposite sex. Now ideally the person is transformed from a selfish pleasure seeking individual to a normal adult with heterosexual interest. During any of the earlier stage coupled with libido fixation, mal adjustment and psychological disorders occur. Major conflicts of excessive gratification at any stage means that the child becomes fixated. At times of great emotional stress a person may regress to an earlier stage of development, thumb sucking, comfort eating in times of stress. Stage Ages Focus of libido Major development Adult fixation example oral 0-1 Mouth, lips, tongue Weaning of breast, Smoking, feeding overeating Anal 1-3 Anus Toilet training Messiness, orderliness Phallic 3-6 Genitals Resolving Oedipus/Electra complex Deviancy, sexual dysfunction
  • 8. Latency 6-12 None Developing defense mechanism none Genital 12+ Genitals Reaching full sexual maturity Sexual maturity and mental health Defense mechanism Ego has many ingenious devices at its disposal to keep anxiety at the bay, these are known as ego defense mechanisms. Some of the most basic are as follow. Defenses Explanation Example Repression Suppressing a memory until it disappears into unconscious A woman unable to recall that she was raped Sublimation Redirecting wrong urges into socially acceptable A person with strong actions feelings of aggression becomes a soldier Denial Not acknowledging that there is problem Alcoholic who refuses to believe his drinking makes an impact on his job performance or family life Projection Putting your own beliefs onto someone else Assuming that someone you extremely dislike extremely dislikes you Reaction Formation Thinking in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges Having a bias against a particular race or culture and then embracing that race or culture to the extreme
  • 9. Avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on Focusing on the details of a Intellectualization the intellectual aspects funeral as opposed to the sadness and grief Displacement Expression of an unwanted feeling to someone Brother yells on her younger weaker instead of a stronger sister after teacher gave him bad grades Regression Returning to a previous stage of development Throwing a temper tantrum when you don't get your way Undoing An act or communication which partially negates a previous one. Two close friends have a violent argument; when they next meet, each act as if the disagreement had never occurred Rationalization Supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason A woman with a closet full of dresses buys a new one because she doesn't have anything to wear. Evaluation of Freud psychodynamic: Freud’s libral use of ideas regarding sex, infantile sexulatiy etc were not digested. Freud’s revolutionary ideas were so radical that the medical and academic communities rejected them. His term unconscious was not popular among common people because that time educated elite was small, so only they were familiar. He plagiarized many of his basic concepts from ancient literature and greek mythology i.e. Oedipus complex, intrapsychic conflict, many erotic symbolism in dreams, infantile sexuality. Lack of scientific and empirical data to support theory. Hypothesis generated from the theory are not testable.
  • 10. Freud’s conception of personality is built on unobservable abstract conceptions, ego id we cant see them. Freud relied heavily on case study data as evidence for the various aspects of his theory, data from limited population. Contributors of Psychodynamic Model: Other Psychodynamic Theorists There are many forms of psychodynamic theory, beyond those discussed above. Some, described as neo-Freudians, retained many of the concepts proposed by Freud. Among these are the "ego psychology" school pioneered by Freud's daughter Anna, which focusses on the strategies used to preserve the ego, especially defense mechanisms. The "object relations" school (emphasizing the importance of relationships, especially to the mother in early childhood) other psychodynamic theorists diverged significantly from the Freudian tradition--even some who were trained originally in psychoanalysis, like Karen Horney, Erik Erikson (a student of Anna Freud), and Erich Fromm (who, while often described as a neo-Freudian, is actually closer to the humanists than to traditional Freudian theory). It is impossible to address all of the variants here, either historical or contemporary, but the following links can provide a starting point if seeking information on a specific theorist. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) He was the pupil of Freud and the Swiss psychiatrist. He has been following Freud’s writing and had sent him copies of his articles and his first book, the psychology of dementia praecox, in which he upheld the Freudian psychodynamic viewpoint, although with some reservations. That year, Freud invited Jung to visit him in Vienna the two men, it is said, were greatly attracted to each other, and they talked continuously for thirteen hours. This led to a professional relationship in which they corresponded on weekly basis, for a period of six years. Carl Jung Contribution in Psychodynamic Model:
  • 11. Carl Jung’s contributions in psychodynamic model include: • The psyche tends towards wholeness. • The self is composed of the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious contains the archetypes, which manifest in ways particular to each individual. Archetypes: An archetype is an inherited predisposition to enact or respond to certain aspects of the world Example of Jungian Archetypes Archetypes Definitions Anima The feminine qualities present in all men Animus Persona Shadow Self Symbol Women, Virgin Mary, Mona Lisa The masculine qualities present in all women Man, Christ, Don Juan Mask The artificial social roles we enact in public Mask The repressed animalistic urges that we wouldSatan, Hitler prefer not to recognize in ourselves The embodiment of unity, harmony andMandela or “magic circle” wholeness within personality A. The persona: Persona is the Greek word for mask. Jung used this term to refer to one’s public self. B. The anima: This is the female component of the male psyche. The anima results from the experiences men have had with women through the centuries. C. The animus: It is the masculine part of the female psyche. It furnishes the female with traits and also provides the image of the ideal male. D. The shadow: This is the darkest and deepest part of the psyche. It is the part of our personality that we inherit from our pre human ancestors. And contains all of the animal instincts. It is the veil side of human kind. E. The self: It is the component of the psyche that attempts to harmonize all other components. It represents the human struggle for unity, wholeness and integration of the total personality. Psychological types: Jung has developed a personality typology that has become very popular. He distinguished between two types of personalities; the introvert and the extroverts.
  • 12. Introverts: introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings, fantasies, dreams, and so on. They are generally quiet, shy and imaginative. Extroverts: Extroverts prefer the external world of things and people, activities. They are outgoing, friendly and social able. He used this concept to explain why different kinds of individual develop different kinds of theories Freud was an extrovert and thus developed a theory that stressed the external world e.g. sex object. Adler was an introvert and he stressed internal factors such as the will to power. In addition to these there are four functions pertaining to how an individual deals with the world. They are: i. Sensing ii. Feeling iii. Thinking iv. Intuiting Sensing: it detects the presence of things. It indicates that something is there but does not indicate what it is. Thinking: It tells what a thing i. it gives a name to things that are sensed. Feeling: it tells whether a thing is acceptable or unacceptable. Pleasant or unpleasant. It determines whether the thing is of worth to the individual. It pertains to liking and disliking. Intuiting: It hunches about past or future events when factual information is not available. Thinking and feeling are called rational functions as they make judgments and evaluations whereas feeling and thinking are considerable polar opposites because when we think we must exclude feeling and when we feel we must exclude thinking. Likewise the sensation and intuition, the irrational functions, are thought to be polar opposites. By combining to attitudes and four functions, Jung described eight types of people. 1. Thinking extrovert/introvert 2. Feeling extrovert/introvert 3. Sensing extrovert/introvert 4. Intuiting extrovert/introvert
  • 13. Alfred adler Adler is usually considered the first proponent of social psychological approach. He developed a theory in which social interest plays a major role .In alders view the primary motivators of the behavior is not sexuality but an aggressive drive for dominance .He proposed a generalized feeling of inferiority as a motivating force in behavior as it was in his own life. Adler related this concept of inferiority to physical defects .Failure to compensate the inferiority feelings can lead to the development of an inferiority complex .Adler’s most important contribution was his concern with social context of personality. Adler was concern not just with intimate social relationship but with society in general which he hoped to serve through psychiatric means. Major methods and techniques: The most common therapeutic technique of Alderian therapy includes investigating the client life style or basic orientation towards life. This is done systematically be mental life. 1. Birth order 2. Early collection 3. Dreams
  • 14. Harry stalk Sullivan The study of psychological disorder as a social phenomenon was carried forwardly American psychiatric Harry stalk Sullivan. Like Adler he claimed that psychological problems both stem from and defined by interpersonal problems. He made two important contributions to psychodynamic perspective. First he pointed out the critical role of self concept. He argued that as children each of us develop the self system made up largely of other people’s appraisals of us. If those are harsh ,and label that “not me” in order to spare oneself anxiety. Karen Horny Perhaps the most important contribution Karen Horney made to psychodynamic thought was her disagreements with Freud's view of women. Horney was never a student of Freud, but did study his work and eventually taught psychoanalysis at both the Berlin and New York Psychoanalytic Institute. After her insistence that Freud's view of the inherent difference between males and females, she agreed to leave the institute and form her own school known as the American Institute for Psychoanalysis. In many ways, Horney was well ahead of her time and although she died before the feminist movement took hold, she was perhaps the theorist who changed the way psychology looked at gender differences. She countered Freud's concept of penis envy with what she called womb envy, or man's envy of woman's ability to bear children. She argued that men compensate for this inability by striving for achievement and success in other realms. These views, while not well accepted at the time, were used years after her death to help promote gender equality. Neurosis and Relationships Horney was also known for her study of neurotic personality. She defined neurosis as a maladaptive and counterproductive way of dealing with relationships. These people are unhappy and desperately seek out relationships in order to feel good about them. Their way of securing these relationships include projections of their own insecurity and neediness which eventually drives others away. Most of us have come in contact with people who seem to successfully irritate or frighten people away with their clinginess, significant lack of self esteem, and even anger and threatening behavior. According to Horney, these individuals adapted this personality style through a childhood filled with anxiety. And while this way of dealing with others may have been beneficial in their youth, as adults it serves to almost guarantee their needs will not be met.
  • 15. Nurotic needs: Horney indentified 10 strategies for coping with basic anxiety which she called neurotic trends. Ten Neurotic Needs Identified By Horney Excessive needs for Behavioral definition 1.affection and approval Indiscriminate striving to be loved and admired by others; sensitive to criticism, rejection 2.Having a partner to take Excessive dependence on others and fearful of being control abandoned; overvaluing love cause love can solve everything 3.Restricting life within narrow Preference for a life style in which routine and limits orderliness are paramount being undemanding, content with little and submitting to the will of others 4.Power Domination and control of others for its own sake; havin contempt for weakness 5.Exploiting others Dread of being exploited or made to look “stupid” by others but think nothing of taking advantage of them 6.Social recognition Wish to be admired and respected by others; basing self image on public 7.Personal admiration Drive to create an inherited self image devoid of flaws and limitations; living to be flattered and complimented by others 8.Personal ambition Intense striving o be the very best regardless of the consequences; dreading failure 9.Self sufficiency independence and Avoidance of any relationship that involves commitment or obligation; distancing self from
  • 16. anything anyone 10.Perfection unassailability and Attempt to be completely moral and flawless in every respect; maintaining an appearance of perfection and virtue She identified three ways of dealing with the world that are formed by an upbringing in a neurotic family: Moving Toward People, Moving Against People, and Moving Away From People. Moving Toward People. Some children who feel a great deal of anxiety and helplessness move toward people in order to seek help and acceptance. They are striving to feel worthy and can believe the only way to gain this is through the acceptance of others. These people have an intense need to be liked, involved, important, and appreciated. So much so, that they will often fall in love quickly or feel an artificial but very strong attachment to people they may not know well. Their attempts to make that person love them creates a clinginess and neediness that much more often than not results in the other person leaving the relationship. Moving Against People. Another way to deal with insecurities and anxiety is to try to force your power onto others in hopes of feeling good about yourself. Those with this personality style come across as bossy, demanding, selfish, and even cruel. Horney argued that these people project their own hostilities (which she called externalization) onto others and therefore use this as a justification to 'get them before they get me.' Once again, relationships appear doomed from the beginning. Moving Away From People. The final possible consequence of a neurotic household is a personality style filled with a social behavior and an almost indifference to others. If they don't get involved with others, they can't be hurt by them. While it protects them from emotional pain of relationships, it also keeps away all positive aspects of relationships. It leaves them feeling alone and empty. Erik Erikson
  • 17. An important extention of the new ego psychology and the social analysis of personality was the theory of personality of Erikson the major drama of development is the formation of ego identity. The ego identity is the product, Erikson called psychosocial development. Freud gave the psychosexual theory, but Erik Erikson gave the theory of psychosocial development. For Erikson, development is the process that extends from birth to death. He sees personality development as deeply affected not only by the family but also many other social agents, teachers, friends and the like all do their part in molding the individual. As Freud psychosexual stages have to do with challenges to ID striving, but the psycholosocial stages of Erikson emphasis on ego. Each psychosocial stage there is crises. The failure will hamper identity format and generate psychological disorders in general .recent psychoanalytical thinking because of this emphasis on the adaptive thinking problem solving ego is more optimistic than earlier psychoanalytical formulation with their stress on the self seeking terminal id. Margaret Mahler Margaret Mahler worked as a psychoanalyst with young disturbed children. In 1950 she and Manuel Furer founded the Masters Children’s Centre in Manhattan. There she developed the Tripartite Treatment Model, in which the mother participated in the treatment of the child. Mahler initiated a more constructive exploration of severe disturbances in childhood and emphasized the importance of the environment on the child. She was especially interested in mother-infant duality and carefully documented the impact of early separations of children from their mothers. This documentation of separation-individuation was her most important contribution to the development of psychoanalysis. Mahler shed light on the normal and abnormal features of the developmental ego psychology. She worked with psychotic children, while psychosis hadn’t been covered in the psychoanalytic treatment yet. Symbiotic child psychosis struck her. The symptomatology she saw as a derailment of the normal processes whereby self-representations (the representation of one's self) and object-representations (the representation of a familiar person) become distinct. Heinz Kohut Freudian analysis was too focused on individual guilt and failed to reflect the new zeitgeist (the emotional interests and needs of people struggling with issues of identity, meaning, ideals, and self-expression).Though he initially tried to remain true to the traditional analytic viewpoint with which he had become associated and viewed the self as separate but coexistent to the ego, Kohut later rejected Freud's structural theory of the id, ego, and superego. He then developed his ideas around what he called the tripartite (three-part) self.
  • 18. According to Kohut, this three-part self can only develop when the needs of one's "self states," including one's sense of worth and well-being, are met in relationships with others. In contrast to traditional psychoanalysis, which focuses on drives (instinctual motivations of sex and aggression), internal conflicts, and fantasies, self psychology thus placed a great deal of emphasis on the vicissitudes of relationships. Kohut demonstrated his interest in how we develop our "sense of self" using narcissism as a model. If a person is narcissistic, it will allow him to suppress feelings of low selfesteem. By talking highly of himself, the person can eliminate his sense of worthlessness. Psycho determinism and psychopathology of everyday life: Freud gave another concept named as psycho determinism and psychopathology of everyday life. According to Freud psycho determinism means nothing happens by chance everything has cause but you are not aware of it because unconscious id being played. Psychopathology of everyday life reveals our unconscious mind slip of tongue or slip of pen in psychopathology of everyday life. Treatment of abnormality by psychodynamics model: 1. Psychoanalysis 2. Push buttn technique 3. Active imagination technique 4. Hypnosis I. Psychoanalysis: The basic goal of psychoanalysis is resolution of repressed conflicts. This approach believes that something happened in the past that the person is unable to deal with, and this causes the problems in the present. The memory is buried, or repressed, and has gone into the unconscious mind. Problems are followed by the childhood experiences and conflicts. Steps of psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis follows the following steps:
  • 19. Enter the unconscious Identify the details of the repressed Anxiety producing conflicts Turn to consciousness so that patient can deal with them Resolve them as much as possible The following procedures were used in this form of analysis: Free association Dream analysis Slip of tongue Word association Resistance Interpretation Transference Free association:
  • 20. This is where the patient lets their mind wander freely and says whatever comes into their mind. This often uncovers repressed events and exposes unconscious desires. In this way the patient may make statements they did not intend to and the therapist picks these out of the conversation for analysis. 2. Dream analysis: Freud believed that dreams are royal road to the unconscious; there were two parts of dreams, the latent and the manifest content. The manifest content is the storyline and the latent content is the true meaning that is hidden beneath the symbol. 3. Slips of the tongue – Freudian slips: Truth sneaks out when least expected – it has not passed through sensors / filters: come straight from the unconscious. 4. Word Association: A list of unconnected words is read and the patient says the first word that comes into their mind. E.g. "milk" might illicit the response "drink". Here the therapist is looking for "odd" associations, e.g. "father" might illicit the response "punishment". 5. Resistance: In psychoanalysis, it is the inability or unwillingness to discuss freely some aspects of life. The patient may suddenly change the subject he may interpret the session by changing the subject. These actually provided crucial information about the patient. 6. Interpretation: In psychoanalysis, a key procedure in which the psychoanalyst points out to the patients where resistance exit and what certain dreams and verbalization reveal about impulses repressed in the unconscious. The analysts begin to point out the patients defenses and the underlying meaning of his/her dreams feelings and actions. 7. Transference: The situation in which the patient comes to feel about the analyst in the same way he or she once felt about some other important person.
  • 21. II. Push button technique: Designed to show patients how they can create whatever feelings they want by thinking about them, the push button technique asks client to remember a pleasant incident that they have experienced become aware of feelings connected to it, and then switch to an unpleasant image and those feelings. Thus clients learn that they have the power to change their own feelings. III. Active Imagination Technique: It is a concept developed by Carl Jung. It is a meditation technique wherein one’s emotions are translated into images, narrative or personified as separate entities. Carl Jung discovers the technique which would become his principle contribution to the practice of psychotherapy. Active imagination is a method for visualizing subconscious issues by letting them act them out. Active imagination can be done by visualization, which can be considered similar to shamanic journeying. Active imagination can also be done by automatic writing or by artistic activities such as dance. Music, painting, sculpting, ceramics, jewellery, etc. during active imagination permits the thought forms of the sub conscious to act out whatever messages they are trying to communicate to the conscious mind. IV.Hypnosis: It is primarily a stage of deep relaxation, the same as can be achieved by any other relaxation technique. You can be given “suggestions” about new ways to experience your life Evaluation: Psychodynamic model is the first attempt to explain mental illness in psychological terms.
  • 22. It is supported by extensive theory and practice Not scientifically rigorous approach, model based on research with limited sample. It is reductionism model, suggesting that instinctual forces control patients and help is only in the form therapy. Freud was over concerned with sexual factors; this may reflect the culture he may live in. subsequently psychosocial theories have replaced sexual with social influences.