The document aims to provide a comprehensive view of psycho-dynamic model, its assumptions, historical background, Freud's contribution, causes of abnormality, and role and contribution of other
The document aims to provide a comprehensive view of psycho-dynamic model, its assumptions, historical background, Freud's contribution, causes of abnormality, and role and contribution of other contributors
1. Definition of model:
A representation of a system that allows for investigation of the properties of the system
and, in some cases, prediction of future outcomes. Models are often used in quantitative
analysis and technical analysis, and sometimes also used in fundamental analysis.
In psychology we take a model as “A system for representing a psychological
phenomenon more clearly”
There can be different perspectives or models broader or narrow, dealing with particular
aspects of people for example,
Biological model genetic influences
Behavioral model overt behavior
Cognitive model thought processes
These models or perspectives however are of limited scope, although each serves a
purpose. Single perspective do not present the complete view of human beings and do not
tell the whole truth about them.
Psychodynamic is a systemized study and theory of psychological forces that underlie
human behavior, emphasizing the inter play between unconscious and conscious
motivation and the functions.
This model is largely based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Freud believed that the
mind is made up of three parts, the conscious, subconscious and unconscious, altogether
forming the “mental iceberg”. The psychodynamic model is interested in how childhood
relationships and experiences affect future mental health.
The term psychodynamic refers to a wide group of theories that emphasizing the
overriding influences of instincts, drives and forces and the importance of developmental
experience in shaping personality.
Instinct or drive:
Strong internal forces known as instincts motivate the human behavior. They are also
called drives. There are two major types of instincts.
2. 1. Life instincts: it refers to libido Seeking pleasure behavior, satisfying their basic
needs e.g. friendship, love etc
2. Death instincts: it refers to Thanatos unconscious desire to die, aggressiveness, and
Early in their development, these theories focus on the influence of conscious drive and
forces; out they received much criticism and subsequent revision. Most recent
psychodynamic theory places greater emphasis on conscious experience and its
interaction with the unconscious, in addition to the role that social factors play in
development. The psychodynamic model is more concerned with the unconscious forces
Assumptions of psychodynamic model:
The essence of the psychodynamic model is that
The most significant forces shaping human behavior operate at the unconscious
People are not aware of the most critical motivations or of their most important
conflicts and frustrations.
Similarly the anxiety generated by conflicts may be disguised as defenses, which
are used to reduce the stress, operate at the unconscious level.
History of psychodynamic model:
Ernst von Brucke, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Adler and Melanie Klein initially
developed psychodynamic. By the mid 1940 and into 1950, the general application of the
psychodynamic theory had been well established. In 1988, in book introduction to
psychodynamics, psychologist Horowists states that his own interest and fascination with
psychodynamic began during 1950’s, when he heard Ralph green son, a popular local
psychoanalyst, who spoke to the public on topic such as people who hate. Horowits
vividly described neurotic behavior and unconscious mental process and linked
psychodynamic theory directly to everyday life.
Freud and psychodynamic model:
The psychodynamic approach was largely the result of the work of Sigmund Freud, who
developed the theory and technique of psychoanalysis. Freud’s work was the beginning
of the psychodynamic model and his theories dominated this approach throughout the
first half of the present century. Freud was a brilliant young Viennese physician who at
first specialized in neurology and received an appointment as lecturer on nervous disease
at the University of Vienna. He was impressed by their use of hypnosis with hysterical
3. patients and came way convinced that powerful mental processes could remain hidden
from consciousness. He directed the patients under from hypnosis to talk freely about
their problems and about what bothered them. Under these circumstances the patient
usually displayed considerable emotions and on awakening from the hypnotic state felt
considerably relieved. Because of the emotional releases involved, this method was
called cathartic method. This simple innovation in the use of hypnosis proved to be of
great significance, thus was made the discovery of the unconscious that portion of the
mind that contains experiences of which we are unaware and with it, the belief, that
processes outside the awareness of the person can play an important role in the
determination of behavior. Free association, a psychotherapeutic technique in which the
patient says whatever comes to mind. Freud goal in his system of psychoanalysis was to
bring into conscious awareness the repressed memories, which were the source of
abnormality. Freud had also learned that a patients dream could be a source of
significant emotional material and contain clues to the underlying causes of a
disturbance. Transference, is a process by which a patient respond to the therapist as if
the therapist were a significant person in the patient’s life
Topography of mind:
Freud postulates the three states of mental activity conscious, preconscious and
It consists of those mental events and activities of which the organism is immediately
aware. The law of logic governs conscious mental thoughts.
2. Pre conscious:
It is intermediate state, separating the contents of the conscious and the unconscious. The
contents of the preconscious are not as directly accessible as that of conscious. But it’s
more easily retrievable than that of unconscious.
The unconscious is the repository of all sorts of activity repressed material, such as
unpleasant or socially unacceptable libidinal strivings, and conflicts. The laws of logic do
not govern the contents of unconscious.
Levels of personality
Within the mind there are three aspects of your personality that determine how you
4. 3. Super ego
The id is completely selfish, immediate gratification of needs without reference
to reality or moral considerations. He related it with pleasure principle.
The part that mediated between the demands of the id and the realities of the
external world, basic purpose is to meet id demands, but in such a way as to ensure the
well being and survival of the individual. He relates it with reality principle.
3) Super ego:
This is a part that contains your morals and is concerned with right and wrong
and strives to control the ego inhibit desires that are considered wrong or immoral.
According to Freud ego is the part, which sees battling with three forces, the
id, the ego and the super ego and the outside world. Hence the basic psychodynamic
model focuses on dynamic inter actions between the id, Ego and super ego.
2.Conflict between id, ego and super ego:
Sometimes the same situation may provide cues for more than one response. If both
responses can occur, there is no particular difficulty. However a situation if provides cues
for two incompatible responses, there is conflict.
As said that according to Freud there are three aspects to your personality that determine
how you behave, the id, ego and superego. The id demands immediate satisfaction of
needs, the superego contains your morals and the ego that controls the fight between the
two. Conflict is a central issue in psychoanalytic theory and Freud talk about
intrapsychic conflicts. The ego is the mediator between two, this causes the ego to
experience conflicts, which turns into anxiety.
So the fight between id and superego causing abnormality because of the conflict
between the two. It assumes that mental illness is the result of psychological rather than
Causes of abnormality
It assumes that mental illness arises from unconscious and repressed conflicts at a young
age, like Freud’s Oedipus complex. It explains the causes for mental illness as behavior
that can be explained in terms of the factors that motivate it. Unresolved, unconscious
conflicts form in early childhood and create anxiety, like the death of a parent and then
repressing the associated feelings. If the associated feelings are then re-experienced later
in life for example, it could lead to previously unexpressed anger directed inwards
towards the self, causing depression
5. 1. Guilt and anxiety:
Guilt and anxiety is a result of the feelings of stress involving sexuality, hostility,
status and dependency, a characteristic emotional state consists of a generalized
psychological tension called anxiety, which is combined with the psychological
attitude of the guilt. Anxiety is basically an emotional experience similar to but
not identical with feelings of nervousness, worry agitating and pain Freud gave
three types of anxiety.
A. Realistic anxiety:
The anxiety that is felt in response to some actual physical danger in
surroundings is known as realistic anxiety.
B. Neurotic anxiety:
The second kind of anxiety is neurotic anxiety that is felt whenever
some of the unpredictable content from the unconscious mind is about to enter
C. Mental anxiety:
The fear that the internalized values of the superego are about to be
compromised is called moral anxiety.
Basic response of anxiety:
One of the most basic responses of anxiety and guilt is the release of the hormone
adrenaline by the adrenal glands, this result in speeding up heart rate, increased
blood pressure, more rapid breathing. The psychodynamic model maintains that the
awareness of the psychological changes in the body is anxiety and that is appearing
when unconscious conflicts threaten to become consciousness.
Guilt is potentially damaging attitude, which according to the psychodynamic view can
be either conscious or unconscious. Guilt and anxiety feelings, according to the
psychodynamic model are largely responsible for disturbed behavior.
6. 3. Childhood experiences:
According to psychodynamic model, adult mental disorder develops because of
unconscious conflicts originated in childhood. It causes fixation at a psychosexual
stage due to conflict.
4.Fixation at psychosexual stages:
Freud believed there were numerous stages that individuals go through during
development, they are psychosexual stages. Each stage has an erogenous zone.
Associated with it that is the greatest source of pleasure for the person. Major
conflicts can cause an individual to become fixated at that stage, at times of great
emotional stress a person may regress to that earlier stage of development.
Freud gave five psychosexual stages.
1. Oral stage:
It spans approximately first 18months of life. Erogenous zone is the mouth.
Pleasure comes from sucking, biting, chewing etc. Deficiency, excessive
gratification at this stage leads to pathology. Person may also choose profession in
which mouth is used such as professor.
2. Anal stage:
The focus of pleasure is the anus. Holding it in and letting it go are greatly
enjoyed. Toilet training occurs in this period.
3. Phallic stage:
Genital area is the pleasure zone. It occurs when the child is approximately
three to six years old. This is one of the most complicated and controversial of
Freud’s stages. The male child experiences the Oedipus complex named for the
Greek mythological character that unknowingly marries his mother. According to
Freud the male child is attracted towards the mother and feels resentments for the
father because he views him as rival for the mother’s attention. The boy begins to
fear father and this ear become Castration anxiety. This means that the boy is
afraid that he may loose his sex organ assumed to be responsible for the conflict
between him and his father. Oedipus complex is resolved when boy repress his
desire for mother and hostility for his father. Next, the boy identifies with the
father. In a sense he becomes father and there by shares the mother.
For example child the situation is much more complex. She goes through the
Electra complex; the female child develops strong positive feelings for the
mother because she satisfies her needs. However this affection is reduced when
she discovers that she does not possess a penis. The girl holds her mother
7. responsible for deliberately depriving her of this valued organ. As for her father,
the girl is attracted towards him because he does have the valued organ and she
wants to share it with him. However this attraction is mingled with envy since he
has something she does not. She said to be suffering from the penis envy. So the
girl child has positive and negative feelings for both parents. According to Freud
the only hope for her is to eventually have a baby boy of her own whereby she
will finally obtain a penis, through only symbolically.
4. Latency stage:
It lasts from about six to twelve years. This is a time when sexual interests are
temporarily forgotten and activities such as learning, athletics and peer group
interaction take place precedence.
5. Genital stage:
It occurs following puberty. This is marked with a resurgence of sexual and
aggressive impulses with an increases interest in the opposite sex. Now ideally
the person is transformed from a selfish pleasure seeking individual to a normal
adult with heterosexual interest. During any of the earlier stage coupled with
libido fixation, mal adjustment and psychological disorders occur.
Major conflicts of excessive gratification at any stage means that the child
becomes fixated. At times of great emotional stress a person may regress to an
earlier stage of development, thumb sucking, comfort eating in times of stress.
Focus of libido
Weaning of breast, Smoking,
Ego has many ingenious devices at its disposal to keep anxiety at the bay, these are
known as ego
defense mechanisms. Some of the most basic are as follow.
Suppressing a memory until it disappears into
A woman unable to recall
that she was raped
Redirecting wrong urges into socially acceptable A person with strong
feelings of aggression
becomes a soldier
Not acknowledging that there is problem
Alcoholic who refuses to
believe his drinking makes
an impact on his job
performance or family life
Putting your own beliefs onto someone else
Assuming that someone you
extremely dislike extremely
Thinking in a way that is the extreme opposite
of unacceptable urges
Having a bias against a
particular race or culture and
then embracing that race or
culture to the extreme
9. Avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on Focusing on the details of a
Intellectualization the intellectual aspects
funeral as opposed to the
sadness and grief
Expression of an unwanted feeling to someone Brother yells on her younger
weaker instead of a stronger
sister after teacher gave him
Returning to a previous stage of development
Throwing a temper tantrum
when you don't get your way
An act or communication which partially
negates a previous one.
Two close friends have a
violent argument; when they
next meet, each act as if the
disagreement had never
Supplying a logical or rational reason as
opposed to the real reason
A woman with a closet full
of dresses buys a new one
because she doesn't have
anything to wear.
Evaluation of Freud psychodynamic:
Freud’s libral use of ideas regarding sex, infantile sexulatiy etc were not digested.
Freud’s revolutionary ideas were so radical that the medical and academic
communities rejected them.
His term unconscious was not popular among common people because that time
educated elite was small, so only they were familiar.
He plagiarized many of his basic concepts from ancient literature and greek
mythology i.e. Oedipus complex, intrapsychic conflict, many erotic symbolism in
dreams, infantile sexuality.
Lack of scientific and empirical data to support theory.
Hypothesis generated from the theory are not testable.
10. Freud’s conception of personality is built on unobservable abstract conceptions, ego id
we cant see them.
Freud relied heavily on case study data as evidence for the various aspects of his
theory, data from limited population.
Contributors of Psychodynamic Model:
Other Psychodynamic Theorists
There are many forms of psychodynamic theory, beyond those discussed
above. Some, described as neo-Freudians, retained many of the concepts
proposed by Freud. Among these are the "ego psychology" school pioneered by
Freud's daughter Anna, which focusses on the strategies used to preserve the
ego, especially defense mechanisms. The "object relations" school
(emphasizing the importance of relationships, especially to the mother in early
childhood) other psychodynamic theorists diverged significantly from the
Freudian tradition--even some who were trained originally in psychoanalysis,
like Karen Horney, Erik Erikson (a student of Anna Freud), and Erich Fromm
(who, while often described as a neo-Freudian, is actually closer to the
humanists than to traditional Freudian theory). It is impossible to address all of
the variants here, either historical or contemporary, but the following links can
provide a starting point if seeking information on a specific theorist.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
He was the pupil of Freud and the Swiss psychiatrist. He has been following Freud’s
writing and had sent him copies of his articles and his first book, the psychology of
dementia praecox, in which he upheld the Freudian psychodynamic viewpoint, although
with some reservations.
That year, Freud invited Jung to visit him in Vienna the two men, it is said, were greatly
attracted to each other, and they talked continuously for thirteen hours. This led to a
professional relationship in which they corresponded on weekly basis, for a period of six
Carl Jung Contribution in Psychodynamic Model:
11. Carl Jung’s contributions in psychodynamic model include:
The psyche tends towards wholeness.
The self is composed of the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective
unconscious. The collective unconscious contains the archetypes, which manifest in
ways particular to each individual.
An archetype is an inherited predisposition to enact or respond to certain aspects of the
Example of Jungian Archetypes
The feminine qualities present in all men
Women, Virgin Mary, Mona
The masculine qualities present in all women Man, Christ, Don Juan Mask
The artificial social roles we enact in public Mask
The repressed animalistic urges that we wouldSatan, Hitler
prefer not to recognize in ourselves
The embodiment of unity, harmony andMandela or “magic circle”
wholeness within personality
A. The persona: Persona is the Greek word for mask. Jung used this term to
refer to one’s public self.
B. The anima: This is the female component of the male psyche. The anima
results from the experiences men have had with women through the centuries.
C. The animus: It is the masculine part of the female psyche. It furnishes the
female with traits and also provides the image of the ideal male.
D. The shadow: This is the darkest and deepest part of the psyche. It is the
part of our personality that we inherit from our pre human ancestors. And
contains all of the animal instincts. It is the veil side of human kind.
E. The self: It is the component of the psyche that attempts to harmonize all
other components. It represents the human struggle for unity, wholeness and
integration of the total personality.
Jung has developed a personality typology that has become very popular. He
distinguished between two types of personalities; the introvert and the extroverts.
12. Introverts: introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings,
fantasies, dreams, and so on. They are generally quiet, shy and imaginative.
Extroverts prefer the external world of things and people, activities. They are outgoing,
friendly and social able. He used this concept to explain why different kinds of individual
develop different kinds of theories Freud was an extrovert and thus developed a theory
that stressed the external world e.g. sex object. Adler was an introvert and he stressed
internal factors such as the will to power.
In addition to these there are four functions pertaining to how an individual deals with
the world. They are:
Sensing: it detects the presence of things. It indicates that something is there but does not
indicate what it is.
Thinking: It tells what a thing i. it gives a name to things that are sensed.
Feeling: it tells whether a thing is acceptable or unacceptable. Pleasant or unpleasant. It
determines whether the thing is of worth to the individual. It pertains to liking and
Intuiting: It hunches about past or future events when factual information is not
Thinking and feeling are called rational functions as they make judgments and
evaluations whereas feeling and thinking are considerable polar opposites because when
we think we must exclude feeling and when we feel we must exclude thinking. Likewise
the sensation and intuition, the irrational functions, are thought to be polar opposites. By
combining to attitudes and four functions, Jung described eight types of people.
1. Thinking extrovert/introvert
2. Feeling extrovert/introvert
3. Sensing extrovert/introvert
4. Intuiting extrovert/introvert
13. Alfred adler
Adler is usually considered the first proponent of social psychological approach. He
developed a theory in which social interest plays a major role .In alders view the primary
motivators of the behavior is not sexuality but an aggressive drive for dominance .He
proposed a generalized feeling of inferiority as a motivating force in behavior as it was in
his own life. Adler related this concept of inferiority to physical defects .Failure to
compensate the inferiority feelings can lead to the development of an inferiority
complex .Adler’s most important contribution was his concern with social context of
personality. Adler was concern not just with intimate social relationship but with society
in general which he hoped to serve through psychiatric means.
Major methods and techniques:
The most common therapeutic technique of Alderian therapy includes investigating the
client life style or basic orientation towards life. This is done systematically be mental
1. Birth order
2. Early collection
14. Harry stalk Sullivan
The study of psychological disorder as a social phenomenon was carried forwardly
American psychiatric Harry stalk Sullivan. Like Adler he claimed that psychological
problems both stem from and defined by interpersonal problems. He made two
important contributions to psychodynamic perspective. First he pointed out the critical
role of self concept. He argued that as children each of us develop the self system made
up largely of other people’s appraisals of us. If those are harsh ,and label that “not me” in
order to spare oneself anxiety.
Perhaps the most important contribution Karen Horney made to psychodynamic thought
was her disagreements with Freud's view of women. Horney was never a student of Freud,
but did study his work and eventually taught psychoanalysis at both the Berlin and New
York Psychoanalytic Institute. After her insistence that Freud's view of the inherent
difference between males and females, she agreed to leave the institute and form her own
school known as the American Institute for Psychoanalysis.
In many ways, Horney was well ahead of her time and although she died before the
feminist movement took hold, she was perhaps the theorist who changed the way
psychology looked at gender differences. She countered Freud's concept of penis envy
with what she called womb envy, or man's envy of woman's ability to bear children.
She argued that men compensate for this inability by striving for achievement and success
in other realms. These views, while not well accepted at the time, were used years after her
death to help promote gender equality.
Neurosis and Relationships
Horney was also known for her study of neurotic personality. She defined neurosis as a
maladaptive and counterproductive way of dealing with relationships. These people are
unhappy and desperately seek out relationships in order to feel good about them. Their way
of securing these relationships include projections of their own insecurity and neediness
which eventually drives others away.
Most of us have come in contact with people who seem to successfully irritate or frighten
people away with their clinginess, significant lack of self esteem, and even anger and
threatening behavior. According to Horney, these individuals adapted this personality style
through a childhood filled with anxiety. And while this way of dealing with others may
have been beneficial in their youth, as adults it serves to almost guarantee their needs will
not be met.
15. Nurotic needs:
Horney indentified 10 strategies for coping with basic anxiety which she called neurotic
Ten Neurotic Needs Identified By Horney
Excessive needs for
1.affection and approval
Indiscriminate striving to be loved and admired by
others; sensitive to criticism, rejection
2.Having a partner to take Excessive dependence on others and fearful of being
abandoned; overvaluing love cause love can solve
3.Restricting life within narrow Preference for a life style in which routine and
orderliness are paramount being undemanding, content
with little and submitting to the will of others
Domination and control of others for its own sake;
havin contempt for weakness
Dread of being exploited or made to look “stupid” by
others but think nothing of taking advantage of them
Wish to be admired and respected by others; basing self
image on public
Drive to create an inherited self image devoid of flaws
and limitations; living to be flattered and complimented
Intense striving o be the very best regardless of the
consequences; dreading failure
and Avoidance of any relationship that involves
commitment or obligation; distancing self from
16. anything anyone
and Attempt to be completely moral and flawless in every
respect; maintaining an appearance of perfection and
She identified three ways of dealing with the world that are formed by an upbringing in a
neurotic family: Moving Toward People, Moving Against People, and Moving Away From
Moving Toward People. Some children who feel a great deal of anxiety and helplessness
move toward people in order to seek help and acceptance. They are striving to feel worthy
and can believe the only way to gain this is through the acceptance of others. These people
have an intense need to be liked, involved, important, and appreciated. So much so, that
they will often fall in love quickly or feel an artificial but very strong attachment to people
they may not know well. Their attempts to make that person love them creates a clinginess
and neediness that much more often than not results in the other person leaving the
Moving Against People. Another way to deal with insecurities and anxiety is to try to
force your power onto others in hopes of feeling good about yourself. Those with this
personality style come across as bossy, demanding, selfish, and even cruel. Horney argued
that these people project their own hostilities (which she called externalization) onto others
and therefore use this as a justification to 'get them before they get me.' Once again,
relationships appear doomed from the beginning.
Moving Away From People. The final possible consequence of a neurotic household is a
personality style filled with a social behavior and an almost indifference to others. If they
don't get involved with others, they can't be hurt by them. While it protects them from
emotional pain of relationships, it also keeps away all positive aspects of relationships. It
leaves them feeling alone and empty.
17. An important extention of the new ego psychology and the social analysis of personality
was the theory of personality of Erikson the major drama of development is the formation
of ego identity. The ego identity is the product, Erikson called psychosocial
development. Freud gave the psychosexual theory, but Erik Erikson gave the theory of
psychosocial development. For Erikson, development is the process that extends from
birth to death. He sees personality development as deeply affected not only by the family
but also many other social agents, teachers, friends and the like all do their part in
molding the individual.
As Freud psychosexual stages have to do with challenges to ID striving, but the
psycholosocial stages of Erikson emphasis on ego. Each psychosocial stage there is
crises. The failure will hamper identity format and generate psychological disorders in
general .recent psychoanalytical thinking because of this emphasis on the adaptive
thinking problem solving ego is more optimistic than earlier psychoanalytical formulation
with their stress on the self seeking terminal id.
Margaret Mahler worked as a psychoanalyst with young disturbed children. In 1950 she
and Manuel Furer founded the Masters Children’s Centre in Manhattan. There she
developed the Tripartite Treatment Model, in which the mother participated in the
treatment of the child. Mahler initiated a more constructive exploration of severe
disturbances in childhood and emphasized the importance of the environment on the
child. She was especially interested in mother-infant duality and carefully documented
the impact of early separations of children from their mothers. This documentation of
separation-individuation was her most important contribution to the development of
Mahler shed light on the normal and abnormal features of the developmental ego
psychology. She worked with psychotic children, while psychosis hadn’t been covered
in the psychoanalytic treatment yet.
Symbiotic child psychosis struck her. The symptomatology she saw as a derailment of
the normal processes whereby self-representations (the representation of one's self) and
object-representations (the representation of a familiar person) become distinct.
Freudian analysis was too focused on individual guilt and failed to reflect the new
zeitgeist (the emotional interests and needs of people struggling with issues of identity,
meaning, ideals, and self-expression).Though he initially tried to remain true to the
traditional analytic viewpoint with which he had become associated and viewed the self
as separate but coexistent to the ego, Kohut later rejected Freud's structural theory of the
id, ego, and superego. He then developed his ideas around what he called the tripartite
18. According to Kohut, this three-part self can only develop when the needs of one's "self
states," including one's sense of worth and well-being, are met in relationships with
others. In contrast to traditional psychoanalysis, which focuses on drives (instinctual
motivations of sex and aggression), internal conflicts, and fantasies, self psychology thus
placed a great deal of emphasis on the vicissitudes of relationships.
Kohut demonstrated his interest in how we develop our "sense of self" using narcissism
as a model. If a person is narcissistic, it will allow him to suppress feelings of low selfesteem. By talking highly of himself, the person can eliminate his sense of worthlessness.
Psycho determinism and psychopathology of everyday life:
Freud gave another concept named as psycho determinism and psychopathology of
everyday life. According to Freud psycho determinism means nothing happens by
chance everything has cause but you are not aware of it because unconscious id being
played. Psychopathology of everyday life reveals our unconscious mind slip of tongue
or slip of pen in psychopathology of everyday life.
Treatment of abnormality by psychodynamics model:
2. Push buttn technique
3. Active imagination technique
The basic goal of psychoanalysis is resolution of repressed conflicts. This approach
believes that something happened in the past that the person is unable to deal with, and
this causes the problems in the present. The memory is buried, or repressed, and has gone
into the unconscious mind. Problems are followed by the childhood experiences and
Steps of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis follows the following steps:
19. Enter the unconscious
Identify the details of the
Anxiety producing conflicts
Turn to consciousness so that
patient can deal with them
Resolve them as much as
The following procedures were used in this form of analysis:
Slip of tongue
20. This is where the patient lets their mind wander freely and says whatever comes into
their mind. This often uncovers repressed events and exposes unconscious desires. In
this way the patient may make statements they did not intend to and the therapist
picks these out of the conversation for analysis.
2. Dream analysis:
Freud believed that dreams are royal road to the unconscious; there were two parts of
dreams, the latent and the manifest content. The manifest content is the storyline and
the latent content is the true meaning that is hidden beneath the symbol.
3. Slips of the tongue – Freudian slips:
Truth sneaks out when least expected – it has not passed through sensors / filters:
come straight from the unconscious.
4. Word Association:
A list of unconnected words is read and the patient says the first word that comes into
their mind. E.g. "milk" might illicit the response "drink". Here the therapist is looking
for "odd" associations, e.g. "father" might illicit the response "punishment".
In psychoanalysis, it is the inability or unwillingness to discuss freely some aspects of
life. The patient may suddenly change the subject he may interpret the session by
changing the subject. These actually provided crucial information about the patient.
In psychoanalysis, a key procedure in which the psychoanalyst points out to the
patients where resistance exit and what certain dreams and verbalization reveal about
impulses repressed in the unconscious. The analysts begin to point out the patients
defenses and the underlying meaning of his/her dreams feelings and actions.
The situation in which the patient comes to feel about the analyst in the same way he
or she once felt about some other important person.
21. II. Push button technique:
Designed to show patients how they can create whatever feelings they want by thinking
about them, the push button technique asks client to remember a pleasant incident that
they have experienced become aware of feelings connected to it, and then switch to an
unpleasant image and those feelings. Thus clients learn that they have the power to
change their own feelings.
III. Active Imagination Technique:
It is a concept developed by Carl Jung. It is a meditation technique wherein one’s
emotions are translated into images, narrative or personified as separate entities. Carl
Jung discovers the technique which would become his principle contribution to the
practice of psychotherapy. Active imagination is a method for visualizing subconscious
issues by letting them act them out. Active imagination can be done by visualization,
which can be considered similar to shamanic journeying. Active imagination can also be
done by automatic writing or by artistic activities such as dance. Music, painting,
sculpting, ceramics, jewellery, etc. during active imagination permits the thought forms
of the sub conscious to act out whatever messages they are trying to communicate to the
It is primarily a stage of deep relaxation, the same as can be achieved by any other
relaxation technique. You can be given “suggestions” about new ways to experience your
Psychodynamic model is the first attempt to explain mental illness in psychological
22. It is supported by extensive theory and practice
Not scientifically rigorous approach, model based on research with limited sample.
It is reductionism model, suggesting that instinctual forces control patients and help is
only in the form therapy.
Freud was over concerned with sexual factors; this may reflect the culture he may live
in. subsequently psychosocial theories have replaced sexual with social influences.