Learning Prinicples by B. F. Skinner


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This document is about B.F. Skinner's learning principles, laws of learning and factors that influence and decelerate learning process

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Learning Prinicples by B. F. Skinner

  1. 1. Learning Principles: B. F. Skinner
  2. 2. • Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990)
  3. 3. Early life • B.F. Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna, a small railroad town in the hills of Pennsylvania just below Binghamton, New York. • Skinner’s father was a lawyer • With one younger brother, he grew up in a home environment he described as "warm and stable".
  4. 4. Early life (Cont…) • Skinner went to Hamilton College, New York, as he wanted to become a writer. • After getting his B.A. in English literature in 1926, Skinner attended Harvard University, where he later received a PhD in 1931. • His literary skills disenchanted him, and was inspired by John B. Watson’s Behaviorism. He acquired a degree in psychology, which led to the development of his influential operant
  5. 5. Books by B.F. Skinner • The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis (1938) • Walden Two (1948) • Science and Human Behavior (1953) • Schedules of Reinforcement (1957) • Verbal Behavior (1957) • The Analysis of Behavior: A Program for Self Instruction (with James Holland, 1961) • The Technology of Teaching (1968) • Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis (1969)
  6. 6. Books by B.F. Skinner (Cont…) • Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) • About Behaviorism (1974) • Particulars of My Life: Part One of an Autobiography (1976) • Reflections on Behaviorism and Society (1978) • The Shaping of a Behaviorist: Part Two of an Autobiography (1979) • Notebooks (with Robert Epstein, 1980) • Enjoy Old Age: A Program of Self-Management (with M. Vaughan, 1983) • A Matter of Consequences: Part Three of an Autobiography (1983) • Upon Further Reflection (1987) • Recent Issues in the Analysis of Behavior (1989)
  7. 7. Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning)
  8. 8. • Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning • Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning • It was the dominant school in American psychology from the 1930s through the 1950s.
  9. 9. B. F. Skinner’s influence Skinner's theory of operant conditioning was based on the work of Thorndike (1905). • Law of Effect: rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
  10. 10. • Operant Any activity behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences • Operant Conditioning The behavior is followed by consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future
  11. 11. B. F. Skinner’s Experiment
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning There are two types of consequences: positive (sometimes called pleasant) Strengthens Behavior negative (sometimes called unpleasant) Weakens behavior
  13. 13. Reinforcer Any event that STRENGTHENS the behavior it follows. There are 2 types of reinforcement 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement
  14. 14. Positive Reinforcement Strengthens a response by presenting a pleasant stimulus after a response.
  15. 15. Negative Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
  16. 16. Punishment An event that DECREASES the behavior that it follows There are 2 types of punishment 1. Positive Punishment 2. Negative Punishment
  17. 17. Positive Punishment It involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows
  18. 18. Negative Punishment When a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs, to decrease the following response
  19. 19. Do rewards or punishment work?
  20. 20. Reinforcement Schedules • Stimuli are presented in the environment according to a schedule of which there are two basic categories: Continuous Intermittent
  21. 21. Continuous Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement refers to reinforcement being administered to each instance of a response
  22. 22. Intermittent reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement lies between continuous reinforcement and extinction. It is the random or periodic administration of reinforcement for the desired response.
  23. 23. TYPE MEANING OUTCOME Fixed Ratio Reinforcement depends on a definite number of responses Activity slows after reinforcement and then picks up Variable Ratio Number of responses needed for reinforcement varies Greatest activity of all schedules Fixed Interval Reinforcement depends on a fixed time Activity increases as deadline nears Variable Interval Time between reinforcement varies Steady activity results
  24. 24. Give me a child and I’ll shape him into anything
  25. 25. If you're old, don’t try to change yourself, chan ge the environment
  26. 26. The real problem is not whether machines think, but whether men do