HUMANISTIC THERAPIESAND COUNSELINGPresented toDr. Amina MuazzamPresented byAamna Haneef4403Lahore College for WomenUniversity, LhrCOUNSELING IN HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
What is Humanistic Psychology?• The humanistic approach in psychology developedas a rebellion against what some psychologists sawas limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamicpsychology. The humanistic approach is thus oftencalled the “third force” in psychology afterpsychoanalysis and behaviorism (Maslow, 1968).• L a i d i mp o r t a n c e o n t h es t u d y o f w h o l e p e r s o n• R a t h e r t h a n s t u d y i n gp e r s o n a l i t y p a r t s , s u c h a se g o , s u p e r e g o e t c .• F r e e d o m t o c h o o s e
Why need for Humanism?O f f e r e d a n e w s e t o fv a l u e s f o r a nu n d e r s t a n d i n g o fh u m a n n a t u r ec o n d i t i o nH u m a n i s t i c s c h o o l i sa n i n t e n s e l yo p t i m i s t i c o n eO f f e r s t h e i n d i v i d u a lt h e c h a n c e t o t a k ec o n t r o l o f h i s o r h e rl i f e
Origins• T h ep h e n o me n o l o g i c a lt r a d i t i o n• T h e e x i s t e n t i a lt r a d i t i o n• S e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n• S o c i a l i n f l u e n c e• P e r s o n a l C o n s t r u c tT h e o r y
Egalitarianism?C h o i c e o f t h et e r m c l i e n t b yt h e t h e r a p i s t
Common assumptions of Humanistic Theoriesand Therapies• V i e w o f t h ep e r s o n• F r e e d o m t oc h o o s e• F o c u s o ns u b j e c t i v er e a l i t y• T h e r a p i s tq u a l i t i e s• E mo t i o n s
The Fully FunctioningPersonTheory of Dysfunction
Inner conflict andAnxiety-Need forCounselingDiscrepancy between one’sown and others’ expectationindividuals accept the valuesof othersto gain positive regardthose values are internalizedand become part of thepersonalitybehaves or thinks inways inconsistent withthose introjectedvaluesperson loses self-esteem and suffersanxiety
Humanism vs. Existentialism…Humanism and Existentialism BOTH:Respect for client’s experience and trust inclients ability to changeBelieve in freedom, choice,values, personal responsibilityautonomy, meaning
Humanism vs. Existentialism…Humanism Clients do not suffer fromanxiety in creating anidentity Clients need to believethat they have the naturalpotential to actualizeExistentialism Clients come intocounseling because theyare facing anxiety intrying to construct anidentity in a world withoutintrinsic meaning
Other contributors• Illuminated, refined, interpreted or expandedupon by Schlien (1984), Bozarth (1990), Brodley(1990) and Mearns (1996).• Cross cultural relevance has been queried(Holdstock 1990, 1993) and demonstrated(Morotomi 1998).• Application to the arena of creative therapieshas been explored and explained by Rogers(1985), Silverstone (1994) and Wilkins (1994).
Theoretical PropositionsBasic human tendency is toward maintaining andenhancing the experiencing self—or selfactualizationAssumed the cause of disorder/Problem : blockedself actualizationGoal: gap between perceived self and ideal self;increase self-acceptance, inner direction, andsupport personal growthGoal: ―releasing of an alreadyexisting capacity in a potentiallycompetent individual, not theexpert manipulation of a moreor less passive personality‖
The client . . .not immediately capable for therapeutic processThreatened by labeledcounseling setting, abnormalself conscious, hurtashamed of looked upondisclosing and dist- treated withurbed self concept little respect
The Counselor . . .• Facilitate the client• Enter the subjective,personal world of the client• open communication• important qualities: genuineness, empathyand unconditional positive regard
The stages of CounselingIn successful counseling, the client moves from fixity tochangeableness, from rigid structure to flow, from stasis toprocess (Rogers, 1958).Stage I: blocked internal communicationStage II: Self-acceptance by clientStage III: Beginning to recognize contradictions inexperience.Stage IV: Disclosure of personal experiences withcaution/restrictivelyStage V: Feelings are expressed freely
The stages of Counseling (Cont.)Stage VI: ―physiological loosening‖ such asmoistness in the eyes, tears, sighs or muscularrelaxation, accompanies the open expression offeelingsStage VII: Personal growth and trust on counselorwith readiness to change and actualize.
Rogers (1959) described specifically some of thechanges he expected successful counseling toproduce:• The person comes to see himself differently.• He accepts and his feelings more fully.• He becomes more self-confident and self-directing.• He becomes more the person he would like to be.• He becomes more flexible and less rigid in his perceptions.• He adopts more realistic goals for himself.• He behaves in a more mature fashion.• He changes his maladaptive behavior, even such a long establishedone as chronic alcoholism.• He became more acceptant of others.• He becomes more open to the evidence, both to what is going onoutside of himself, and to what is going on inside himself.• He changes his basic personality characteristics in constructiveways.
• Gestalt therapy• Transactional Analysis (TA)• Motivational Interviewing Theory• Body centered therapies• Expressive art therapiesBlends, integrations and in-betweeners