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Drainage
 

Drainage

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    Drainage Drainage Presentation Transcript

    • 1
    • DRAINGE SYSTEM FORDRAINGE SYSTEM FOR FOUNDATIONSFOUNDATIONS 2
    • GROUP MEMBERSGROUP MEMBERS  ASIF HANIF 06-CE-141  NAVEED BHATTI 06-CE-143  HASAN IBRAHIM 06-CE-147  ALI MURAD 06-CE-149  SHOAIB ASHRAF 06-CE-151  MUHAMMAD MUSA 06-CE-153  LIBAN ABDULLAH 06-CE-155  MUFIZULLAH 06-CE-157 3
    • TOPICS TO BE FOCUSED:TOPICS TO BE FOCUSED: 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    • DRAINAGE: Drainage means the removal of water from the soil it have two main goals prevention of seepage, improvement of soil properties.  DRAINAGE SYSTEM: Drainage system means the different methods to be used for dewatering the foundation and to keep the foundation safe. DEFINITIONS TO BE REMEMBER:DEFINITIONS TO BE REMEMBER: 8
    •  FOUNDATION DEWATERING: Foundation dewatering is the way by which the water table kept lower beneath the foundation.  FILTER: A type of membrane than only allows water to pass through it. “Good filter is key of success for drainage system.” CONT………CONT……… 9
    • CONDUIT: It collects water from filter and carries it away. Simplest is a ditch or pipe designed like any other hydraulic conduit.  DISPOSAL: The removal of water from the area to the drains or sewer. If possible gravity is used because it is permanent. CONT……..CONT…….. 10
    • DRAINAGE SYSTEM:DRAINAGE SYSTEM:  The drainage system depend on drainage characteristic of soil, the length of time of system must operate, and position of ground water.  For temporary drains installed during construction, minimum interference with work and maximum effectiveness in a short time are essential.  For permanent drains long term effectiveness and minimum maintenance is required. 11
    •  Two main goals of drainage are, prevention of seepage improvement of soil properties  Requirement related to coefficient of permeability of soil. Coefficient of permeability Requirement 10-3 to 10-5 cm/sec Drainage Required 10-7 cm/sec Drainage not required (due to cohesion) 12
    • CONT…….CONT…….  Drainage is done by two methods, Dewatering Drainage 13
    • 14
    • A drain may be a pipe, box culverts, swales, channels, kerbs and gutters.  The purpose of drain is to collect the carry the surface runoff and excess water from the soil. WHAT IS DRAIN?WHAT IS DRAIN? 15
    • COMPONENTS OF DRAINCOMPONENTS OF DRAIN:: 16
    • TYPES OF DRAINS:TYPES OF DRAINS: 17
    •  Open drain is oldest method of drainage, carried out by ditches and sump  Open drains are used to lead the water clear of the work to natural drainage depressions, culverts, or pits connected to underground drainage systems. Very effective in sand and gravelsVery effective in sand and gravels OPEN DRAINS:OPEN DRAINS: 18
    • Primary Drain Secondary Drain Trunk Drain Natural WaterwaySecondary Water WayStream 19
    • REQUIREMENTS FOR OPEN DRAIN:REQUIREMENTS FOR OPEN DRAIN:  Drains shall be v shaped or of trapezoidal cross section  shall not have a grade of less than 1 percent.  avoid recharging groundwater encouraging a shallow water table and creating or worsening salinity degradation of adjacent land. 20
    • 21
    • MUFIZ-ULLAH 06-CE-157
    • TYPES OF OPEN DRAINS:TYPES OF OPEN DRAINS: 23
    • CATCH DRAIN:CATCH DRAIN:  Catch drains shall be provided above the tops of cuttings or along the toes of embankments before construction of the adjacent roadway.  The edges of catch drains shall be positioned not be less than 2m from the tops of cuttings or the toes of embankments nor more than is necessary to maintain the fall of the drains. 24
    • OPEN CHANNEL DRAINOPEN CHANNEL DRAIN  Open channel flow is the flow of water in a conduit with a free surface at atmospheric pressure.  The flow in an open channel is mainly governed by gravity (i.e. channel bed slope) 25
    • OPEN CHANNEL CALSSIFICATION:  ARTIFICIAL OR MAN-MADE CHANNELS: Swales are simply shallow, low depressions in the ground designed to encourage the accumulation of rain during storms and hold it for a few hours or days to let it infiltrate into the soil. Swales can be installed separately or as part of a larger water rain catchments system with rain gardens, cisterns and other water conservation measure. 26
    • 27
    • RIGID BOUNDARY CHANNEL 28
    • X-SECTIONS 29
    • DIVERSION DRAIN 30
    • NAVEED 06-CE-143
    •  Lined open drains include concrete gutters/channels and kerb and gutter.  Before placing any lining material, the foundation material shall be shaped and compacted to form a firm base for the lining.  Stone Pitching shall consist of sound durable rock not less than 100mm thick.  Spaces between adjacent stones or blocks shall not exceed 20mm in width . LINED OPEN DRAIN:LINED OPEN DRAIN: 32
    • 33
    • LINED OPEN DRAIN TYPES:LINED OPEN DRAIN TYPES:  KERB AND GUTTER DRAIN: All roads in urban areas shall generally be provided with an integral kerb and gutter. The current practice of providing a kerb only on roads is generally not acceptable as there is no defined gutter to carry stormwater flows, and the road pavement will suffer damage. 34
    • FUNCTION OF KERB & GUTTER:FUNCTION OF KERB & GUTTER: 35
    • BATTER DRAIN:BATTER DRAIN:  Batter drains can be constructed using either half round steel pipes or precast concrete units. 36
    • CLOSED DRAINS:CLOSED DRAINS: FRENCH DRAIN TILE DRAIN 37
    • CLOSE DRAIN IN FOUNDATION:CLOSE DRAIN IN FOUNDATION: 38
    • BLANKET DRAIN:BLANKET DRAIN: 39
    • COMPOSITE DRAIN:COMPOSITE DRAIN:  Provided in locations subject to dry-weather base flows which would otherwise damage the invert of a grassed swale, or in areas with highly erodible soils.  The lined drain section is provided at the drain invert to carry dry-weather base flows and minor flows up to a recommended limit. 40
    • ALI MURADALI MURAD 06-CE-149 41
    • A well used to remove ground water for construction of footings, sewer lines, building foundations, elevator shafts, etc TYPES: Deep wells Horizontal wells Well points WELLS:WELLS: 42
    • DEEP WELLS:DEEP WELLS:  Used for water supply are sometime used for drainage.  Diameter of 12 to 24 in.  Spacing of 25 to 100 ft or more, depend on area  Used in coarse soils and pours rock where the quantity of drainage water is large.  The pump is in the bottom of the well so height of water is lifted is not limited to 25 to 28 ft, as with suction pump. 43
    • HORIZANTAL WELLS:HORIZANTAL WELLS:  About 3 in diameter and over 100ft long have found handful in draining on hillside.  The wells are installed by drilling into the hill at a slight upward angle to intercept water bearing strata.  The hole is then lined with a slotted or perforated pipe to keep it open and carry water out.  Combination of horizontal and vertical wells are very useful, the vertical well intercept the strata, draining them to horizontal well at the bottom the later act as a drain , collectors and disposal pipe. 44
    • 45
    • WELL POINTS:WELL POINTS:  The well point is perforated pipe about 3.28ft long and 1.58in.in diameter  It covered by cylindrical screen which act as a filter at bottom.  At the top it is connected to the bottom of the riser pipe.  The constant pumping of water keeps the water table depressed.  When the depth increase from 16.5ft the multi stage setup is needed. 46
    •  In soil with very low permeability the well point can be operated on the vacuum principle by placing seal of highly impervious layer of clay duly tamped in. 47
    • 48 LIBAN 06-CE-155
    • MISCELLANOUS METHODSMISCELLANOUS METHODS 49
    • DRAIN AWAY:DRAIN AWAY: A DRAIN AWAY Panel foundation drainage system utilized on foundations establishes effective drainage and waterproofing of walls eliminating hydrostatic pressure buildup that would eventually penetrate the foundation walls and create a moisture-laden environment. 50
    • They are use in; Foundations, Tunnels Curtain & Trench Drains slopes Landfills Under Floor Slabs Cellar Walls Retainer Walls Bridge Abutments 51
    • DRAIN AWAY PANNEL 52
    • ADVERSE EFFECT OF DRAINAGEADVERSE EFFECT OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM:SYSTEM:  While reducing neutral stress increases the effective stress and the strength of the soil, the increase effective stress produces the consolidation. If compressible strata are present, severe settlement can cause in the structures that are within the zone of drawdown.  Drainage of sand temporarily enhances their strength by producing capillary tension and increase effective stress. As a result small excavation can be made with steep slopes without bracing. If the work is so prolonged that the sand dries, the capillary tension will be lost and steep excavation slopes will collapse with loss of property or life. 53
    •  Drainage without proper filters can produce piping, and even the formation of cavities in the soil. The cavities soon collapse, causing the destruction of anything above. Seepage erosion (piping) into drains and leaky sewers causes occasional drop-out of pavements and basement floors, particularly in sandy and silty soil. 54
    • ASIF HANIF 06-CE-141 55
    • STANDARDS & MATERIALSSTANDARDS & MATERIALS 56
    • MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS 1.Clay drain tiles ASTM C 4 2. Clay drain tile, perforated ASTM C 498 3. Clay pipe, perforated, standard, and extra-strength ASTM C 700 4. Clay pipe, testing ASTM C 301 5. Concrete drain tiles ASTM C 412 6. Concrete pipe for irrigation or drainage ASTM C 118 7. Reinforced concrete culvert, storm drain, and sewer pipe ASTM C 76 8. Perforated concrete pipe ASTM C 444 9. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sewer pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2729 57
    • Materials ….. Specifications…. 10. Corrugated polyethylene tubing and fittings ASTM F 405 11. Corrugated polyethylene tubing and fittings, 8 to 15 inches ASTM F 667 12. Pipe, corrugated (aluminum alloy) ASTM B 745 13.Pipe, corrugated (steel, metallic coated) ASTM A 760 14.Pipe, bituminized fiber (and fittings) ASTM D 3356 58
    • Clay drain tiles are orange or red clay pipe sections, usually 2 feet in length with an interior diameter of approximately 3 to 3 1/2 inches. The 2 foot clay drain tiles are laid in a gravel bed. 59
    • 18” through 48” solid-wall PVC sewer pipe in accordance with ASTM F679, Standard Specification for Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Large-Diameter Plastic Gravity Sewer Pipe and Fittings. 60
    • Concrete footings which measure 20”-22” in width x 12” in thickness are placed under all outside walls on top of a leveled, excavated ground surface. Rigid plastic 4” diameter pipe with perforations is placed both on the outside and inside of all footings. The purpose of this footer drain tile is to collect any groundwater arriving either from above or below the basement floor slab. 61
    • A rigid product like pipe needs fittings to make it flexible, adaptable and capable of changing directions. 62
    • Detailed Aluminum Alloy Pipe Description Features: a) Air exchange systems b) Material: aluminum alloy c) Size O. D(): 50 - 300mm 63
    • Advantages of concrete box culverts: • Minimum traffic delay • Ease in installation • Quality control and quality assurance • Long life span • Economical • Locally manufactured • Readily available • Proven "concrete solution" • Ease for designer V-bottom shown. Ideal for fish migration. 64
    • PERFORATED CONCRETE PIPE Perforated concrete pipe is a means of transporting and distributing storm water run-off into a rock filled trench and eventually into the surrounding soil. 65
    • 66
    • When plans call for storm drains or a low head irrigation system, Cast- in-Place Concrete Pipe offers savings of both time and money. Cast-in-Place is made of portland cement concrete, cast monolithically in a property prepared trench using specifically designed equipment. Pre-stressed concrete pipe are used in the water, sewage and drainage industries in the world. 67
    • MUSA KHAN 06-CE-153 06-CE-153 68
    • COMPARISION BETWEENCOMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DRAINAGE SYSTEMSDIFFERENT DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 69
    • Sr.# OPEN DRAIN CLOSED DRAIN BLANKET DRAIN SAND DRAIN 1 Effective in Sand and Gravel. Effective in all type of soil. Effective in all type of soil Effective in fine grained soil with low shearing resistance. 2 Suitable for low water table region. Suitable for high water table region. Suitable for high water table region. Suitable for high water table region. 3 Drainage is by gravity flow. Drainage is by gravity flow. Drainage is by gravity flow. Drainage is by gravity flow 4 Flow is by the open drains (atmospheric pressure is acting on it). Flow is by the help of perforated conduit. Flow is by the help of drainage blanket. Water is squeezes by the weight of structure and gone into drains and escape by drainage blanket. 5 Easy to construct and special labor is not required. Easy to construct but skilled labor is required. Difficult to construct. And special labor required. Difficult to construct. And special labor required. 6 Less costly. Little bit costly Very costly Depend on nature on work. 7 Filter not required. Filter required. Filter required. Filter required. 70
    • Sr. # DEEP WELLS HORIZANTAL WELLS WELL POINTS 1 SIZE: Diameter 12” TO 24” Depth > 100ft SIZE: Diameter 3” Length > 100ft SIZE: Diameter 1.50” Length 3ft 2 Used in coarse soil and porous rocks, Used to drainage in hillside Effective in sand 3 Permanent method to lower the water table. Permanent method to lower the water table. Temporary method to lower the water table. 4 Pump required Pump required in some cases and in some cases not. Pump required. 5 Required filter Required filter Required filter 6 Costly method Costly method Costly method 7 Skilled labor required Skilled labor required Skilled labor required 71
    • RECEMONDATIONS:RECEMONDATIONS:  Drains shall be provided around all concrete and masonry foundations that retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below grade.  Drainage tiles, gravel, or crushed stone drains, perforated pipe or other approved systems or materials shall be installed at or below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity or mechanical means into an approve drainage system.  Gravel or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot beyond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches above the top of the footing and be covered with an approved filter membrane material. 72
    •  The top of open joints of drain tiles shall be protected with strips of building paper, and the drainage tiles or perforated pipe shall be placed on a minimum of 2 inches of washed gravel or crushed rock at least one sieve size larger than the tile joint openings or perforation and covered with not less than 6 inches of the same material.  A drainage system is not required when the foundation is installed on well-drained ground or sand-gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil Classification System, Group I Soils. 73
    •  In areas where a high water table or other severe soil- water conditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be waterproofed with a membrane extending from the top of the footing to the finished grade. The membrane shall consist of 2-ply hot- mopped felts, 55 pound roll roofing, 6-mil polyvinyl chloride, 6-mil polyethylene, or 40-mil polymer-modified asphalt.  Masonry walls shall have not less than 3/8-inch Portland cement parging applied to the exterior of the wall. 74
    •  The parging shall be damp proofed with a bituminous coating, 3 pounds per square yard of acrylic modified cement, 1/8-inch coat of surface-bonding mortar complying with ASTM C 887 or any material permitted for waterproofing above. 75
    • REFERENCES:REFERENCES: 76
    •  INTERNET FOURMS:  www.oxfordplastics.com/residential www.rudieswoodwork.com/NewWorkshop www.ejprescott.com/products/water-sewer-drain www.foundation reportFoundation Drainage www.foundation reportFoundation Drainage System - BoomEnviro_com 77
    • THANKS 78