1. COURSE: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Downward Communication, which is directed from higher to a lower level. Thus, it is a process
of sending a message from a superior to a subordinate.
For example: The managing director of a public limited company sending a message issuing
instructions to an assistant manager, or a supervisor giving directions to the workers, all are
chased in Downward Communication.
The main objectives of Downward Communication are to supply the sub-ordinates with relevant
information and necessary explanation.
There are many forms available for Downward Communication. Some of these are letters,
circulars, Bulletins, posters, memos, E-mail etc.
Most of the communication flow within or organization is downward, became it has various
advantages such as:
To increase efficiency, to maintain good relation, to maintain discipline, no bypassing, to inform
It has some limitations also such as-under communication, delay, loss of information low
But these are not absolutely beyond control. These can be removed if management and the
managed sincerely desire.
Through downward Communication, management is able to carry out its basic Functions of
planning, organizing, directing and controlling.
It can be defined as “Upward on flows from one level of an organization or a group to a higher
2. This is just opposite of downward Communication. Whenever the sub-ordinates send any
suggestion, complaint are any other type of message to the superiors of their own accord or at the
will of the superiors, the process is called upward Communication.
For example: A sales manager sends any message to a general manager through a letter, is an
Some of the more commonly used forms of upward Communication are letters, memos, Reports,
Upward Communication provides numerous advantages like: Decision making, giving feedback,
Motivating, maintain good relation, knowing employee attitude etc.
Subordinates may have many things to say which need to be transmitted to the superior’s Upper
management also needs to know specifically about production performance, marketing,
information, financial data and so forth.
The main purpose is to know if the sub-ordinates have properly received the message or they
have any problem. Another purpose is to collect mercenary data from the sub-ordinates. Which
are associated with implementation of the plan made by the upper level Management.
Generally by horizontal communication we mean the transmitting of massage within the some
level. It’s a combination of two words and is “Horizontal” another is “communication”.
If we analyze the words then: horizontal means the some level and communication means the
transformation of messages within of least two parties.
So, horizontal communication means transmitting of message within the some level workers.
According to Arora: “Horizontal Communication is the process of transmitting of messages
between those people who belong to some organizational level = or department.”
3. So we can get some features of it:
1. Sender reviver: Belongs to some level or department.
2. Status: Sender and receiver hold the some status.
3. Boundary: A specific department.
4. Speed: Moderate speed.