Workaholism - Research Report
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Workaholism - Research Report Workaholism - Research Report Document Transcript

  • 1
  • Table of Contents List of Graphs, Figures & Charts: ................................................................................................ 3 Acknowledgment: .............................................................................................................................. 4 Special Thanks:.................................................................................................................................. 5 Abstract: .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Introduction: ...................................................................................................................................... 7 Literature Review: ............................................................................................................................ 9 Procedures: ....................................................................................................................................... 13 Significance of The Study:............................................................................................................. 14 Limitations:....................................................................................................................................... 15 Data Analysis: .................................................................................................................................. 16 Results / Findings: ........................................................................................................................... 20 Implications for Future Research: .............................................................................................. 22 ....................................................................................................................................... 23 Department Approval Letter: ........................................................................................................... 24 Questionnaire: .................................................................................................................................... 25 Evaluation Table: .............................................................................................................................. 29 References: ......................................................................................................................................... 30 2
  • List of Graphs, Figures & Charts: Figure 1 …………… Table Showing the Results of Questionnaires Figure 2 …………… Number of Respondents Figure 3 …………… Workaholics’ frequency chart Figure 4 …………… Gender Graph Figure 5 …………... Mean Age Graph Figure 6 …………… Education Graph Figure 7 ..…………. Marital Status Graph 3
  • Acknowledgment: In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, Beneficent and the Only One to be Praised. Indeed He has given man the ability to think, to learn and to understand the universe and to explore what is in it for humans, so that they would come to know how blessed they are. This is a group research report conducted by the students of Institute of Management Studies, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is submitted as a final assignment to the course in charge. The following are the names of Researchers:  Miss. Saman Rahman  Mr. M. Aamer Waqas Idrees  Mr. Junaid Khan  Miss. Asiya Mehmood  Miss. Saba Aftab Indeed it was a difficult job to carry this research with regular classes in progress, but by the grace of Allah we tried our best to accomplish this task efficiently. We would like to thank our supervisor Mr. Malik Shakeel for his kind directions and supervision. We would thank him also for entrusting us with a widely debatable topic that is very unfamiliar to a country like Pakistan where work addiction is not been taken into much consideration. We would also thank all those organizations in general, and the respondents in particular who gave us their time in spite of their busy schedule and provided us with the data that we required from them. Without their participation it would never have been conducted. Besides, we would like to thank all of our colleagues, friends, family members and all those who have directly or indirectly, morally or physically supported us and guided us whenever we had to face certain difficulties. 4
  • Special Thanks: We would like to pay our special regards to the following personalities for their kind appreciation and consideration: Mr. Sayed Ishfaq-ur-Rehman CESSD Miss. Anikah Khan CESSD Mr. Irfan Ullah Marwat Sabawon Mr. Zulqarnain Haider Sabawon Mr. Noushad Delaas Gul Welfare Mr. Ghulam Muhammad Delaas Gul Welfare MR. Ishfaq Khattak IMPACT 5
  • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons and factors that influence a person to become workaholic and find the impacts of workaholism upon one's personal and professional life. It focused on the managerial level staff of non-government organizations taking into account Pakistan’s cultural aspect. In Pakistani culture there are many factors that lead a person to work longer hours, an important factor being the number of dependents. It was assumed that gender, marital status, financial dependents and nature of job would be the factors that will differentiate a workaholic or non-workaholic. But the study revealed that a workaholic is a workaholic by nature. The above factors just become excuses for long working hours. This was later on verified through interviewing the directors / supervisors / head of departments of the particular organizations. It was assumed that workaholics would be more contributing to the organization as compared to non-workaholic but the study revealed that it is not necessary that a workaholic is efficient. 6
  • Introduction: The increasing trend of workaholic behaviour in Japan, China, Europe, and many other parts of the world is a topic of great concern. This is due to the many adverse effects that work addiction has on the workaholic and all those in his life. Due to increase in economic instability, multinational investments, competition etc., in Pakistan, the trend of workaholism is growing, and the worst part is that it is going unnoticed. Little work has been done on this topic and needs to be addressed, and awareness developed about its negative consequences. Surprisingly, the concept of workaholism is practically non-existent in the country. Workaholics are regarded as hard workers and viewed positively. However, they are far from being hard workers. They work hard but not smart. They are work addicts – unhappy and obsessive people who do not perform their jobs well and also create difficulties for others. Cherrington (1980) defined workaholism as “an irrational commitment to excessive work. Workaholics are unable to take time off or to comfortably divert their interests.” Machlowitz (1980, p.11) sees them as people who spend more time working and thinking about work, than normally required. Oates came up with the word ‘workaholism’, and described the behaviour as an excessive need to work continuously, that seriously affects health, relationships, and happiness. “Workaholics are a stereotype of modern life, and they are both praised and criticized.” Workaholics may be viewed as an asset in the corporate world and may be considered as an acceptable way of getting promotions. However, they may be seen as people who neglect family and leisure – necessities that helps maintain a healthy life (Keown, L.A; 2007). The main theme of this study is to identify and analyse workaholics in non-governmental organizations in Peshawar. Mostly qualitative data was collected, but the mixed method was also used to arrive at more accurate results. The main focus is on employees at managerial levels, who have served at least a year in the organizations concerned. The time spent in the present position is also considered. After identifying them, the impacts of this addiction on their personal lives, health, and performance have been recognized. The research objectives formulated for the research paper are:  Define workaholism. State the quantity of workaholics in each department.  A workaholic doesn’t rely on team members / subordinates / colleagues? If this is not the 7
  • case then what are other reasons.  Do workaholics work for late hours because they want to or they are slow and steady workers?  How do family background and relations influence workaholic / non-workaholic?  How workaholism impacts the personal life, health and performance of an individual? The general idea is that workaholics tend to be over efficient and work more than normally required. This tends to negatively affect their family relations and health. Workaholics face stress induced illnesses, chronic fatigue, increased anxiety, among other health issues. They are perfectionists and this creates problems in the workplace that affects organizational performance. The study focuses on these dimensions and tries to identify the reasons behind being a workaholic and what influences family background has on this kind of behavior. The study comprises of close ended questionnaires and face to face interviews. A few managers of an organization were asked to fill out a questionnaire. This way the workaholics were identified and their family, health, and performance conditions assessed. The distribution of this set of questionnaire was dependent upon accessibility to the particular organizations and the response rate. Interviews were also arranged with the head/ supervisor of the respondents who were asked different questions about the workaholics that helped obtain information regarding various difficulties faced by the people working with the workaholics. The validity of the response obtained from respondents of the questionnaires was also be ensured. 8
  • Literature Review: To date the term workaholism has not been given a specific definition yet. The existing literature is rich with countless definitions, with researchers taking into account different aspects of a workaholic. So far the opinions, observations, and definitions are vague and there is no consensus among researchers through which we can have a clear idea of the term. Generally workaholism means the over commitment of work. Spence and Robbins (1992) stated that “the common element in the discussion of workaholism is that the affected individual is highly committed to work and devoting a good deal of time to it”. Mosier (1983) says “workaholics are those who work atleast 50 hours a week”. However, workaholism should not be assessed only according to the time dimensions (Harpaz & Snir, 2003; Snir & Harpaz, 2004), as this assessment would be simplistic. It does not take into account the behaviour of the person while working. According to (Jacobs & Gerson, 2004), the intensity of work is also important. So the other dimension that should be used to asses if a person is a workaholic is effort. This is the amount of physical or mental energy allocated to work (Becker, 1985). The time dimension alone does not take into account the addictive nature of this phenomenon. A work addict is strongly influenced by an internal drive which cannot be resisted. External factors such as marriage, family etc. do not have any influence on the workaholic. Porter (1996); Robinson (1996) define workaholism as “voluntarily spending so much time on work related activities that it produces negative consequences for social, family, and other activities. Opinions and conclusions about workaholism are conflicting and multiple. Some writers view it positively (Korn et al 1987; Machlowitz, 1980), while others view workaholism negatively (Killinger, 1991; Oates 1971). “Workaholics are a stereotype of modern life, and they are both praised and criticized”. On one hand, workaholics may be seen as an asset in the corporate world, and may be considered as an accepted way of getting promotions in some professions. On the other hand, workaholics may be viewed as people who neglect family and leisure, things that are important for maintaining a healthy life (Keown, L.A; 2007). According to Scott et al (1997) the time spent on work related activities is not necessarily negative for a person or the organization for which the person works. Some people work long hours because it is their only source of satisfaction. Some people gain happiness by working harder and longer. Machlowitz (1980:16) found that “as a group workaholics are surprisingly happy. They are doing exactly what they love 9
  • – work – and they can’t seem to get enough of it”. But there are other researchers who view workaholism in a negative way. For example, Naughton; (1987), Oates; (1971), Porter, (1996) take workaholism as addictive behaviour and depicts these people as unhappy and obsessed individuals, who poorly perform their jobs and also create difficulties for their colleagues. Workaholism occurs because of the tolerance an individual develops regarding work. Another cause may be that people become workaholics because they develop addictions to consumer goods, and can get more of them if they work harder (Daniel, S.H; Joel, S., 2005). According to Snir, R.; Harpaz, I, (2006) the reasons for long working hours in Japan are economic, organizational demand for overtime, and sociocultural. Work centrality is defined as the degree of general importance that working has in one’s life at any given time. The dictum that work is a virtue and play is a sin pervades several industrial societies. People with a high level of work centrality will work more hours per week than those with a low level of work centrality. Married women will work fewer hours per week because they will have to give time to their house and children, while married men will work more hours because when the number of dependents will increase, the responsibility on them will also increase. Furthermore, private sector employees will work more hours per week then public sector employees. This is because of higher job security in the public sector. Asghar, M., (2007), in her study indicates that workaholism was a consequence of disturbed family experiences during early years of life. Organizational culture also plays a major role in encouraging workaholic behaviour. Organizations often reward workaholics, and those who work long hours are thought of as dedicated employees. These people are also in a better position to compete for recognition, career development opportunities etc. The use of technology (e.g. fax machines, email, teleconferencing etc.), also reinforces workaholic behaviours. Downsizing has also created more work for fewer staff. Some organizations take pride in developing a culture that encourages long hours and sacrifice to achieve success and development (Hochschild, 1997). The 2005 General Social Survey in Canada revealed that one third of employed Canadians aged 19 to 64 identified themselves as workaholics. They admitted to not being satisfied with their balance between work and life and also wished they could spend more time with family and friends. Workaholics devote more time to work, but derive no more satisfaction from it than do non workaholics. Perceived lack of time leaves them feeling rushed, trapped in their routines and unable to finish the work they think needs to be done (Keown, L.A, 2007). Very few studies have shown positive effects of workaholism. Machlowitz (1980) views workaholics as satisfied, productive, and healthy individuals. On the other hand workaholism has numerous negative 11
  • impacts. It is correlated with workstress. Workaholics face stress induced illnesses, chronic fatigue, and increased anxiety levels, psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. High stress can lead to high blood pressure, which is a risk factor for heart disease. Stress also weakens the immune system, which makes workaholics vulnerable to other illnesses. Workaholics find it difficult to detach themselves from work, and they keep on frequently and overly thinking about their work. As a result they become emotionally and cognitively exhausted over time (Taris, Schaufeli, & Veroeven, 2005). Spence and Robbins (1992) particularly mentioned a variety of health problems ranging from exhaustion to high blood pressure, created due to workaholism. They face burnout in their job due to excessive work hours and job demands (Schaufeli, Taris, & Van Rhenen 2008). Workaholism on the extreme has such serious implications that the Japanese came up with the word Karoshi – death from over work – to describe this addiction. Japanese actually die due to over work. Work addiction leads to an imbalance in personal and professional life. Hence, they experience higher divorce rates, fewer positive feelings about their marriage, and feel less in control of their life and marriage (Robinson, Flowers, & Carols 2001). Due to disturbances in their personal lives, resulting from lack of attention, their professional life also gets affected. Schaufeli et al (2006) found that workaholics work hard rather than smart. “They create difficulties for their co-workers, and suffer from perfectionism” (Tabassum et al 2012). They find it difficult to work in teams, because they would demand that the tasks should be completed according to their specific guidelines and standards (Robinson, 2000; Harpaz & Snir; 2009 p.299). Other people would also find it difficult to work with these work addicts who demand nothing less than perfection. Mudrack (2004; see also Mudrack & Naughton, 2001) defined workaholics as people who engaged in non-required work activites, and who intruded actively on the work of others. Mudrack & Naughton (2001) combined these two traits mentioned above with obsessive-compulsive personality traits. So a workaholic is a rigid, controlling individual who works more than required by the organization (Porter, G., 2006). Some types of workaholic behaviour can limit job performance (Fassel, 1990). An employee constantly involved and obsessed with work will not be productive. Undertaking high volume of work will affect the quality of work (Burke, R.J., 2001). Increased work hours do not necessarily lead to higher productivity (Baird & Beccia, 1980; Ben-David, 2003). For example, Hanna et al (2005) indicated a decrease in construction labour productivity as the number of hours increased beyond the 40 hour standard per week. A theory based model was tested among 757 employees of a Japanese construction machinery company. The study took into account active coping and emotional discharge. The results of the study indicated that workaholism was positively related to active coping, which was negatively 11
  • associated with ill health and positively with job performance. Workaholism was also positively related to emotional discharge, which caused ill health. The study also indicated that workaholism was positively and directly related to ill health, but not significantly related to job performance. The researchers concluded that workaholism is associated with active coping and emotional discharge. Active coping leads to better health and job performance, but emotional discharge leads to a deterioration of health. Workaholism coincides with poor health, and as the costs of ill health are high for workaholics, workaholism has on average, adverse effects on health and performance (Shimazu, A.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Taris, T.W., 2010). 12
  • Procedures: The study was conducted by using a mix method strategy. This approach is a hybrid of both qualitative and quantitative strategies. The data was collected through sampling. For the study a number of national and international NGOs operating in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, were contacted for data collection purposes. The questionnaires were filled by the managerial level staff of the responding organizations. They were visited personally by the team members in groups and the questionnaires were filled on the spot by the respondents. The questionnaire consisted of five parts, every part supporting a particular research objective. Every part had a number of questions supporting one another. The data collected was analyzed to find if each part supported the particular hypothesis. The directors / Heads were interviewed to know about the particular organizations and also cross verify a few answers of the managers who were identified as workaholics after the initial screening of the questionnaires. The director(s) were also asked about their views on workaholism and workaholics and how they dealt with the problem. It would be discussed in results / findings later on. To support or reject each hypothesis, data is analyzed by comparing it with the set standards. The analysis is shown clearly with the help of graphs and charts. The findings are then compared to the views of the directors recorded through interviews. Certain mathematical and statistical tools would also be applied for further validation. Since, it is a group research; each group member has played a role in certain phases of the study. The decision for dividing the group into sub-groups for data collection was on the basis of schedule of appointments and availability of the individuals. Also each member was given a role in the study voluntarily on the basis of his/her excellence and interest in the task. 13
  • Significance of the Study: Every human being has certain unfulfilled needs and desires, which can be satisfied only if effort towards work is exercised. Work is a central part of a person’s life without which survival is very difficult, and humans depend on each other to get their work done. Workaholism, is not a new terminology if taken in the global perspective. It is extensively recognized in the developed countries such as the USA, Japan, and European countries. An upward trend in workaholism has led to increased concern as the negative effects of this addiction are becoming clearer and more pronounced. Work is being done to understand this work behaviour and find ways to decrease the harmful effects. However, in Pakistan this trend has not been noticed nor the concept of workaholism understood. Work addicts are regarded as hard workers. The main objective of this study is to add to the already limited literature of workaholism, in view of the Pakistani culture and work environment. This study will help managers of Pakistan understand workaholism, and learn to distinguish between hard workers and workaholics. It will also assist in introducing the concept of the unnoticed phenomenon of work behaviour in the Human Resource field and work can be started to recognize the negative effects of workaholism in organizations and develop ways of dealing with work addicts. This study tries to find out certain factors that influence an individual to become a workaholic. Factors such as financial dependence of family, family background, organizational environment, nature of the job, consciousness of work etc. the study further tries to reveal the impacts workaholism has on one’s relationships. The opinion of the director regarding these addicts is also referred to. This study is one of the research papers that would open the doors to a whole new concept in Pakistan. The reasons, impacts etc. of workaholism in this country are very different from that of the developed countries due to deviations in culture and traditions. This would mean that ways of dealing with this problem in Pakistan will also be very different from the ways devised by the western countries. In other words, this paper may give the Human Resource Management, and business institutes an important job of researching and developing extensively the concept in our own country’s perspective. 14
  • Limitations: Time was one of the biggest constraints faced by us in data collection, due to which we could neither increase the area of our study nor its depth. Large amounts of data could not be collected due to limited time and resources. As it was an academic project, other activities and lectures were going side by side therefore conflicts occurred. Access to different non-governmental organizations was also a problem. Some of them could not be contacted, and some of them were unwilling to help. Lack of managerial staff in a few organizations also limited the number of respondents. Most of the international organizations refused due to security issues pertaining to the region of Peshawar. No financial assistance was given which limited us to the most accessible regions of Peshawar. Security issues stopped us from visiting organizations operating in high risk areas of the city. 15
  • Data Analysis: Following are the tables, graphs and charts showing the results after analysis / interpretation of the questionnaires: Figure 1 TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRES Option Selected Q. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. A B C D Others Max 22 % 33 % 33 % 61 % 50 % 89 % `39 % 17 % 39 % 22 % 56 % 17 % 82 % 33 % 28 % 6% 22 % 22 % 17 % 89 % 17 % 22 % 33 % 45 % 22 % 22 % 17 % 22 % 17 % 28 % 67 % 39 % 11 % 22 % 50 % 28 % 28 % 22 % 11 % 6% 45 % 61 % 72 % 39 % 89 % 56 % 56 % 6% 66 % 56 % 67 % 22 % 17 % 11 % 11 % 56 % 61 % 39 % 39 % 11 % 39 % 33 % 33 % 22 % 22 % 72 % 6% 11 % 44 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 17 % 27 % 33 % 67 % 56 % 45 % 27 % 33 % -- 6% 22 % 22 % 5% 10 % 5% 5% 17 % 27 % - C C B A A A A&C B A D A C A B B B B B B B A B B B A C C C B The questionnaire framed consisted of a total of twenty nine questions divided into five different parts. The basic information of the respondents including name, age, marital status, gender, financial dependents, organization and designation etc. were also asked to aid in the analysis. The above table shows the frequency of various options chosen by the respondents, which are represented by percentages to make the analysis easier. The last column represents the option chosen most frequently for each question by the respondents. This shows the point of similarity between the subjects. 16
  • Few of the respondents chose more than one option because they were of the view that multiple options suited their work life. Therefore, such answers are also taken into account. Workaholics Frequency Chart Number of Respondents 34% 16% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Finance Administration 50% Human Resource & Others Non-Wrokaholics Workaholic Figure 2 0% 16% 56% 100% 84% 44% Finance Adminis tration 0% 56% Human Resourc e& Others 16% 100% 44% 84% Figure 3 The pie chart above shows the percentage of audience who attempted the questionnaire. In accordance with the hypothesis the questionnaires were analyzed taking into account each department and also considered the number of workaholics in each unit. Finance and Administration are taken as separate departments because these are the backbone of every organization. While all the other departments including mobilizers, trainers etc. are placed in the heading of Human Resource departments. While conducting the study, we came across organizations where one person was supervising various departments at the same time. This is common in Pakistan where high inflation and lack of appropriate education prevents organizations to recruit the right quantity of qualified workers. Such people were counted in the department for which they were initially hired, or according to their education. Figure 3 shows the in percentages the ratio of workaholics to non-workaholics in each department. It shows that most of the employees in the finance department are workaholics. Detailed findings are discussed later on. 17
  • Gender Graph Mean Age Graph 100% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Non-Workaholics Male 60% Female 25% Workaholic 40% Non-Workaholics 75% Male 32.25 Female 31.23 Workaholic 31.57 32.66 Figure 4 Figure 5 The above figures represent data in three different demographical perspectives. Figure 4 reveals workaholics on gender basis. According to this figure it is clear from the graph that female workers are more workaholic as compared to male members of the organizations. These figures are obtained by classifying the male and female population separately and then the number of workaholics found in that particular population is found in percentages. Figure 5 is throwing light upon the mean age(s) of workaholics and non-workaholics again gender vise. There is a slight difference in the mean ages of workaholic men and women. Same is the case in non-workaholics. The mean ages of workaholic men and women are separately calculated and plotted. The same process is applied while calculating mean ages of nonworkaholic men and women. Education Graph Non-Workaholics Workaholics 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Workaholics 10% Non-Workaholics 50% Masters 20% 50% Diploma Bachelors 0% 0% Others (Lower than Bachelors) 0% 0% Others (Higher than Masters) 10% 0% Figure 6 18
  • Figure 6 is showing the percentage of workaholics and non-workaholics with different qualifications. All the bachelors i.e. Honors. Level graduates regardless of their major(s) are placed under one single category. Same procedure is done with Master level graduates. Those respondents who haven't acquired any bachelor's degree but are equivalent to bachelor are placed in diploma category. Similarly, those who have not yet taken graduate level degree, either in process or are directly appointed in organization from intermediate level are placed in Others (lower than bachelor) category. Those who have acquired post-graduate education are placed under Others (Higher than Masters) category. This category includes all researchers, scholars and those who are having certification of an upper category than the masters. Figure 7 shows the relationship graph of workaholics and non-workaholics based upon marital status. According to this graph it is clear that mostly married persons are workaholics as compared to non-workaholics. But this is very slight difference. During the analysis, no specific factors were found eminent that would contribute towards workaholism of a married or single person. But considering financial dependents upon one, it can be interpreted that since in our society, a married person has to support his / her spouse mostly, therefore this is an important reason behind high percentage of married workaholics. Figure 7 Marital Status Graph 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Married Non-Workaholics 50% Unmarried 50% Workaholic 58% 42% These figures are analyzed and interpreted in this section of the study, while its outcomes and results would be discussed later on in the study. 19
  • Results / Findings: Certain results are being deduced in the light of questionnaires as well as in accordance with the view and interviews of certain directors / supervisors and project head(s). The most eminent and unexpected finding is that the number of workaholic managers in administration section is the lowest in all three categories of departments. Figure 3 is clarifying this aspect graphically. Finance department holds most of the workaholics while Human Resource is stands second. The findings of this study reveals that as most of the workaholics exist in the finance department, and this might be the reason behind slow operations as compared to other departments. Workaholics are perfectionists and they work hard rather than smart. Inefficiency leads to slow operations or low quality of outcome. This may help managers deal with workaholics and avoid inefficiencies. Further it has been found that most of the workaholics are not being affected by their financial dependents. During the analysis it was found that all have dependents like parents, spouse, children, grand-parents etc. Financial needs may force a person to work late hours. Single parents may have to work extra hard to earn so that they can afford to support their children. Unlike abroad, no laws exist in Pakistan, which makes it binding on the separated partners to contribute financially in the upbringing of their children. Women with married children also have spare time which leads them to work extra hours, as in our culture and especially in Peshawar, women prefer staying at home rather than going out on weekends to enjoy. Peshawar doesn’t have much recreational facilities either. Workaholic first adopts work as a hobby and it turns into need and addiction. The questionnaire was set in a technical way. While interpreting them, we found that workaholics have stated work as their priority, and they have not realized how it is affecting their relationships. Some are willing to cooperate and compromise while the others do not even accept that their addiction to work is hurting the relationships they are in. Some have mentioned that they prioritize work over family but at the end they think their relationships are just normal. This is common, as workaholics do not admit that they are addicted. It is been concluded that workaholic's contribution towards the organization is either normal or non-satisfactory. At times they take too much time in completing a task. They go for such details which are not desirable at the moment or are not required for that task. The sake of perfection in their work mostly turns into delay. 21
  • An interesting factor that came up during the study is that most of those employees who continuously turn their hobbies into money making ventures are more likely to be workaholics. Also those people whose profession is their hobby, are mostly been found workaholics. These people are willing to work longer regardless of other factors. They always find pleasure and satisfaction in work. It was mostly found in employees of organizations that had a proper hierarchy and most importantly in international non-government organizations. A misconception that exists about workaholics is that all those who are mostly sitting late or more appropriately whose working hours often exceeds official working hours, are said to be workaholics. This study completely disapproves of this fact. There are certain employees who work in the official time slot but still they are said to be workaholics based upon other factors. It is the future worries, professional career consciousness and performance that motivate one to take lead from his / her colleagues, be on an eminent designation, and show some kind of excellence to the boss for continuous promotions. This case is mostly found in local non-government institutions because hiring and firing is very usual in such organizations. How the person is being brought up? As far as this question was concerned, in this study we haven't found any indication that would prove it to be a motivating or influencing factor turning one into workaholic. Gender as a matter of fact is also not contributing much to workaholism. A slight difference is being identified in the graphs mentioned above in the study. It is also been observed that most of the married persons are workaholics. This difference again isn’t very significant but at least we can conclude that in our society, since one single person supports not only his / her own family, but in most of the cases the dependents include some step relations, grandparents or parents of spouse, financial dependents influences a person to increase working hours to earn more or get promotions. Further, moving towards the impacts of workaholism upon one's personal life, behavior, health and performance, fatigue is found a prominent result of workaholism. Most of workaholics find it difficult to relax due to overwork. Due this they experience sleeplessness. They are of the view that due to addiction and extreme exposure to work, they now find themselves guilty when they aren’t working. Familial gap was an issue which we focused on more because of the fact that in our society and culture, family is more important than any other relations. Most of the workaholics said that they try to manage their relationships and compensate for the lack of time as and when possible. It is a distinguishing factor of workaholics of the Pakistani culture as compared to global workaholics. 21
  • Implications for Future Research: This study has been conducted on a small scale with very limited resources and limited access to certain organizations and personnel. The conclusions thus simplified can be used for further study investigating the reasons, impacts and behaviors of workaholics in Pakistan's perspective. This is a very wide concept which encompasses various factors which if studied in detail can not only help organizations for managing its human resource but it can also help multi-nationals and corporations know the characteristics of workaholics in Pakistan and the different ways of dealing with them. A detailed research with enough resources and expertise can use this concept, further adding to the literature about workaholism in Pakistan's perspective and help Human Resource Management develop and understand a very important concept that is increasing in today’s work environment. 22
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  • Department Approval Letter: 24
  • Questionnaire: NOTE: The questionnaire consists of five different parts. Please select the most appropriate choice among the given options. If you think there is a need for further elaboration of choice, kindly fill in the space given with that particular choice. Name: _____________________________ Age: ____________________________ Gender: ____________________________ Marital Status:____________________ Department: ________________________ Qualification:_______________________ Organization: _______________________ Dependents:  Spouse Y/N  Children (un-married / married / divorced / adopted ) Y/N  Family of brother / sister Y/N  Grand-children Y/N  Parents (Own) Y/N  Parents (Spouse) Y/N  Grand-parents Y/N  Other. Specify please: (add in sequence if more than 3) 1. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ 25
  • Part I: 1. When did you join this organization for the first time? a. 1-1.5 years ago b. 1.5 – 2 years ago c. More than 2 years ago 2. Since how long are working on your on your current position? a. for less than 1 year b. for 1 – 1.5 years c. for more than 2 years 3. How do you feel working on this position? a. Satisfactory b. Comfortable c. Disturbed 4. Having you in this organization is? a. Right man for right place c. As good as others are b. Could have a better one besides you 5. How do you reach office? a. Always on time b. Mostly on time c. Tries but seldom on time. 6. How many times have you been late to office in last 10 working days? a. Less than 3 times b. Between 3 & 5 times c. More than 5 times 7. How many days have you been late sitting in your office in last 10 working days? a. Less than 3days b. Between 3 & 5 days c. More than 5 days Part II: 8. It is important for me to work hard even despite I am not enjoying work. a. Never b. Sometimes c. Often 9. Do you turn your hobbies into money making ventures? a. Preferably b. Yes because my hobby is my profession c. Not at all 10. How do you react towards people that have other priorities besides work? a. No effect c. Do not cooperate with such people b. Influences them d. Manages to work with them 11. Do you worry about future even if things are going well? a. Yes b. No c. Sometimes 12. I feel guilty when I am not working? a. Never b. Sometimes c. Mostly 13. Do you feel pleasure while working? a. Always b. Sometimes c. Never d. Depends. (Specify __________________________________________) 26
  • 14. Do you take pending office work with you on weekend despite of having few more working days in its submission? a. Yes b. No C. Depends. (Specify __________________________________________) 15. I am usually under pressure with self-imposed deadlines when I work. a. Never b. Often c. Always 16. Do you trust your sub-ordinates with the work you give them? a. No, I prefer to do things myself c. No, I doubt their capabilities b. Yes, I do trust them d. Depends (Specify________________) Part III: 17. Working after pack-up is yours? a. Habit b. Need c. Gives you satisfaction 18. You work after pack-up time because: a. You mostly reach office late. b. You want to have work done before time c. You want to excel other co-workers 19. Does your work time exceed more than the standard working time of your organization? a. Monthly b. Weekly c. Daily 20. You prefer to work after time because: a. You are a slow starter but good finisher b. Work matters to you regardless of timing c. You feel better being at work rather than at home Part IV: 21. You are being brought up by? a. Own parents b. Adopted (both / either mother or parents) C. Relatives (Maternal / Paternal) Specify ___________________________ 22. I spend more time working than socializing with friends or on leisure activities: a. Never b. Sometimes c. Most of the time 23. Does your family or friends complain about the lack of time which you have for them? a. Mostly b. Sometimes c. Never 24. Were you given freedom of speech and decisions by parents? a. Only speech was allowed, decisions were made by parents b. Both were given c. None was given, you were being dictated 25. Do you prefer work over family (regardless of emergency situation)? a. Mostly b. Sometimes c. Never 27
  • 26. For you late sitting is? a. Hard work b. Addiction c. Need 27. If you take pending office work home on weekend, why do you do so? a. You fear of left behind from other colleagues b. You can work more comfortably at home c. It do not matter whether you work at home or office. Part V: 28. What type of effect does overworking has on your health? a. Sleeplessness / insomnia b. Short temper c. Fatigue 29. Your increased amount of work has created a distance between you and your family? a. Yes, it has c. I don't think so b. Maybe but whenever I get time I try to compensate for it 28
  • Evaluation Table: QUESTION NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 OPTION selection to be WORKAHOLIC b or c b or c a or b a or c a or b a b or c b a or b b or c a c a a or depends c a, c or depends a or c b or c b or c b or c any c a a or c a b any any a or c 29
  • References:  Asghar, M. (2007) “Psychosocial and Familial Determinants of Workaholism”, University of Peshawar.  Baird, L. S., & Beccia, P. J. (1980). “The potential misuse of overtime”, Personnel Psychology, 33, 557–565.  Becker, G.S. (1985) “Human capital, effort, and the sexual division of labor”, Journal of labor economics, 3 (supplement), S33-S58.  Ben-David, D. (2003). “The labor force in Israel from the international aspect”, Riv'on LeKalkala, 50, 73–90 Hebrew.  Burke, R.J., (2001), “Workaholism in orgnizations: the role of organizational values”, Personal Review, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 637-645.  Daniel, S.H., Slemrod, J. (2005), “The economics of workaholism: we should not have worked on this paper”, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge MA 02138.  Fassel, D. (1990), “Working ourselves to death: the high costs of workaholism, the rewards of recovery”, Harper Collins, San Francisco, CA.  Hanna, A. S., Taylor, C. S., & Sullivan, K. T. (2005), “Impact of extended overtime on construction labor productivity”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131(6), 734–739.  Harpaz, I. & Snir, R. (2003) “Workaholism: Its definition and nature”, Human Relations, 56, 291-320.  Hochschild, A.R. (1997), “The Time Bind”, Metropolitan Books, New York, NY.  Jacobs, J.A. & Gerson, K. (2004), “The time divide: Work, family, and gender inequality”, Cambridge, MA; Harvard University Press.  Keown, L.A. (2007), “Time escapes me: workaholics and time perception”, Canadian Social Trends, catalogue no. 11-008, p 28-32.  Keown, L.A. (2007), “Time escapes me: workaholics and time perception”, Canadian Social Trends, catalogue no. 11-008, p 28-32.  Killinger, B. (1991), Workaholics: “The Respectable Addicts”, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.  Korn, E.R., Pratt, G.J. and Lambrou, P.T. (1987), “Hyper-performance: The A.I.M. Strategy for  Releasing Your Business Potential”, John Wiley, New York, NY. o Machlowitz, M. (1980), “Workaholics: Living with Them, Working with Them”, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. 31
  • o Machlowitz, M. (1980), “Workaholics: Living with them, working with them”, Reading. MA: Addison-Wesley. o Machlowitz, M. (1980), “Workaholics: Living with Them, Working with Them”, Addison-Wesley, Reading, M. A.  Mosier, S.K. (1983), “Workaholics: an analysis of their stress, success and priorities”,  Unpublished MA thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Cited in Snir, R. & Harpaz, I. (2006) “The Workaholism Phenomenon: A Cross-National Perspective”, Career Development International, (emerald group publishing limited), Vol. 11, No. 5, 374-393.  Mudrack, P.E. and Naughton, T.J. (2001), “The assessment of workaholism as behavioral tendencies: scale development and preliminary empirical testing”, International Journal of  Stress Management, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 93-111.  Mudrack, P.E. (2004), “Job involvement, obsessive-compulsive personality traits, and workaholic behavioral tendencies”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 7 No. 5, pp. 490-508.  Naughton, T.J. (1987), “A conceptual view of workaholism and implications for career  counseling and research”, The Career Development Quarterly, 180-187. o Oates, W. (1971), “Confessions of a Workaholic: The Facts about Work Addiction”, World, New York, NY. o Oates, W. (1971), “Confessions of a Workaholic: The Facts about Work Addiction”, World, New York, NY.  Porter, G. (1996), “Organizational impact of workaholism: Suggestions for researching the negative outcomes of excessive work”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 70-84.  Porter, G. (1996), “Organizational impact of workaholism: suggestions for researching the  negative outcomes of excessive work”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 1.  Porter, G. (2006), “Profiles of workaholism among high tech managers”, Career Development International, (emerald group publishing limited), Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 440462.  Robinson, B.E., Flowers, C. & Carroll, J. (2001), “Work stress and marriage: a theoretical model examining the relationships between workaholism and marital cohesion”, International Journal of Stress Management, 8 (2), 165_/175. 31
  •  Schaufeli W.B., Taris T.W., Bakker A.B., “The differences between work engagement and workaholism”, Burke R.J., editor, Research companion to working time and work addiction. Cheltenham: Elgar; 200, p. 193–217.  Schaufeli W.B., Taris T.W., Van Rhenen W., “Workaholism, burnout and engagement: three of a kind or three different kinds of employee well-being”, Appl Psychol-Int Rev. 2008;57:173–203.  Scott, K.S., Moore, K.S. and Miceli, M.P. (1997), “An exploration of the meaning and consequences of workaholism”, Human Relations, Vol. 50 No. 3.  Shimazu, A., Schaufeli, W.B., Taris, T.W., (2010), “How does workaholism affect worker health and performance? The mediating role of coping”, International Society of Behavioural Medicine, 17:154-160.  Snir, R. & Harpaz, I. (2004), “Attitudinal & demographic antecedents of workaholism”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 520-536.  Snir, R. & Harpaz, I. (2006), “The Workaholism Phenomenon: A Cross-National Perspective”, Career Development International, (emerald group publishing limited), Vol. 11, No. 5, 374-393.  Spence, J. T. & Robbins, A. S. (1992), “Workaholism: definition, measurement and preliminary results”, Journal of Personality Assessment, 58: 160-78. Cited in Sharma, P. & Sharma, J. (2011) “Work-Addiction: A Poison by Slow Motion”, Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, 86-91.  Spence J.T., Robbins A.S. (1992), “Workaholism: definition, measurement, and preliminary results”, J Pers Assess 58, 160–78.  Taris T.W., Schaufeli W.B., Verhoeven L.C. (2005), “Internal and external validation of the Dutch Work Addiction Risk Test: implications for jobs and non-work conflict”, Appl Psychol Int Rev 54, 37–60. 32