Logic
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Definitions - Explanation - Scope / Functions of Logic - Applications of Logic - Conclusion

Definitions - Explanation - Scope / Functions of Logic - Applications of Logic - Conclusion

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Logic Logic Document Transcript

  • ASSIGNMENT LOGIC, DEFINITIONS, SCOPE & FUNCTIONS BBA 4th ( Morning) - A SAMAN REHMAN ROLL # 01 M. AAMER WAQAS ROLL # 02 DATE: 27th JANUARY, 2013 INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES - UOP
  • http://www.brainyquot e.com/words/lo/logic18 5714.html LOGIC DEFINITIONS: "Logic is the armory of reason, furnished with all defensive and offensive weapons. There are syllogisms, long swords; enthymemes, short daggers; dilemmas, two-edged swords that cut on both sides; sorites, chain-shot." What is Logic ? -Thomas Fuller, "The General Artist," 1661 “To discover truths is the task of all sciences; it falls to logic to discern the laws of truth. ... I assign to logic the task of discovering the laws of truth, not of assertion or thought.” - GottlobFrege (1848-1925) "Logic", the name of a discipline which analyzes the meaning of the concepts common to all the sciences, and establishes the general laws governing the concepts.” - Alfred Tarski (1901-1983) “The science of reasoning, teaching the way of investigating unknown truth in connection with a thesis.” - Robert Kilwardby “The formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning .” -Penguin Encyclopedia “The systematic use of symbolic and mathematical techniques to determine the forms of valid deductive argument.” -Oxford English Dictionary The science or art of exact reasoning, or of pure and formal thought, or of the laws according to which the processes of pure thinking should be conducted; the science of the formation and application of general notions; the science of generalization, judgment, classification, reasoning, and systematic arrangement, correct reasoning.
  • WHAT IS LOGIC ? “LOGIC tries to evaluate arguments by checking whether the Origin of LOGIC premises, the “starting points”, are jointly plausible; and whether what is Middle English logik, followed from them in the conclusion really does follow them. Logic is the from Anglo-French, process of proper inference, a system of proper thinking, of arriving at proper from Latin logica , conclusions. Proper thinking in logic is based upon principles that govern the from Greek logikē, validity of arguments. To reason effectively, we need to avoid contradiction and accept beliefs that are adequately defined. Logic provides the appropriate standards by which we can determine if our beliefs are consistent with each other and confirmed by evidence. EXPLANATION : First Known Use 12th century Logic is the field of philosophy. Logic is the study of reason. It is the study of rational ways of establishing conclusions. Logic encompasses many kinds of study. Some say that logic is the study of truth, so it is the most basic and fundamental science. Logic is the science of truth and tries to discover the truth about truth. philo—love of, affinity for, liking of. Others say that logic is concerned with thought, and thus tries to discover the “laws of thought”. Logic explains what people ought to think. It tells us what is right thinking. In other words it is the ethics of thought and belief, as it separates right thinking from wrong thinking. Yet, some say that logic is concerned with language. This is because logic tries to understand the logical form of statements and structural relations between sentences. However logic is concerned with all these three areas because they are very closely connected. Logic is thus concerned with thought, which is expressed in language and whose truth has to be proven. It is the study of propositions. It studies human cognition and reasoning and also the general structure of the world. It studies declarative sentences, which expresses propositions. It is the science of how to evaluate arguments and sophia—wisdom
  • reasoning. It allows us to distinguish correct reasoning from poor reasoning. It helps us reason correctly. Without logic we would not be able to arrive at the truth or sound beliefs. SCOPE / FUNCTIONS OF LOGIC: Scope of logic is very wide. It covers all types of knowledge related to art and science. The nature of logic is like a tree and all the other fields are its branches. It is the main spring of all knowledge, because logic provides reasoning for the existence of that knowledge. Logicians are divided into 3 classes as they hold that logic is concerned: 1) With names and things only. 2) With the form of thought only. 3) With thought that represents reality. 1. Logic is concerned with names only – It has found few defenders. It is taught by the French philosopher Condillac (1715-1780). He held that the process of reasoning consists in verbal transformations only. The meaning of the conclusion is identical with that of the original proposition. 2. The theory that logic is concerned with the form of thought – Is irrespective of its relation to reality was taught by Hamilton (1788-1856) and Mansel (1820-1871). Both of them believed that logic is not concerned with the truth of our thoughts, but with their consistency. Hamilton says: “Logic is conversant with the form of thought, to the exclusion of the matter.” A distinction is drawn between ‘formal truth’ i.e. self-consistency and ‘material truth,’ i.e. conformity with the object. It is said that logic is concerned with formal truth. 3. Logic deals with thought that represents reality: According to the third theory, logic deals with thought as a means by which we attain the truth. John Stuart Mill claims that: “logic is the theory of valid thought, not of thinking, but of correct thinking.” The terms nominalist, conceptualist, and realist logicians are employed to denote these three classes. However, these names, nominalist, conceptualist, and realist, have for centuries been used to distinguish three famous schools of philosophy. These schools are divided from each other on a question, a basis, which unfortunately, has nothing to do with the scope of logic.
  •  Conceptualists/formalists: Hamilton, Mansel  Linguists/nominalists: Whatley  Realists/materialists: John Stuart Mill Here is another definition of logic extracted from a text book (The Art and Science of Logic by Daniel Bonevac, Mayfield Publishing Co., 1990): Logic is the study of correct reasoning. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) founded the discipline of logic as a system of principles on which all other Logic does not describe knowledge rests. Indeed, logic pertains to all subjects, since people can reason the psychology of about anything they can think about. Politics, the arts, literature, business, the sciences, and everyday problems are all subjects open to reasoning. Sometimes the reasoning is good; sometimes not so good. People use logic to tell the difference. . reasoning, with its flashes of insight and oversight; it prescribes . . The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable advances in science and technology that have improved the lives of vast numbers of people. These methods of justifying reasoning, applications of scientific method required a great deal of good and highly sophisticated reasoning. But the twentieth century has also suffered the results of reasoning gone astray (political and social disasters). APPLICATION OF LOGIC: 1. LOGIC & SOCIAL STUDIES: In the last generation the Instinctive logic of the social sciences was confronted with two tasks. On the one hand, it had to show the distinctive peculiarity, the feasibility, and the necessity of history. On the other hand, it had to show not only that there is, but also how there can be, a science of human action that aims at universally valid cognition. There can be no doubt that a great deal has been accomplished for the solution of these two problems. That these solutions are not "final" or "definitive" is evident, for as long as the human mind does not stop thinking, striving, and inquiring, there is no such thing as "finality" and "definitiveness."
  • The demand is repeatedly made by those who champion political ideals that cannot be defended by logical argumentation that thinking in the field of the social sciences be exempted from the regulative principles necessary to all other thinking. This is a matter with which scientific thought, which considers itself bound by these logical principles, is unable to concern itself. The 2. ENGINEERING & LOGIC: Engineering and Logic for our present Engineering Logic theme concerns both the exploitation of logic in the future of engineering disciplines, and an approach to exploitation and automation of logic which considers this an engineering problem rather than a fundamental research problem. purposes are to be construed liberally. Engineering is about getting things done, generally building things which realize some preconceived purpose. Logic is the sphere of formal a priori truth, encompassing mathematics, and crucially for engineering, all that supports the construction and exploitation of abstract or mathematical models. Engineering is conceived as a discipline which is to be increasingly dominated by modeling techniques which permit the construction and evaluation of a design prior to physical fabrication of its implementation. The increasingly dominant intellectual content of engineering problem solving, the business of modeling, is at bottom pure logic. Software supporting these intellectual activities will be more effective when it is built on solid logical foundations. This prospective future development may be related to the digital revolution which we are all now expecting or experiencing. The logical revolution, as yet scarcely anticipated, flows from the same underlying imperatives about the way in which information must be represented if we are to be able to manipulate it effectively. 3. LOGIC & MATHEMATICS: Logic and math work well together because they are both independent from reality and they are tools that are used to help people make sense of the world. For example, reality may contain 3 apples and 4 bananas, but the ideas of 3 and 4 are abstractions and math is made up of such abstractions. When they get complicated – at the level of algebra, calculus etc. – logic can be used to simplify the complexities.
  • 4. LOGIC & SCIENCE: Science also uses logic to a great advantage. Like mathematics, science uses abstractions to make sense of the world and then applies logic to these abstractions. Science tries to understand reality by: 1) Reducing reality to a set of abstractions called a model 2) Working within the model to reach a conclusion 3) Applying the conclusion to reality. Logic is invaluable during the second step, and the conclusions drawn are logical conclusions. The areas of science that rely heavily on logic are quantifiable sciences, such as physics, engineering, and chemistry. The qualitative sciences – biology, physiology, and medicine – use logic but with less certainty. The social sciences – such as sociology, psychology and economics – tend to rely less on pure logic because their models have the least direct correlation with reality. 5. LOGIC & COMPUTER(S): A huge part of the computer revolution rests firmly on logic. Every action a computer performs is due to the complex structure of logical instructions. At the hardware level logic helps with the design of complex circuits. At the “Aristotle invented logic as a method for comprehending the basic structure of reason.” software level computer languages are based on logic. An important functions of logic in computer programming are:  AND Gate.  OR Gate.  NOR Gate.  XOR Gate etc… “Philosophy relies on models of reality to help provide explanations for what we see.”
  • CONCLUSION: The importance of the study of logic is to help one learn to think properly and focus the mind so one can come up with logical solutions. If one can learn to be logical, they can be more rational in their decisions. Using logic also helps an individual adapt and make appropriate decisions. Studying logic is important since it helps people with critical thinking. Through critical thinking, we acquire a means of assessing and upgrading our ability to judge well. It enables us to go into virtually any situation and to figure out the logic of whatever is happening in that situation. It provides a way for us to learn from new experiences through the process of continual self-assessment. Critical thinking, then, enables us to form sound beliefs and judgments, and in doing so, provides us with a basis for a “rational and reasonable” emotional life. If a human being understands the logic and reasoning behind a given aspect of reality, then he/she may be able to adapt and grow, using the same reasoning, in times of difficulty. ***********************************************