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Sedimentary rocks 20122013

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S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface is formed. …

S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface is formed.
c. Classify rocks by their process of formation.


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  • 1. SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckkss S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface is formed. c. Classify rocks by their process of formation. Enduring Understanding: Rocks are grouped based on how they formed and their mineral composition.
  • 2. DDiirreeccttiioonnss 11.. RReeaadd oovveerr tthhee nnoottee ttaakkiinngg oorrggaanniizzeerr.. 22.. RReeaadd eeaacchh sslliiddee.. 33.. NNeexxtt ffiillll iinn tthhee bbllaannkkss wwiitthh tthhee uunnddeerrlliinneedd wwoorrddss.. SSoommee sslliiddeess aarree jjuusstt uusseedd ffoorr iinnffoorrmmaattiioonn ppuurrppoosseess..
  • 3. Intro to Sedimentary Rocks • Produced from weathering products of pre-existing rocks or accumulated biological matter – Detrital (clastic) rocks produced from rock fragments – Chemical rocks produced by precipitation of dissolved ions in water – Organic rocks produced by accumulation of biological debris, such as in swamps or bogs • Sedimentary rock types and sedimentary structures within the rocks give clues to past environments • Fossils in sedimentary rocks give clues to the history of life • Important resources (coal, oil) are found in sedimentary rocks
  • 4. 44.. 33 NNootteess:: SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckkss Sedimentary rocks are layers of sediment cemented together. The sedimentary process begins with igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks weathered which is the breaking down of rocks followed by erosion the movement from the Earth's surface by natural processes such as wind or water flow, through the act of transportation. The transfer of sediments (soil particles) from one place to another followed by deposition the layering after layering of the sediment. Then Compaction occurs after the sediments have been deposited. Cementation the final process acts as glue or cement to bind the sediments together forming sedimentary rocks. http://www.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/sedim ent.htm
  • 5. From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock • Transportation – Movement of sediment away from its source, typically by water, wind, or ice – Rounding of particles occurs due to abrasion during transport – Sorting occurs as sediment is separated according to grain size by transport agents, especially running water – Sediment size decreases with increased transport distance
  • 6. OOrriiggiinn (Formed where) CCoommpprriissee 7755%% ooff tthhee EEaarrtthh’’ss ssuurrffaaccee FFoorrmmeedd wwhheenn sseeddiimmeennttss bbeeccoommee ccoommppaacctteedd aanndd cceemmeenntteedd ttooggeetthheerr UUssuuaallllyy hhaass llaayyeerrss ccaalllleedd ssttrraattaa The highest layer has the least pressure. The lowest layer has the most pressure.
  • 7. CCoommppaaccttiioonn WWhhaatt ddooeess ccoommppaaccttiioonn mmeeaann?? –LLaayyeerr uuppoonn llaayyeerr ooff sseeddiimmeenntt bbuuiillddss uupp aanndd tthhee pprreessssuurree ffrroomm tthhee uuppppeerr llaayyeerrss ppuusshheess ddoowwnn oonn tthhee lloowweerr llaayyeerrss.. –OOnnllyy SSMMAALLLL sseeddiimmeennttss wwiillll ssttiicckk ttooggeetthheerr ttoo ffoorrmm rroocckk The highest layer has the least pressure. The lowest layer has the most pressure.
  • 8. CCeemmeennttaattiioonn WWhhaatt ddooeess iitt mmeeaann?? ((PPrroocceessss)) –WWaatteerr ssooaakkss tthhrroouugghh ssooiill aanndd rroocckk.. TThhee wwaatteerr ddiissssoollvveess mmiinneerraallss iinn ssooiill aanndd rroocckk.. – TThhee ssoolluuttiioonn ooff mmiinneerraallss aanndd wwaatteerr mmoovveess bbeettwweeeenn tthhee sseeddiimmeennttss.. – TThhee sseeddiimmeennttss ssttiicckk ttooggeetthheerr wwhheenn tthhee mmiinneerraallss ccrryyssttaalllliizzee.. –CCoommmmoonn wwiitthh LLAARRGGEE sseeddiimmeennttss
  • 9. CCllaassssiiffiiccaattiioonn (Grouping)  SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy rroocckkss aarree ccllaassssiiffiieedd iinn 33 wwaayyss…… ((BByy tthhee wwaayy tthheeyy aarree ffoorrmmeedd)) 11.. DDeettrriittaall CCllaassttiicc SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckkss 22.. CChheemmiiccaall SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckkss 33.. OOrrggaanniicc SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckkss It’s by the way they are formed!!!
  • 10. 1. CCllaassttiicc SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckk MMaaddee ffrroomm bbrrookkeenn ffrraaggmmeennttss ooff ootthheerr rroocckkss.. – EX: CCoonngglloommeerraattee == llaarrggee//rroouunndd ffrraaggmmeennttss – EX: BBrreecccciiaa == llaarrggee//sshhaarrpp ffrraaggmmeennttss Breccia Conglomerate
  • 11. CCllaassttiicc RRoocckk FFaaccttss Clastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartz Breccia is a term most often used for clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of large angular fragments (over two millimeters in diameter). The spaces between the large angular fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement that binds the rock
  • 12. 22.. CChheemmiiccaall SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckk FFoorrmmeedd ffrroomm mmiinneerraallss ccrryyssttaalllliizziinngg oouutt ooff aa ssoolluuttiioonn TThhee ssoolluuttiioonn iiss mmaaddee ooff mmiinneerraallss aanndd wwaatteerr.. Halite (Rock Salt)
  • 13. CChheemmiiccaall RRoocckk FFaaccttss Chemical sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rock Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters. It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris.
  • 14. 33.. OOrrggaanniicc SSeeddiimmeennttaarryy RRoocckk RRoocckkss ffoorrmmeedd ffrroomm oonnccee--lliivviinngg ((oorrggaanniicc)) tthhiinnggss.. EX: Organic Limestone Ocean animals called coral create huge deposits of limestone. As they die, their skeletons collect on the ocean floor.
  • 15. OOrrggaanniicc RRoocckk FFaaccttss Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animals Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock and along with oil and natural gas it is one of the three most important fossil fuels.
  • 16. SSttrraattiiffiiccaattiioonn TThhee pprroocceessss iinn wwhhiicchh sseeddiimmeennttaarryy rroocckkss aarree aarrrraannggeedd iinn llaayyeerrss..
  • 17. Separating each strata are bedding planes. Bedding Planes are flat surfaces along which the rock tends to break. Caused by changes in grain size. May also occur after pauses in deposition.