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S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface is formed. …

S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface is formed.
h. Describe soil as consisting of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material.

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  • 1. The Ground Beneath Our Feet S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface is formed. h. Describe soil as consisting of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material. i. Explain the effects of human activity on the erosion of the earth’s surface. j. Describe methods for conserving natural resources such as water, soil, and air.
  • 2. Directions • Read each slide. Some slides are just facts, look for the bold and underlined words to complete the notes
  • 3. Precious Soil You step on it. You stomp on it. You walk all over it. Soil doesn’t seem very precious. But it is. Without soil, which is a mixture of weathered rock and humus, there would be no plants. Without plants, we would have no food to eat and no oxygen to breathe. Soil is very precious to our way of living. Some people spend their entire careers studying soil. •Why don’t you give it a try?
  • 4. Explain this quote after you complete the notes “The nation that destroys its soil, destroys itself.”
  • 5. What Is Soil Made Of? Start here
  • 6. Read this: Soil begins to form when bedrock is broken apart into small pieces of minerals (rock). The agents rain, ice, wind, freezing, and thawing can do this breaking. Chemical changes can do this , too to rock.
  • 7. Plants and animals that live in small rock pieces help break apart rocks. As plant roots grow down, they pry apart rocks. Burrowing animals, such as earthworms and ants, create tunnels between rock pieces. Some of these tunnels fill with air and water. Water expands as it freezes, further breaking apart the rocks. continue reading:
  • 8. Read: How Soil Forms
  • 9. Humus becomes mixed with the rock pieces. Finally, a material that can be called soil is produced. Soil is a mixture of tiny rock particles, minerals, humus, water, and air. Soil takes a long time to form. It may take hundreds to thousands of years for one inch of soil to form.
  • 10. Bacteria and fungi also help create soil. They decompose dead plants and animals for energy. The leftover plant and animal matter is called humus.
  • 11. Food for thought: Explain this cartoon!
  • 12. The importance of soil • Soil provides minerals and other nutrients for plants. • All animals get their energy from plants, either by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants. • Soil stores water for plant use • Soil also prevents water run off
  • 13. Uses of soil: How do Humans (people) use the land (soil)? • Agriculture • Development-Construction of homes, stores, office buildings, etc. • Mining-Removal of iron, copper, and coal
  • 14. Harm to Soil: Damage and loss •Soil can be damaged from overuse by poor farming techniques or by over grazing. •Deforestation: Cutting large masses of trees leaving bare forest land •Overuse– soil loses its nutrients •Overgrazing– animals eat (destroy) plants and leave the soil bare and exposed to erosion.
  • 15. DEFORESTATION clear cutting the trees
  • 16. DEFORESTATION clear cutting the trees
  • 17. WHAT ABOUT THE ANIMALS? Where and how will they live?
  • 18. pasture
  • 19. pasture
  • 20. Over grazing
  • 21. Over grazing leads to ???
  • 22. Overgrazing
  • 23. SOIL POLLUTION chemicals being carried in water from field to river
  • 24. Soil Movement: Erosion • Erosion is the process by which wind, water or gravity transport soil and sediment from one location to another. • Plant roots anchor the soil and keep it in place • By taking care of the plants you also take care of the soil.
  • 25. EROSION
  • 26. DUST BOWL wind erosion When you are finished with this slide share go to: ikeepbookmarks.com (Alleyne), Geosphere, the soil food diner select any Dust bowl link to help you answer the questions watch the video clips, look at the images and use the links.
  • 27. How do we SAVE OUR SOIL! • Predict three ways that soil can be conserved?
  • 28. Soil Conservation • Soil conservation is a method to maintain the fertility of the soil by protecting the soil from erosion and nutrient loss • Soil is a resource that must be conserved.
  • 29. Methods of soil conservation • 1. Contour plowing • 2. Terracing • 3. No till farming (non tillage) • 4. Cover Crop • 5. Crop rotation
  • 30. Contour plowing • To prevent erosion farmers plow and plant across the hill instead of plowing and planting down the hill. • The rows act as a series of dams that slow the flow of water
  • 31. Contour planting
  • 32. Terracing • If hills are very steep farmers use terracing. Terracing changes the hill into a series of smaller flatter fields to reduce water runoff
  • 33. Terracing
  • 34. Terracing
  • 35. No till Farming • Farmers leave old stalks in a field to protect the soil. It prevents rain water run off and slows erosion. The decaying stalks renew the nutrients to the soil.
  • 36. Non tillage
  • 37. No till cotton plants
  • 38. Cover crop Crops planted between the harvested crop to replace the nutrients in the soil and prevent erosion Cover crop
  • 39. Crop rotation • Planting different crops in rotation on the same piece of soil. Not planting the same crop year after year on the same ground. The rotation of crops slows the loss of nutrients Soy beans from the soil. Corn
  • 40. Crop rotation
  • 41. Plowing under cover crop to renew nutrients
  • 42. LANDSCAPING FOR SOIL CONSERVATION (terracing)
  • 43. Consider this! Now go and select any Dust bowl link to help you answer the questions watch the video clips, look at the images and use the links.