Did it start as a bang!                          1B
The Expanding UniverseA.   The Big Bang Theory: Idea that all matter began in aninfinitely small point andexploded out in ...
1B
Galaxies: _____________________             Billions of stars,_____________________________             dust, and gas held...
A. Earth’s Galaxy—and Others• Galaxies are grouped    • Cluster of galaxies  together in clusters.• The cluster the Milky ...
Galaxy Morphological Revisted                         Spiral               IrregularElliptical                            ...
Spiral Galaxies• Spiral Galaxies:           • Two spiral galaxies!!  Circular galaxies  that have arms  curve outward  fro...
Illustration/draw and label:
halo    disk                bulgeSpiral Galaxy
Elliptical Galaxies Most common type of galaxy; large three-dimensionalfootball shaped galaxies.   -Contain mostly older  ...
Illustrate / Draw Elliptical
Irregular Galaxies• Come in many different  shapes and are smaller  and less common• Irregular Galaxies - No  regular shap...
Illustrate/ Draw:
Earth’s Galaxy• Galaxy: A large group of    • Spiral Galaxies  stars, gas, and dust held  together by gravity.• Milky Way:...
The Milky Way Galaxy• The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar  System which is just one of the several galaxie...
Solar SystemOur star (Sun), the planets, manymoons, and other small bodies that   ALL travel around the Sun
Solar System
What do we see in the sky?     •  The stars move in the sky but        not with respect to each other      • The planets (...
The Great Debate!•Heraclides (330 B.C.) developed the first Solar System model, beginning of the geocentric versus helioce...
Timeline        Galileo                1564-1642               Newton                                        1642-1727    ...
Geocentric (Ptolemaic) System•The theory (in Greek, geo means earth), which maintained that Earth was the center of the un...
Geocentric  (Ptolemaic) System• The accepted model for  1400 years• The earth is at the center• The Sun, stars, and  plane...
Illustrate/ Draw model:                          1B
Heliocentric (Copernican) System         • The word "helios" in Greek           means "sun." Heliocentric           means ...
Heliocentric (Copernican) System           • Sun at center (heliocentric)           • Uniform, circular motion            ...
Please Illustrate                    1B
Our Solar System    A Write On Activity
Our Solar SystemOur solar system is  made up of: Sun Nine planets Their moons Asteroids Comets Meteoros
Inner PlanetsThe inner four rocky / Terrestrial  planets. These planets have  hard rock crusts, and dense  rock and metal ...
Mercury• Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun.• Mercury rotates the Sun in only 88 days.• Mercury rotates very slowly ...
Venus   Sister planet to Earth Size and    structure is VERY similar to Earth,    often called "Earths Twin"   Has no mo...
Earth   Third planet from sun   Only planet known to have life and    liquid water   Atmosphere composed of composed of...
Mars   Fourth planet from sun   Appears as bright reddish color in the    night sky Called "the Red Planet"    because i...
Outer Planets   A gas giant (sometimes also known as a    jovian planet after the planet Jupiter, or    giant planet) is ...
Jupiter Largest planet in solar system Brightest planet in sky 60+ moons, 5 visible from Earth Strong magnetic field ...
Saturn   6 th planet from sun   Seven thin, flat rings not solid but    made up of particles of ice, dust and    rocks ...
Uranus 7 th planet from sun Has a faint ring system 27 known moons Covered with clouds Sits and spins on its side wit...
Neptune   8 th planet from sun   Discovered through math   7 known moons   Triton largest moon Storm called the "Grea...
Pluto our dwarf   Pluto, the outermost planet, is a    small, icy "dwarf planet“ it is smaller    than the Earths Moon.
Pluto   9 th planet from sun    (usually)   Never visited by    spacecraft   Orbits very slowly   Moon, Charon, is    ...
Comet- chunks of ice and dust• Has an elliptical orbit around Sun• Has a head (nucleus and coma) and  tail.• Tail always p...
Comets: Orbit
Asteroids- Larger chunks of rock Vary in size and shape In Asteroid Belt between  Mars and Jupiter Revolve around sun ...
Asteroids: Illustrate /draw
Meteoroids- smaller chunks of rock and dust in space.      1. randomly move about space ; no specific       orbit       2....
Writing Activity    Which does not describe the difference    between Gas Giants and Terrestrials?    A. Terrestrials are ...
Solar SystemActivities   Order the Planets    Fun with Planets   Constellations of the Northern    Sky   Planets   So...
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4 1 solar system

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S6E1. Students will explore current scientific views of the universe and how those views evolved.
a. Relate the Nature of Science to the progression of basic historical scientific models (geocentric, heliocentric) as they describe our solar system, and the Big Bang as it describes the formation of the universe.
b. Describe the position of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy and the universe.
c. Compare and contrast the planets in terms of Size relative to the earth Surface and atmospheric features Relative distance from the sun Ability to support life
d. Explain the motion of objects in the day/night sky in terms of relative position.
e. Explain that gravity is the force that governs the motion in the solar system.
f. Describe the characteristics of comets, asteroids, and meteors.

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  • Tail becomes brighter as it gets closer to the sun because of increase heat/radiation. Tail points away from sun because of the radiation/solar wind. Imagine standing in the wind outside. Your hair will always blow in the same direction the wind is blowing.
  • Can accidentally get “out” of normal orbit. Scientists monitor this and its likeliness of coming in contact with Earth. “ Armaggedon- The Movie? Ben Affleck” Any other movies??
  • 4 1 solar system

    1. 1. Did it start as a bang! 1B
    2. 2. The Expanding UniverseA. The Big Bang Theory: Idea that all matter began in aninfinitely small point andexploded out in all directions 1B
    3. 3. 1B
    4. 4. Galaxies: _____________________ Billions of stars,_____________________________ dust, and gas held______________________________ together by gravity Edwin Hubble ________________ was an astronomer in the 1920s who gathered many pictures of galaxies • noticed they all didn’t look alike • decided to classify them by the way they looked into 3 types Elliptical • “E” or _____________________ 1B Spiral • “S” or _____________________ Barred Spiral • “SB” or ____________________
    5. 5. A. Earth’s Galaxy—and Others• Galaxies are grouped • Cluster of galaxies together in clusters.• The cluster the Milky Way belongs to is called the Local Group.• Three types of galaxies:
    6. 6. Galaxy Morphological Revisted Spiral IrregularElliptical The Hubble Tuning Fork
    7. 7. Spiral Galaxies• Spiral Galaxies: • Two spiral galaxies!! Circular galaxies that have arms curve outward from a central hub. – Arms are made up of stars and dust
    8. 8. Illustration/draw and label:
    9. 9. halo disk bulgeSpiral Galaxy
    10. 10. Elliptical Galaxies Most common type of galaxy; large three-dimensionalfootball shaped galaxies. -Contain mostly older and dimmer stars. Vary in shape from completely round to extremely elongated ovals. Unlike spiral galaxies No bright nucleus at their center. Elliptical galaxies are represented by the letter E Divided into seven subgroups according to their shape. These subgroups are labeled E0 to E7. E0 galaxies nearly circular in shape while E7 galaxies are extremely elongated or stretched out.
    11. 11. Illustrate / Draw Elliptical
    12. 12. Irregular Galaxies• Come in many different shapes and are smaller and less common• Irregular Galaxies - No regular shape, includes nebulas, with no central bulge or spiral arms.
    13. 13. Illustrate/ Draw:
    14. 14. Earth’s Galaxy• Galaxy: A large group of • Spiral Galaxies stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity.• Milky Way: Our galaxy which contains about 200 billion stars and many nebulas
    15. 15. The Milky Way Galaxy• The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System which is just one of the several galaxies of the universe.• . This name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars.• 100,000 light years in diameter• Our sun orbits the center of the galaxy once every 240 million years• A barred spiral galaxy• Contains over 200 billion stars• Its where we live!!!!!
    16. 16. Solar SystemOur star (Sun), the planets, manymoons, and other small bodies that ALL travel around the Sun
    17. 17. Solar System
    18. 18. What do we see in the sky? • The stars move in the sky but not with respect to each other • The planets (or “wanderers”) move differently from stars – They move with respect to the stars – They exhibit strange retrograde motion • What does all this mean? • How can we explain these movements? • What does the universe 1B look like?
    19. 19. The Great Debate!•Heraclides (330 B.C.) developed the first Solar System model, beginning of the geocentric versus heliocentric debate 1B
    20. 20. Timeline Galileo 1564-1642 Newton 1642-1727 TychoCopernicus 1546-1601 Kepler1473-1543 1571-1630 1B
    21. 21. Geocentric (Ptolemaic) System•The theory (in Greek, geo means earth), which maintained that Earth was the center of the universe, usually referring to the system of Claudius Ptolemy. 1B
    22. 22. Geocentric (Ptolemaic) System• The accepted model for 1400 years• The earth is at the center• The Sun, stars, and planets on their spheres revolve around the earth: explains daily movement• To account for unusual planetary motion epicycles were introduced• Fit the Greek model of heavenly perfection – spheres are the perfect shape, circular the perfect motion 1B
    23. 23. Illustrate/ Draw model: 1B
    24. 24. Heliocentric (Copernican) System • The word "helios" in Greek means "sun." Heliocentric means that the sun is at the center. A heliocentric system is one in which the planets revolve around a fixed sun. Thus Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn all revolve around the sun. The moon is the only celestial sphere in this system which revolves 1B around the earth, and, together
    25. 25. Heliocentric (Copernican) System • Sun at center (heliocentric) • Uniform, circular motion – No epicycles (almost) • Moon orbited the earth, the earth orbited the sun as another planet • Planets and stars still on fixed spheres, stars don’t move • The daily motion of the stars results from the Earth’s spin • The annual motion of the stars results from the Earth’s orbit 1B
    26. 26. Please Illustrate 1B
    27. 27. Our Solar System A Write On Activity
    28. 28. Our Solar SystemOur solar system is made up of: Sun Nine planets Their moons Asteroids Comets Meteoros
    29. 29. Inner PlanetsThe inner four rocky / Terrestrial planets. These planets have hard rock crusts, and dense rock and metal cores are: Mercury Venus Earth Mars
    30. 30. Mercury• Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun.• Mercury rotates the Sun in only 88 days.• Mercury rotates very slowly on its axis with one day taking 58 Earth days.• Mercury barely has any atmosphere, but does have glaciers.• Called a morning star. This is because Mercury shines brightly in the early morning just before the sun rises. It has also been called an evening star for the same reason. Mercury is often visible for a brief period of time just after the Sun sets. 1B
    31. 31. Venus Sister planet to Earth Size and structure is VERY similar to Earth, often called "Earths Twin" Has no moons or rings Hot, thick atmosphere Brightest object in sky besides sun and moon (looks like bright star) Covered with craters, volcanoes, and mountains
    32. 32. Earth Third planet from sun Only planet known to have life and liquid water Atmosphere composed of composed of Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%).
    33. 33. Mars Fourth planet from sun Appears as bright reddish color in the night sky Called "the Red Planet" because it surface is covered with iron oxide- RUST! Proves that Mars once had free oxygen molecules in its atmosphere. Surface features volcanoes and huge dust storms Has 2 moons: Phobos and Deimos
    34. 34. Outer Planets A gas giant (sometimes also known as a jovian planet after the planet Jupiter, or giant planet) is a massive planet with a thick atmosphere of hydrogen and helium Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
    35. 35. Jupiter Largest planet in solar system Brightest planet in sky 60+ moons, 5 visible from Earth Strong magnetic field Giant red spot Rings have 3 parts: Halo Ring, Main Ring, Gossamer Ring
    36. 36. Saturn 6 th planet from sun Seven thin, flat rings not solid but made up of particles of ice, dust and rocks 31 moons Largest moon, Titan, Easily visible in the night sky A lightweight planet and it spins so fast Voyager explored Saturn and its
    37. 37. Uranus 7 th planet from sun Has a faint ring system 27 known moons Covered with clouds Sits and spins on its side with the north and south poles sticking out the sides.
    38. 38. Neptune 8 th planet from sun Discovered through math 7 known moons Triton largest moon Storm called the "Great Dark Spot" because it appears as a dark oval shape on the surface of the planet. Great Dark Spot thought to be a hole, similar to the hole in the ozone layer on Earth
    39. 39. Pluto our dwarf Pluto, the outermost planet, is a small, icy "dwarf planet“ it is smaller than the Earths Moon.
    40. 40. Pluto 9 th planet from sun (usually) Never visited by spacecraft Orbits very slowly Moon, Charon, is very close to Pluto and about the same size
    41. 41. Comet- chunks of ice and dust• Has an elliptical orbit around Sun• Has a head (nucleus and coma) and tail.• Tail always points away from sun.
    42. 42. Comets: Orbit
    43. 43. Asteroids- Larger chunks of rock Vary in size and shape In Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter Revolve around sun in 3-6 years
    44. 44. Asteroids: Illustrate /draw
    45. 45. Meteoroids- smaller chunks of rock and dust in space. 1. randomly move about space ; no specific orbit 2. come from remains of comets and asteroids • Meteor- a meteoroid that burns in the atmosphere- produces a streak of light. nickname: “ Shooting star ” •MeteoriTe- a meteoroid that doesn’t burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere. It T ouches Earth.
    46. 46. Writing Activity Which does not describe the difference between Gas Giants and Terrestrials? A. Terrestrials are closer to the sun than gas giants. B. Terrestrials are denser than Gas Giants. C. Gas Giants rotate faster on their axis then Terrestrials. D. Terrestrials have rock and metal in their core and Gas Giants do not.
    47. 47. Solar SystemActivities Order the Planets  Fun with Planets Constellations of the Northern Sky Planets Solar System 
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