Standards & elements• S6E2. Students will understand the effects of the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun.• a. Demonstrate the phases of the moon by showing the alignment of the earth, moon, and sun.• b. Explain the alignment of the earth, moon, and sun during solar and lunar eclipses.
The Moon and You• Meet your moon.• What do we see?• What does it do to Earth?• What if you traveled to the moon?• Where did it come from?
• How is the moon’s motion around the Earth observed?
Check what you know: Does the Moon orbit the Earth?The Earth takes a year to orbit around the Sun. What about the Moon? Does it orbit the Earth? Circle the answer you think best describes the motion of the Moon.A. The Moon orbits the Earth about once a day.B. The Moon orbits the Earth about once a week.C. The Moon orbits the Earth about once a month.D. The Moon orbits the Earth about once a year.E. The Moon does not orbit the Earth. Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy pg 99
INTRODUCTION It takes 29.5 days for the Moon to revolve around the Earth and we always see that same side of the moon. (we never see the back side)
Why do we have MOON PHASES?Different amounts of sunlight light up the moon and, from Earth, makes the moon appear to have “different shapes” or phases.
How big is the Moon?• Wall-e Learns about Proportions
Check what you know: Seeing the MoonHow often have you looked up into the sky and seen the Moon? Put an X next to all the times when you think you can go outside and see the Moon.____ in the morning____ at noon____ in the middle of the afternoon____ in the evening before sunset____ in the evening after sunset____ at midnight Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy pg 91
What do we see?• The Phases of the Moon – New moon (0% No reflected light) – Crescent (1-49% partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight.) – Quarter (50%) – Gibbous (51-99% more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. ) – Full moon (100% illuminated by direct sunlight.)
B. Phases of the Moon (Draw what the phase looks like in the boxesprovided)1.New Moon - earth cannot see any part of the moon (lasts one day)2.Waxing Crescent - waxing means moon’s face is growing (lasts several days)3.First quarter - right half of moon’s face is visible (lasts for only one day)4.Waxing gibbous - more than 1/2 of moon’s face is visible (lasts several days)5.Full moon – all of the moon’s face is visible (last for one day)6.Waning gibbous - (last for several days)7.Last quarter or Third quarter - left half of face is visible (lasts for only one day)8. Waning crescent - waxing means moon’s face is shrinking (last for several days)
W all the crazy words for the moon phases? hyMost of these words are based in Latin or Greek (those dudes way back when that started doing science and observing space!)CRESCENT- like the shape, curve.GIBBOUS- think bulging for those two “b”s in the middle of the word. This shape is bigger than half, but less than full.WAXING- Think “Wax On” from Karate Kid. It means getting bigger. Light is being “added” and the moon is looking bigger each day.WANING- It means getting smaller. Since we say “Way-ning”…. I think of it as “going AWAY”. Moon appears to be “shrinking” each day.
As the moon moves (revolves) around the Earth, it looks like it hasdifferent shapes. The shape of the moon does not really change. It just changes its location in space.
The cycle continues with a new moon…..
Check what you know: Crescent MoonWhen there is a crescent Moon in the night sky, how much of the entire Moon’s spherical surface is actually lit by the Sun? Circle the answer that best matches your thinking.A. Quarter or less of the entire MoonB. Half of the entire MoonC. Three quarters of the entire MoonD. The entire Moon Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy pg 127
Why do we see “phases” of the moon?• NASA animation- Moon Phases in 2013• View from Above• Lunar Phase Simulator• Brainpop
Check what you know: Moon Phase and Solar EclipseDuring a solar eclipse the Moon appears to completely cover the Sun. What phase is the Moon in just before and after a solar eclipse? Circle the answer that best matches your thinking.A. Full MoonB. New MoonC. First quarter MoonD. Last quarter MoonE. It can be any phase.Now, draw a diagram of where the Earth, Moon and Sun will be during a SOLAR eclipse. Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy pg 109
Solar Eclipses• Sun – the shadow of the moon on the earth Total solar eclipse in 1999
What is a lunar eclipse?• Now imagine what happens when you have the sun, the Earth, and the moon all lined up in a row. The Earth will end up blocking the rays of the sun from reaching the moon. The Earth has two shadows, one inside the other. The inner shadow is called the umbra, and its the darker shadow. The penumbra is a wider shadow, stretching out more to the sides, but its not as dark as the umbra. When the moon is in the penumbra shadow of the Earth, we barely notice that the moon is darkened. When the moon is partly in the umbra shadow of the
A – total eclipseB – annular eclipseC – partial eclipse
Lunar Eclipses• Moon – the shadow of the earth on the moon
Eclipses• Have you seen eclipses?• What are eclipses in nature? – One celestial object casts its shadow on the other one• Umbra: Inner core of total darkness the disc of the Sun is completely blocked.• Penumbra: Outer, partial shadow Suns disc is only partly blocked, with a bit peeking over the edge.
What’s the moon phase when a solar eclipse occurs? New MoonWhat’s the moon phase when a lunar eclipse occurs? Full Moon
Penumbra & Umbra illustration
Why aren’t there solar eclipses and lunar eclipses on EVERYnew moon and full moon?
Two conditions must be satisfied for an eclipse to occur 1. The nodes of the moon’s orbit must be nearly aligned with the Sun and the Earth 2. The phase of the moon must be new or full
End Section One
Amazing video: Planets viewed from Earth as if they were at the distance of our moon
What does the Moon do to Earth?
Check What You Know: TidesSally and Ben had only recently moved to the little community ofWindy Bay. They were eager to explore the nearby sandy beach, andespecially adventure to the small rocky island a short distanceoffshore. They could scarcely wait until Saturday morning when theycould explore the tide pools and rocky crevices of the island to lookfor neat critters. They arose early and walked to the sand bar thatjutted onto the rocky island. At first they walked along the lowerbeach looking into glassy blue tidepools, then searched the high tideline for beach pebbles, empty snail shells, and glass balls. Afterabout three hours, Ben and Sally decided to return home. Much totheir surprise the connecting sand bar to the mainland was nowcovered with seawater to a depth well up to their waist. They werestuck. They were afraid to swim the distance because of thesurprisingly strong current, and it was too far for their yells to beheard. Will Sally and Ben have to spend the rest of the day and thenight on the island? How long will they have to stay? Why? https://sites.google.com/site/k12oceanliteracy/curricular-materials/5th-grade/tides-formative-assessment
What does the Moon do to Earth?• Gives us light at night (depending on the phase.) Which phase gives us the most light?• Controls TIDES. – Tides are different than WAVES. Tides are periodic. They repeat and move the water at coastlines in and out every few hours. – Waves are caused by wind (and occasionally, earthquakes, boats, etc.) – Tides are caused by the pull (Gravity) of the Moon and Sun on Earth’s fluids (water and atmosphere)
At certain times during the moons When the gravitational pull of the moonrevolution around the Earth, the and Sun are at right angles to eachdirection of its gravitational attraction is other, the daily tidal variations on thealigned with the Suns. During these Earth are at their least These eventstimes the two tide producing bodies act are called neap tides and they occurtogether to create the highest and during the first and last quarter of thelowest tides of the year. These spring moon.tides occur every 14-15 days duringfull and new moons.
Tide data- examples Semi: half, or part Diurnal: daytime 24 hrs: end day 1 48 hrs: end day 2 72 hrs: end day 3 96 hrs: end day 4 120 hrs: end day 5Analyze moon-phase, eclipse, and tidal data to construct models thatexplain how the relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Mooncause these three phenomena. (NJCCCS 5.4.8.A.1)
Use the Tide Data graph on your notes sheet to answer these questions:1. How many high tides are completed in the first day? _____________________________________2. What is the approximate height of high tide? _________ of low tide? ___________3. What pattern do you see in the tides over the 6 days of this graph? __________________________________________ ________________________________________
What if you traveled to the moon?• Gravity• What it looks like up there
Your Weight on the MoonCalculate your weight in Space
Earthrise and Earthset Earthrise... then and now.
Check What You Know: Phases of EarthName the phase of the Earth in this picture.
Where did the Moon come from? How the Moon was born.Billions of years ago, there were about 20 planets in oursolar system.A Mars-sized planet named Thea crashed into Earth.The debris from the crash was flung out into space andformed a ring around Earth, held by Earth’s gravity.The debris eventually collected into one ball as it orbited Earth,and we now call it the Moon.