Lesson

The World’s Oceans
• EQ: How does the

composition and topography
of earth’s oceans vary by
location?
Directions: READ each slide then
decide what is important to record

(Use

the RED & or
underlined words).

Some slides ar...
Ocean Water Chemistry- Questions
you will be able to answer
How salty is ocean
water?

How do the conditions
in the ocean ...
Read ONLY: World Oceans Largest to Smallest
Divisions of the Global Oceans
Largest to smallest
Start Here:

1. Pacific- the largest ocean; it covers 28%
of the Earth ...
Continue largest to smallest
3. Indian- Area of 26,469,900 square miles
A
(68,566,000 sq km). ; the deepest area is the
Ja...
Continue smallest

5. Arctic- World's smallest with
an area of 5,427,000 square
miles (14,056,000 sq km);
covered by a dri...
What divides the global
oceans?
• The global ocean is divided by the

continents into five main oceans.
How Did the Oceans Form?
Use key words underlined

• About 4 billion years ago, the Earth

cooled enough for water vapor t...
Locate the Oceans
• label these on your map: See next slide
–
–
–
–
–

Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
Arctic Oc...
Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean

North
Atlantic
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean

Southern
Ocean

Pacific
Ocean

South
Atlanti...
Characteristics of Ocean Water
Read ONLY:
• Ocean water is salty full of dissolved
•
•
•
•

solids
Climate affects salinit...
Why is the Ocean Salty?
Dissolved solids
• Most of the salt found in oceans is
sodium chloride (table salt).
Where does the salt come
from? Read only

• solid materials

come from volcanic
eruptions
• hot springs
• ocean waves
cras...
Where does the salt come
from? Read Only

• Also, during the

water cycle, fresh
water from the
ocean is
evaporated leavin...
Where does the salt come
from? Read ONLY
• Salts have been added to the oceans
for billions of years by running waters
(ri...
How Salty is the Ocean?
READ ONLY

• Salinity- the measure of the amount of

dissolved salts in a given amount of water

•...
Solids substances dissolved in
ocean. Read ONLY
• Main substance dissolved in ocean water:
sodium chloride aka table salt
...
This compound consists of the elements

sodium, Na, and chlorine, Cl. Figure 3
shows the relative amounts of the dissolved...
Factors Effecting Salinity
Chock-Full of Solids
Salinity- The measure of the amount
of dissolved salts in a given amount
o...
Natural Processes Affecting
Salinity
Climate Affects Salinity
• Some parts of the ocean are saltier than other
parts of the ocean.

– Coastal waters in places ...
Climate Affects Salinity
Along which coast would salinity be
higher? Lower?
Increasing and Decreasing
Salinity
– evaporation• increases salinity because only
freshwater is evaporated.
Therefore, sal...
Increasing and Decreasing
Salinity
• precipitation-

– decreases salinity because all forms of
precipitation are freshwate...
Location Affects Salinity
• Also: Coastal waters in general have less

salinity because more fresh water from rivers
run i...
Water Movement Affects
Salinity
• Some parts of the ocean (bays, seas,

gulfs) move less than other parts.
• Also, some pa...
Water Movement Affects
Salinity
Water Movement Affects
Salinity
For the following chart on the next
2 slides (on the last page of your
notes), fill in the...
If you were to go scuba diving…
you would experience….
• The Temperature decreases as you go

deeper.
• Pressure increases...
Ocean Topography :
*Oceanographers studying the oceans and ocean floor have delineated
three (3) major units:
1. Continent...
Continental Margin
2.    The

Deep Sea includes:
a.    Deep ocean trenches (deepest part of ocean) some as
deep as 36,000 feet; The Marianas ...
The Deep Sea includes:
b.    Abyssal plains are the flat portions of the deep ocean, likely
to be the flattest portions of...
The Deep Sea includes:

d. Mid-oceanic ridges : A series of
mountain ranges on the ocean floor,
more than 84,000 kilometer...
Examples of mid-ocean
ridges

Slow spreading ridges like the

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

generally have large, wide rift
valleys,...
The Deep
Diagram of the Ocean Floor: pick
ONE to draw and LABEL
Finished go back to ikeepbookmarks
and select another link
1 10 ocean composition-location Water in Earth’s Processes
1 10 ocean composition-location Water in Earth’s Processes
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1 10 ocean composition-location Water in Earth’s Processes

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Water in Earth’s Processes
S6E3. Students will recognize the significant role of water in earth processes.
c. Describe the composition, location, and subsurface topography of the world’s oceans.

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  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/sep/27/plastic-debris-southern-ocean-pristine
    http://www.thedeliciouscook.com/2012/04/13/the-truth-about-salts/
  • http://www.scarborough.k12.me.us/wentworth/webquest/nature/10_largest_volcanoes.htm
    http://steamboatspringsreview.com/steamboat-hot-springs.html
    http://www.123rf.com/photo_9566325_waves-crashing-over-rocks-in-the-pacific-ocean.html
  • http://www.google.com/search?q=rivers+dumping+into+oceans&hl=en&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-Address&rlz=1I7ADRA_enUS384&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=rlsUUdKoLofC9gS5wYHgAQ&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAA&biw=1366&bih=622#imgrc=vHuV_fYA6UY3wM%3A%3B4xV2-8jCGUtFZM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fmedia.nola.com%252Fscience%252Fphoto%252F10591434-large.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.nola.com%252Fscience%252Findex.ssf%252F2012%252F02%252Fkiller_cyclone_giovanna_dumpin.html%3B380%3B253
    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=rivers+dumping+into+oceans&source=images&cd=&docid=VTUwKKc8-9s4-M&tbnid=7EuO8qxDGfnWAM:&ved=0CAQQjB0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scientificamerican.com%2Farticle.cfm%3Fid%3Dyukon-river-dumping-more-mercury-climate-change&ei=HlwUUZ-xIpDi8gTmkoHIDg&bvm=bv.42080656,d.eWU&psig=AFQjCNGNi-MqZYscWmLPQW4RuCxi6m9E5g&ust=1360375089970721
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • news.carrclifton.com --- Alaskan coast
    www.pacificislands.com -- Hawaii
  • www.mcguiresplace.net
  • 1 10 ocean composition-location Water in Earth’s Processes

    1. 1. Lesson The World’s Oceans • EQ: How does the composition and topography of earth’s oceans vary by location?
    2. 2. Directions: READ each slide then decide what is important to record (Use the RED & or underlined words). Some slides are just FACTS others you will need to use for the organizer.
    3. 3. Ocean Water Chemistry- Questions you will be able to answer How salty is ocean water? How do the conditions in the ocean change with depth? How did the ocean form and how is it currently divided? Describe one factor that increases the salinity of seawater & one factor that decreases salinity.
    4. 4. Read ONLY: World Oceans Largest to Smallest
    5. 5. Divisions of the Global Oceans Largest to smallest Start Here: 1. Pacific- the largest ocean; it covers 28% of the Earth and is equal in size to nearly all of the land area on the Earth. 2. Atlantic- An area of 29,637,900 square miles (76,762,000 sq km). The Atlantic Ocean is important to the world's weather (as are all oceans) because strong Atlantic hurricanes are known to develop off the coast of Cape Verde, Africa and move toward the Caribbean Sea from August to
    6. 6. Continue largest to smallest 3. Indian- Area of 26,469,900 square miles A (68,566,000 sq km). ; the deepest area is the Java Trench at 7,725 m; The Indian Ocean is known for causing the monsoonal weather patterns that dominate much of southeast Asia and for having waters that have been historical chokepoints. 4. Southern- Extends from the coast of Antarctica E to 60 degrees south latitude. It has a total area of 7,848,300 square miles (20,327,000 sq km)
    7. 7. Continue smallest 5. Arctic- World's smallest with an area of 5,427,000 square miles (14,056,000 sq km); covered by a drifting polar icepack; most oceanographers consider it as an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian
    8. 8. What divides the global oceans? • The global ocean is divided by the continents into five main oceans.
    9. 9. How Did the Oceans Form? Use key words underlined • About 4 billion years ago, the Earth cooled enough for water vapor to condense. • The water began to fall as rain . • The rain filled the deeper levels of Earth’s surface and the first oceans began to form.
    10. 10. Locate the Oceans • label these on your map: See next slide – – – – – Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean Southern Ocean aka Antarctic Ocean
    11. 11. Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean North Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean Pacific Ocean South Atlantic Ocean Southern Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean
    12. 12. Characteristics of Ocean Water Read ONLY: • Ocean water is salty full of dissolved • • • • solids Climate affects salinity Water movement affects salinity Temperate zones Surface temperature Changes
    13. 13. Why is the Ocean Salty? Dissolved solids • Most of the salt found in oceans is sodium chloride (table salt).
    14. 14. Where does the salt come from? Read only • solid materials come from volcanic eruptions • hot springs • ocean waves crashing against rocks/minerals
    15. 15. Where does the salt come from? Read Only • Also, during the water cycle, fresh water from the ocean is evaporated leaving only the salts behind.
    16. 16. Where does the salt come from? Read ONLY • Salts have been added to the oceans for billions of years by running waters (rivers, streams) which dissolve various minerals, and then dump the water into the oceans.
    17. 17. How Salty is the Ocean? READ ONLY • Salinity- the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of water • The average amount of salt in ocean water is about 3.5% or 35 grams of salt per one kilogram (1000 g) of water • Ocean water carries many different dissolved salts
    18. 18. Solids substances dissolved in ocean. Read ONLY • Main substance dissolved in ocean water: sodium chloride aka table salt • Other solid substances dissolved in ocean: sulfate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. • Where do these dissolved solid substances come from? – rivers, streams, rocks from the shore, volcanoes and underwater hot springs. • The concentration of all the dissolved substances in sea water is about 3.5%.
    19. 19. This compound consists of the elements sodium, Na, and chlorine, Cl. Figure 3 shows the relative amounts of the dissolved solids in ocean water.
    20. 20. Factors Effecting Salinity Chock-Full of Solids Salinity- The measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of water. Measured: As grams of dissolved solids per kilogram of water. (Think of it this way: 1 kg (1,000 g) of ocean water can be evaporated to 35 g of dissolved solids) • • • • • • • Evaporation Precipitation Freezing Rivers dumping water into oceans Climate Location water movement
    21. 21. Natural Processes Affecting Salinity
    22. 22. Climate Affects Salinity • Some parts of the ocean are saltier than other parts of the ocean. – Coastal waters in places with hotter, drier climates have a higher salinity . ( More evaporation because it is hotter, so less water, more salt). – Coastal waters in places with cooler, more humid climates have a lower salinity (Less heat, so less evaporation, more water is left
    23. 23. Climate Affects Salinity Along which coast would salinity be higher? Lower?
    24. 24. Increasing and Decreasing Salinity – evaporation• increases salinity because only freshwater is evaporated. Therefore, salt is left behind. – freezing• only freshwater freezes, so salt is left behind, causing an increase
    25. 25. Increasing and Decreasing Salinity • precipitation- – decreases salinity because all forms of precipitation are freshwater. • rivers dumping water into oceans- – causes decreasing salinity, because rivers are freshwater, and the amount of salt stays the same as freshwater is added.
    26. 26. Location Affects Salinity • Also: Coastal waters in general have less salinity because more fresh water from rivers run into the oceans in these areas.
    27. 27. Water Movement Affects Salinity • Some parts of the ocean (bays, seas, gulfs) move less than other parts. • Also, some parts of the open ocean that do not have currents run through them can be slow moving. • Slower-moving areas of water develop high salinity.
    28. 28. Water Movement Affects Salinity
    29. 29. Water Movement Affects Salinity For the following chart on the next 2 slides (on the last page of your notes), fill in the chart using your notes from this Power Point.
    30. 30. If you were to go scuba diving… you would experience…. • The Temperature decreases as you go deeper. • Pressure increases with as you go deeper Interesting Fact: • You could only dive to a depth of 40 m. Any further depth will cause the lungs to collapse!
    31. 31. Ocean Topography : *Oceanographers studying the oceans and ocean floor have delineated three (3) major units: 1. Continental margin 2. Ocean basin floor 3. Mid-oceanic ridges Surprisingly, we know very little about the mapping of our ocean floor. We probably have accurately mapped only 5% of the ocean floor. It is time-consuming, expensive, and our current technology only allows us to map a few miles at a stretch. As technology develops, mapping will improve. Currently, we use echo-sounding devices, which are slow and tedious.    1.  The continental margin includes: a.      Continental shelf -- very gentle slope (submerged land) b.      Continental slope -- steep slope on edge of continental shelf. c.      Continental rise -- gentle slope where trenches do not exist   Deep sea fans exist where sediment is accumulated and falls off of the continental slope. Mixture of sediment-laden heavy water forms submarine turbidity currents .  
    32. 32. Continental Margin
    33. 33. 2.    The Deep Sea includes: a.    Deep ocean trenches (deepest part of ocean) some as deep as 36,000 feet; The Marianas Trench is 7 km below the adjacent Pacific Ocean floor. Typically, the deepest part of a trench is given a separate name. Ex. the Challenger Deep is the deepest part of the Marianas Trench with a maximum-known depth of about 11.03 kilometres (6.85 mi) Ocean trenches are also associated with earthquakes, high heat flow, and volcanic activity .
    34. 34. The Deep Sea includes: b.    Abyssal plains are the flat portions of the deep ocean, likely to be the flattest portions of the earth. •( gradient  (grd-nt) 1. The degree to which something inclines; a slope. A mountain road with a gradient of ten percent rises one foot for every ten feet of horizontal length. •2. The rate at which a physical quantity, such as temperature or pressure changes over a distance. •3. A operator on scalar fields yielding a vector function, where the value of the vector evaluated at any point indicates the direction and degree of change of the field at that point.) c.     Isolated volcanic peaks (mantle hot spots) are referred to as "seamounts ". Likewise volcanic cones near mid-oceanic ridges are called seamounts as well. Harry Hess called these “guyots”.
    35. 35. The Deep Sea includes: d. Mid-oceanic ridges : A series of mountain ranges on the ocean floor, more than 84,000 kilometers (52,000 miles) in length, extending through the North and South Atlantic, the Indian Ocean, and the South Pacific. According to the plate tectonics theory, volcanic rock is added to the sea floor as the mid-ocean ridge spreads apart. Occur at divergent plate boundaries (Mid-Atlantic) and the narrow region at the ridge crest is called the rift zone . e.    Coral reefs and atolls develop usually in relatively shallow water where light is present and organisms can thrive on nutrients and food sources in a warm water setting. Atolls develop in response to a sinking of the oceanic crust
    36. 36. Examples of mid-ocean ridges Slow spreading ridges like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge generally have large, wide rift valleys, sometimes as big as 10–20 km (6.2–12 mi) wide and very rugged terrain at the ridge crest that can have relief of up to a 1,000 m (3,300 ft). By contrast, fast spreading ridges like the East Pacific Rise are narrow, sharp incisions surrounded by generally flat topography that slopes away from the ridge over many hundreds of miles.
    37. 37. The Deep
    38. 38. Diagram of the Ocean Floor: pick ONE to draw and LABEL
    39. 39. Finished go back to ikeepbookmarks and select another link
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