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  1. 1. • Perceptions vary from person to person. Different people perceive different things about the same situation. But more than that, we assign different meanings to what we perceive. And the meanings might change for a certain person. One might change ones perspective or simply make things mean something else.This is a famous picture. What does it look like to you?
  2. 2. perception Why is it that holidays take forever to come whereas the day of exam approaches rapidly: it is because of the perception that is a process by which individual selects,organises and interprets information inputs to create meaningful picture to the world. Assigningmeaning to the stimuli though the five senses is called as perception The physical characteristics of the stimuli such asshape color smell feel helps to identify the perception of the employees. The contrast in which the stimuli is perceived like wearing a party wear to the classroom The individual perceiving to the stimuli: his past learning beliefs,moods ,attitude ,emotion ,self image customs current motivation and expectation
  3. 3. The word "perception" comes from the Latin words perceptio, percipio,and means "receiving, collecting, and action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses. What one perceives is a result of interplays between past experiences, including one’s culture, and the interpretation of the perceived.• In the case of visual perception, some people can actually see the percept shift in their minds eye. Others, who are not picture thinkers, may not necessarily perceive the shape-shifting as their world changes. The question, "Is the glass half empty or half full?" serves to demonstrate the way an object can be perceived in different ways. Just as one object can give rise to multiple percepts, another object may fail to give rise to any percept at all: if the percept has no grounding in a persons experience, the person may literally not perceive it.• Preconceptions can influence how the world is perceived. The processes of perception routinely alter what humans see. When people view something with a preconceived concept about it, they tend to take those concepts and see them whether or not they are there. This problem stems from the fact that humans are unable to understand new information, without the inherent bias of their previous knowledge. A person’s knowledge creates his or her reality as much as the truth, because the human mind can only contemplate that to which it has been exposed. When objects are viewed without understanding, the mind will try to reach for something that it already recognizes, in order to process what it is viewing. That which most closely relates to the unfamiliar from our past experiences, makes up what we see when we look at things that we don’t comprehend.We obtain information from the external world, from our senses: taste, hearing, smell, touch, sight. Then we somehow integrate and analyze perceived information and make our decision. Decision is an “outcome of mental processes (cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice”. How do we make a decision, or even better to ask what leads us to make a decision? All our decisions are directed by our instincts, unconsciously. The basic human instinct is self- preservation or, in other words, survival and reproduction. But the decisions, which
  4. 4. • Perception IS Reality.Perception is the way in which an individual sees the world. The brain is so powerful that is able to store memories and necessary skills so that the person can survive. These memories or experiences are what help and make each of us different from another even though we see the same thing or hear the same thing. This suggests an explanation for why some people are passionate about some things and other people are just not interested. The way we see the world is important because only we can appreciate it, we are unable to make others see the world as we do. Which is why the phrase "perception is reality" comes to be true. As we cannot see the world as others do. Our brain just takes in information, connects it to our experience and thats why we decide if we like something or not. For example, when we encounter an image that has different shapes, our brain automatically tries to work out what the object could be and when it finds a shape, that is what we see. However, there are some ways in which perception can be tricked and we see distorted images or images which are not what they look like.
  5. 5. Stages• Selective Attention :two men at the roof top in the night one sees the star shining high the other see the darkness of the night there is a difference at the way you perceive as our needs experiences and personality is different and individuals select the stimuli that matches their past exp and current motivations. this is called as selective attention like in coffee shop you expect cookies and cake rather than ice-cream• Selective Comprehension :as the senders intention the stimuli is not understood in the same way by all. we try to group related items which simplifies the process of interpretation ex telephone number also depend upon individuals psychological factors like desires and past experiences.• Selective retention: information that is remarkable and supports a belief and attitude is more likely to retain
  6. 6. some people see a young lady looking away. Others see an old lady looking down. Depending on how you look at it, part of the picture might be the young womans nose and eyelash, or it might be a wart on the old womans nose. What is the young womans ear might be the old womans eye. What is the young womans necklace might be the old womans mouth. The picture hasnt really changed. You just emphasize different parts of it and assign them different meaning. Look at these two arrows. Which horizontal line is the longest? They are exactly the same size. However the top one lookslonger than the bottom one. It is on optical illusion tricking us into assigning a different meaning to what we see
  7. 7. • We fill in a lot of blanks with our minds. If we have incomplete perceptions, which we practically always do to a certain extent, our minds fill in the rest.•
  8. 8. Selective attention,distortion andRetentionSelective distortion is a term that refers tothe tendency of people to interpretinformation in a way that will supportwhat they already believe. This concept,along with selective ttention andselective retention, makes it hard formarketers to get their message acrossand create good product perception
  9. 9. SELECTIVE ATTENTION, DISTORTION AND RETENTION A motivated person is ready to act. How he motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or her view or perception of the situation. Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture the world. Perception depends not only on the physical stimuli, but also on the stimulis relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. The key point is that perceptioncan vary widely among individuals exposed to the same reality. One person might perceive a fast-talking salesperson as aggressive andinsincere another may perceive the same sales person as intelligen and helpful. Each will respond differently to the salesperson.In marketing, perceptions are more important than the reality, as it i perceptions that will affect consumers actual behavior. People can emerge with different perceptions of the same object because of three perceptual processes: selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention.
  10. 10. Selective Attention:It has been estimated that the average personmay be exposed to over 1,500 ads or brand communications a day.Because a person cannot possibly attend to all of these stimuli willbe screened out-a process called selective attention. it means thatmarketers have to work hard to attract consumers notice. The real challenge is to explain which stimuli people will notice. Here are some findings: 1. People are more likely to notice stimuli that relate to a current need. A person who is motivated to buy a computer will notice computer ads; he or she will be less likely to notice DVD ads.2. People are more likely to notice stimuli that they anticipate. You re more likely to notice computers than radios in a computers store because you do not expect the store to carry radios.. People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are large in relation to the normal size of the stimuli. You are more likely tonotice an ad offering $100 off the list price of a computer than oneoffering $5 off.Although people screen out much of the surroundingstimuli, they are influenced by unexpected stimuli, such as sudden
  11. 11. Selective Distortion:Even noticed stimuli do not always come across in the way the senders intended. Selectiv distortion is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions. Consumers will often distort information to be consistent with prior brand and product beliefs.A stark demonstration of the power of consumer brand beliefs is the typical result of produ sampling tests. In “blind� taste tests, one group of consumers samples a product without knowing which brand it is, whereas another group of consumers samples the product knowing which brand it is. Invariably, differences arise in the opinions of the two groups despite the fact that the two groups are literally consuming exactly the same product. When consumers report different opinions between branded and unbranded versions of identical products, it must be the case that the brand and product beliefs created bywhatever means (e.g. past experience, marketing activity for the brand, etc) have someho changed their product perception. Examples of branded differences can be found with virtually every type of product. For example, one study found that consumers were equally split in their preference for Diet Coke versus Diet Pepsi when tasting both on a blind basis When tasting the branded versions, however consumers preferred Diet Coke by 65% and Diet Pepsi by only 23% (with the remainder seeing no difference). Selective distortion can work to the advantage of marketers with strong brands whenconsumers distort neutral or ambiguous brand information to make it more positive. In othewords, beer may seem to taste better, a car may seem to drive more smoothly, the wait in bank line may seem shorter, and so on, depending on the particular brands involved.
  12. 12. Selective Retention:People will fail to register much information to which they are exposed in memory, but tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. Because of selective retention, we are likely to remember good points about a product we like and forget good points about competing product. Selective retention againworks to the advantage of strong brands. It also explains why marketers need to use repetition in sending messages to their target market to make sure their message is not overlooked.
  13. 13. • Subliminal Perception:• The selective perception mechanisms require active engagement and thought by consumers. A topic that has fascinated armchair marketers for ages is subliminal perception. The argument is that marketers embed covert, subliminal messages in ads or packages. Consumers are not consciously aware of these messages, but yet they affect their behavior. Although it is clear many subtle subconscious effects can exist with consumer processing no evidence supports the notion that marketers can systematically control consumers at that level.