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How to control plaque

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Shield celebrate the world oral health day with calibration of PDA at Altamash Institute Of Dental Medicine. In this occasion Dr Aakifa Javed, 3rd year BDS student, presented "Methods to control ...

Shield celebrate the world oral health day with calibration of PDA at Altamash Institute Of Dental Medicine. In this occasion Dr Aakifa Javed, 3rd year BDS student, presented "Methods to control plaque formation in the oral cavity & proper brushing technique(bass technique).

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How to control plaque How to control plaque Presentation Transcript

  • HOW TO CONTROL PLAQUE
    DR. AAKIFA JAVED ARIAN
    ALTAMASH INSTITUTE OF DENTAL MEDICINE
  • PLAQUE:
    Plaque is a soft deposit that form the
    biofilm adhering to the tooth surface.
    • It cannot be rinsed but removed by brushing.
    • Plaque is a firmly adherent mass of bacteria in a mucopolysaccharide matrix.
  • What Do We Mean By PLAQUE CONTROL
    • Plaque Control is the removal of dental/ microbial plaque and the
    prevention of its accumulation on the teeth and adjacent gingival tissues.
    • It also deals with the prevention of calculus formation.
    • Plaque is the major etiology of PERIDONTAL Disease & is related to Dental CARIES; therefore, gaining patient cooperation in daily plaque REMOVAL is success of ALL periodontal and dental treatment.
  • Remember……..!!!
    Plaque:
    • Plaque is a white, sticky substance that builds up every day around your teeth and gums, and on dental appliances.
    • Plaque can be removed with daily brushing, flossing, and rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash.
    • If plaque is not removed it hardens into calculus.
    Calculus:
    • Once plaque has been allowed to remain it calcifies. Onlya dental professional can then remove calculus.
    Plaque
    Calculus
  • Brush
    Plaque builds within hours. Brushing your teeth helps oral health because it removes plaque from the surfaces of your teeth and gums.
    Floss
    Because periodontal disease often begins in areas your toothbrush cannot reach, it’s important to remove plaque from between teeth and just below your gumline by flossing.
    Rinse
    Daily rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash may add to the benefits of brushing and flossing by reducing plaque between crowded teeth and around hard-to-reach molars.
  • Methods of Plaque Control:
    Mechanical Plaque Control Methods.
    2. Chemical Plaque Control Methods.
  • Mechanical Plaque Control Aids:
    2) Interdental Aids:
    Dental Floss
    Triangular Tooth Picks
    Interdental Brushes
    Superfloss
    Perio-Aid
    1) ToothBrushes:
    Manual Toothbrush
    Electrical Toothbrush
    4) Others:
    Gauze Strips
    Pipe Cleansers
    water Irrigation Device
    3) Aids for Gingival Stimulation:
    Rubber Tip Stimulator
    5) Aids for Completely or Partially Edentulous Patients:
    Denture & Partial Clasp Brushes
    Cleansing Solutions
  • Chemical Plaque Control Agents
    The Chemical agents which act on the Plaque
    ultrastructurally and prevent the formation of
    Plaque are usefull in Prevention than in a cure.
  • Chemical Plaque Control Agents are:
    Dentifrices/ Toothpastes
    2. Mouth Rinses
    i. Chlorhexidine Rinse
    ii. Essential Oil Rinse
  • Chemical inhibitors of plaque & calculus that are incorporated in mouthwashes or dentifrices play important roles in plaque control.
    DO YOU KNW……..??
  • TOOTHPASTE / DENTIFRICES
    Toothpaste called as dentifrice, is an inclusive term used to describe a
    powder, paste or gel, used with a toothbrush to aid in the removal of
    plaque, biofilm, materia alba, and stain from teeth and soft tissue.
    PURPOSE
    • Cleaning
    • Polishing
    • Removal of stains
    • Reduce incidence of tooth decay
  • Toothpaste Contents
    • Abrasives (20%-40%)
    • Flavor- (2%) pleasant and must be associated with a “clean” feeling. E.g. Mint flavor
    • Colouring agent (2%)
    • Binders (2%)
    • Humectants (20%-40%)
    • Detergents (1%-2%)
    • Flavoring agent (2%)
    • Preservatives (<1%)
    • Sweetening agents (2%)
    • Water (20%-40%)
  • Abrasive
    • Also called as polishing agent
    • Solid, insoluble particles
    • Potential for fluoride interaction
    • Causing abrasion
    • Remove debris and residual strain from teeth
    Examples of Abrasives:
    • Aluminium oxide
    • Calcium pyrophosphate
    • Carbonates like sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate
    • silicas
  • Binders
    • To provide consistency and shape.
    • Keep the solid phase properly suspended in the liquid phase .
    • Prevent the toothpaste from drying out.
    • Contribute to the creamy consistency of the toothpaste and hence, control the viscosity.
    • Provide body to the dentrifice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto the toothbrush.
    Examples of Binders:
    • Polymers like Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC)
    • Alginate
    • Gums
  • Humectants
    • Used in toothpaste to prevent loss of water and subsequent hardening of the product upon exposure to air.
    • Affect taste perception
    Examples:
    • Glycerine
    • Sorbitol
    • Polyethylene glycol
    • Mannitol
    • Propylene glycol
  • Sweeteners and Flavors
    • Sweeteners: sodium saccharin, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol
    • Flavors: improve taste of toothpaste
    E.g: peppermint, spearmint, wintergreen, menthol, cinnamon
    Surfactants
    Function:
    • Produce foam and aid in the removal of debris.
    • Emulsifies flavoring agents.
    • High level may cause mucosal irritation.
    • May react with other toothpaste components.
    Examples:
    • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
    • Sodium N-LaurylSarcosinate
    • Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
  • Fluoride Actives
    Function:
    • Increases resistance to enamel solubility.
    • Restricted usage level (for adults it must be within 1000 to 1450 ppm and for children not more than 1000ppm)
    Examples:
    • Sodium fluoride
    • Sodium monofluorophosphate
    • Stannous fluoride
  • Preservatives and Solvents
    Function of Preservatives:
    • prevent the growth of micro organisms such as mold and bacteria in the toothpaste.
    • Non-irritating
    • Compatible with other ingredients
    • Examples: alcohols, sodium benzoate, dichlorinated phenols
    • Function of Solvents:
    • dissolves the ingredients and allows them to be mixed.
    • Water is the most common solvent used.
  • Therapeutic Agents
    • Anti-caries agents: sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate
    • Anti-plaque: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate, Triclosane, Zinc and Stannous ions
    • Anti-calculus: Pyrophosphate
    • Anti-dentin hypersensitivity: Potassium salts
    • Whitening agents: Papain, Dimethicone
  • Different types of toothpaste
    • Anti-Caries / Cavity Protection toothpastes contain fluoride to stop tooth enamel decalcification and protect teeth from tooth decay and cavities.
    • Plaque & Gingivitis Prevention toothpastes have additional antibacterial ingredients to fight the growth of bacteria and the formation of dental plaque.
    • Tooth Whitening toothpastes have either higher abrasion value than normal tootpastes to mechanically remove food, smoking and other stains from teeth, or/and special ingredients as Peroxide for teeth bleaching and whitening.
    • Sensitivity toothpastes contain desensitising agents to relief those with tooth sensitivity problems from the acute pain when teeth are exposed to hot or cold temperatures or sweet and sour foods.
    • Tartar Control toothpastes contain pyrophosphates that reduce new tartar build-up (but they can't remove the existing tartar).
    • Fresh Breath toothpastes contain enhanced flavoring agents along with antibacterials to fight halitosis and provide fresher breath.
  • Some toxic components of a toothpaste
    Fluorides: in higher levels cause fluorosis
    • Appear as tiny white streaks or specks
    • Severe form- mottling of enamel, pitting and cracking of teeth, black and brown stains.
    Titanium dioxide: if inhaled can cause lung damage
    Sodium saccharin: FDA lists it as a possible carcinogen
    21
  • MOUTH RINSES
    Chlorhexidine Rinse:
    This agent has the most positive antibacterial results to date.
    Have pronounced antiseptic properties.
    Inhibit the development of plaque, calculus and gingivitis.
    Side Effects:
    Brown staining of the teeth, tongue and silicate resin restorations
    Transient impairment of taste perception.
    Chlorhexidine Preparation contains:
    • 12% alcohol
  • Essential Oil Rinse:
    Reduces plaque 2o-35% and gingivitis reduction of 25-35%
    Essential Oil Preparation Contains:
    • Thymol
    • Eucalyptol
    • Menthol
    • Methyl Salicylate
    • Alcohol (up to 24% depending on the preparation)