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Fundamentals of programming finals.ajang


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  • 1. •Switch Case and•Looping Statement
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  • 4. - A switch, case, select or inspect statement is a type of selection control mechanism that exists in most imperative programming languages such as Pascal, Ada, C/C++, C#, Java, and so on. It is also included in several other types of languages. Its purpose is to allow the value of a variable or expression to control the flow of program execution via a multiway branch (or "goto", one of several labels).The Main Reason using switch case : - To improve clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases.
  • 5. 1. The If – else Statement -The if statement allows the programmer to make decisions within a program. - The general format of an if statement is: If (expression) statement -Where expression represents a relational, equality, or logical expression ( conditional expression) .
  • 6. If statement (two alternatives)Form:If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skipped; otherwise, statement iselse skipped and statement is executed statement;If statement (One-Alternatives)Form:If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skippedFormat of the if statement - All if statement examples in this text indent statements. The word else Is typed without indention on a separate line. The format of the if statement makes its meaning apparent and is used solely to improve program readability; The format makes no difference to the computer
  • 7.  If we know how to write a C expression that is equivalent of a question such as “Is resting the value of expression to select a course of action. In C, the statement is the primary selection control structure Me: it’s hard to write c expression. So, I just copy and paste it into internet. A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.
  • 8.  1. Open Dev C++ 2. Click File and choose New 3. Post your Statements 4. after you post your statement 5. Save it .choose file and save or 6. click f9 or you can see it shaped like a square
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  • 10. Link: above program uses a switch statement to validate and select upon theusers input choice, simulating a simple menu of choices.
  • 11. When it compiles and run, this will be it look .The C expression that was type it on be it C++ . When it compiles and run, this will Dev lookThe words are “enter in two number  24”C++ The C expression that was type it on Dev The words are “enter in two number  24”
  • 12. Link: Example of Switch Case Statement , you Will see the statement on the link that you see in this slide.
  • 13. After I compile it and run it, the statement is now like this. As youCan see after you answer the 1st question the next question appearAnd after you finish all the question the box will disappear. It means finish.
  • 14. Link: Function and target of Programming language : and target of Programming Function A computer programming language : A computer programming language is a language. used to write computer programs,used to language is a language. which involve a computer performingwhich write computer programs, some kind of computation or algorithm some involve a computer performing and kind of computation or algorithm and possibly control external devices such possibly control external devices such as printers , disk drives , robots, and as printers , diskon. so drives , robots, and so on.
  • 15. When the statement was done this will it be look like.I got thisWhen the URL . The URL was posted onit be previous slide from the statement was done this will the look like. I got this from the URL . The URL was posted on the previous slide
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  • 21. Looping Statements - Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true. - in PHP, the following looping statements are used: *The while Loop * The Do… While Loop * The For Loop *The Foreach Loop *Break and continue statement
  • 22. While structure is another type of loop statements, where the condition is checked at first, the iteration will not stop even if the value changes while executing statements. Form: While(condition) { code to be executed; }
  • 23. Do while statement is same as the while statement , the only difference is that it evaluates the expression at the end. Form: do { code to be executed; } while (condition):
  • 24. The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run.Be for statement takes three expressions inside its parentheses seperated by semi-colons. When the for loop executes, the following occurs:The initializing expression is executed. This expression usually initializes oneor more loop counter, but the syntax allow expression any degree of complexity.The condition expression is evaluated. Of the value of condition is true, the loop statements execute. If the value of condition is false, the for loop terminates.
  • 25. Form: for {initialization; condition: increment ) { code to be executed }
  • 26. For Each structure is a loop structure used for arraysForm:foreach(array as value){ code to be executed}Foreach (array as key => value){ code to be executed}
  • 27. Break ends the execution of the for, for each, while, do-while or switch statement.Form:* Break ( optional numeric argument)
  • 28. “Continue” is used to skip the current loop iteration and continue with the next iteration of the loop. But “Break” is to exit from the whole loop.Form:* Break ( optional numeric argument)
  • 29. The for loop
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  • 31. Do while loop
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  • 33. While loop
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  • 35. Break and continue
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  • 37. Foreach loop
  • 38. Presented By:Marquez, Jaricka Angelyd B.BM10203