Russian Revolution


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Russian Revolution

  1. 1. 1905 Russo-Japanese War PRE WWI- See Map A45 (stick scrap paper in as book mark. FIND Manchuria (part of China), Russia, Japan and Korea. Practice pointing to them on your blank map!
  2. 2. Read 812-813 4 Big Questions: What did Japan offer Russia? What did the Japanese do? After defeating Russia, what did Japan do? (Read all parag. for full explanation it!) How did they rule Korea? Exemplify!
  3. 3. Russian Revolution An Overview
  4. 4. Life under the Czar Most people in Russia were poor peasants called serfs who lived on land owned by wealthy landowners Students protests, peasant revolts, and worker strikes were common
  5. 5. Life under the Czar The Russo-Japanese War ended in a humiliating defeat for Russia and showed that Czarist rule was weak and disorganized. (And this is before the Great War!)
  6. 6. Life under the Czar World War I brought great suffering to the Russian people It brought shortages in housing, food, and fuel Russian armies were ill-equipped and were soundly defeated – 1.7 million killed, 5 million injured.
  7. 7. March Revolution 1917 Bread riots Soldiers sent to end the violent protests side with the demonstrators Czar Nicholas is forced to resign (abdicate) Bloodless revolution Provisional government set up with Kerensky in charge
  8. 8. Germany takes advantage of • Germany knows USA coming to Western front; wants to get rid of Russians on Eastern front • Helps exiled Lenin to return
  9. 9. November Revolution 1917 Wages increased between revolutions Cost of food and other necessities increased at a higher rate On an average, food increased in price 556 per cent., or 51 per cent more than wages. On an average the above categories of necessities increased about 1,109 per cent, in price, more than twice the increase of salaries
  10. 10. November Revolution 1917
  11. 11. November Revolution 1917 Civil War breaks out – Reds vs. Whites Bolsheviks prevail through shear brutality – even when out numbered. Vladimir Lenin leads the revolution based upon his own interpretations of the writings of Karl Marx Lenin signs Treaty of Brest-Litvosk with Germany to get out of war
  12. 12. November Revolution 1917
  13. 13. Marxism Believed humanity was changing, Industrialization was to blame. Horrified by working conditions. Capitalists were getting richer than workers creating a significant gap between the two Believed one of the following would happen: Rich must distribute wealth OR A worker-led violent revolution would erupt
  14. 14. Leninism Lenin fascinated by industrialization, wanted to bring that to Russia Differed from Marx in his belief that the world wide communist revolution had to be led by a power elite forcing it forward – not just the
  15. 15. Leninism Communist Party was the only party allowed. The use of force and terror through the secret police (Cheka) was necessary and good for the cause Used slogans, include “Bread, Land, Peace and All Power to the Soviets.” LOTS OF PROPOGADA
  16. 16. Lenin’s Death Died in January 1924. Believed Leon Trotsky should replace him as leader. Trotsky had successfully lead Red Army against the White Army. Had a vision of the Soviet Union in line with Lenin. He wanted to focus on agriculture.
  17. 17. Lenin’s Death Lenin believed that Stalin could not handle the power that came with leadership. Stalin believed in the industrialization of the nation. Stalin takes control, has Trotsky killed.
  18. 18. “Socialism in Oneargued forbeposition Stalin Country” a that came to called “socialism in one country” Without abandoning the global revolutionary vision of Lenin, Stalin insisted that world revolution was out of the question for present Their duty was to create a strong socialist state, capable of defending itself against counterrevolutionaries
  19. 19. Joseph Stalin As General Secretary of the Communist Party, Stalin was able to consolidate his power by exerting total control over the details of party structure – Stalin appeared to provide a sense of security and direction for the future
  20. 20. Stalin’s economic policies involved total state control Political leaders identify the country’s economic needs and determines how to fulfill them To modernize the Soviet state, Stalin ushered in revolutions in industry and agriculture
  21. 21. Industrial Revolution In 1926 Stalin outlined the first of several Five-Year Plans for the development of the Soviet economy Officials chose the workers, assigned them jobs, and determined their working hours and wages The secret police would imprison or execute those who did not contribute to to the Soviet economy Produced fantastic economic results – by late 1930s the USSR was the world’s 3rd leading industrial power, behind the US and Germany
  22. 22. Agricultural Revolution Stalin’s agricultural revolution was also successful–and far more brutal–than his industrial revolution Combined 25 million private farms into large, government-owned farms called collective farms Stalin used terror and violence to force peasants to work on the collectives Between 5 and 10 million peasants died as a result of Stalin’s agricultural policies However, by 1938 more than 90% of all peasants lived on collective farms and the country had produced almost twice the wheat than it had in 1928
  23. 23. Soviet Mentality Brutality of the state was for their own protection Checka, then NKVD, terrorized people – they were genuinely afraid “Politicals” - Enemies of the people who were arrested for alleged spying, disloyalty, etc. Received worse punishments then common criminals Gulags
  24. 24. Gulags
  25. 25. Gulags
  26. 26. Gulags
  27. 27. Gulags
  28. 28. The Terror The Purges 1936-38 •14 of 16 Army Commanders •60 of 67 Corps Commanders •3 of 5 Marshalls •8 of 8 Admirals •9 of 11 Cabinet Ministers •27 top drafters of Constitution •75 of 80 members of Supreme Military Council
  29. 29. The Great Terror 1937-38 Arrests - about 7 million Executed - about 1 million Died in camps - about 2 million In prison, late 1938 - about 1 million In camps, late 1938 - about 8 million Only 10% in camps survived
  30. 30. The Terror A worker who bungled a job, such as allowing a faulty transmission to pass through an assembly line was considered to have wrecked “socialist property.” This was considered sabotage and punishable by death. 5 years forced labor was considered a light sentence: What is your sentence? 25 years For what? nothing You’re lying—in our country for nothing they only give you 5 years! Poetess Tanya Khodekevich was sentenced to 10 years for writing, “you can pray freely, but just so only God can hear”
  31. 31. Indoctrination and Propaganda Despite having millions of Russians killed, Stalin tried to create a myth that he was the country’s father and savior Stalin relied on indoctrination = instruction in the government’s set or beliefs–to mold people’s minds and propaganda = biased or incomplete information to sway people towards certain beliefs or actions Soviet newspapers, radio broadcasts, and art used to praise Stalin, Soviet life, and Communist values Stalin also falsified history itself through censorship and manipulation of photos and video to project a positive image of himself and the nation xt
  32. 32. Indoctrination and Propaganda
  33. 33. Indoctrination and Propaganda Four... Three... Two... One...
  34. 34. Criminals Guilty of murder, assault, rape, thievery, etc. Sentences usually under 10 years Received all the privileges. Give power to keep politicals in line
  35. 35. Victims- Political Prisoners Enemies of the people - arrested for alleged spying, disloyalty, etc. The “Terror” and “Great Purges” Show trials, forced confessions Public condemnations Given no privilege – treated worse then murders Terrorized by criminals
  36. 36. Kolyma Conditions • Hunger – didn’t meet quotas = less food • Starvation most common cause of death • Scurvy commonplace
  37. 37. Full Circle...
  38. 38. Changing History
  39. 39. Full Circle... • Stalin dies of a massive stroke March 6, 1953 • Many greeted his death with tears and foreboding, having known nothing but his all-encompassing leadership for 35 years • Nikiita Kruschchev takes control of the Party and USSR • “All of us around Stalin were temporary people” • Early in 1956 Khruschev delivers a speech in which he severely criticized Stalin for developing a “cult of personality”