Origins of The Cold War

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Origins of The Cold War

  1. 2. Class Notes 11:1 Origins of the Cold War Modern World History, by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2004
  2. 3. Definition <ul><li>The Cold War was a state of economic, diplomatic, and ideological discord among nations without armed conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War “battles” occur in Europe, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>1945-1991 </li></ul>
  3. 4. Background <ul><li>Mutual distrust between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had been brewing since the 1917 Russian Revolution (when U.S. forces invaded Russia to assist the anti-communist troops) </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union and United States united to defeat Hitler in WWII </li></ul>
  4. 5. Background <ul><li>Once the war ended, differences became more apparent </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets lost 27 million people and saw mass devastation in the west </li></ul><ul><li>Americans lost just over 400,000 men and suffered no attacks after Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin had a strong interest in keeping the Soviet Union safe from any future invasions </li></ul>
  5. 6. Post War World <ul><li>At the Yalta </li></ul><ul><li>Conference in 1945, Stalin agreed to self determination for European nations after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin wanted to ensure security for the Soviet Union (remember their losses) </li></ul>Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at Yalta.
  6. 7. Post War World <ul><li>Stalin wanted a buffer zone and he wanted to extract reparations from East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The other Allies had agreed to divide Germany , but division was seen as temporary – wanted to build international market system for trade – which the U.S. would dominate </li></ul>
  7. 8. Post War World <ul><li>Stalin installed communists government controlled by Moscow in Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany </li></ul>
  8. 9. Post War World <ul><li>He ignored his promise at Yalta </li></ul><ul><li>American attainment of the atomic bomb and different U.S./British leadership at the Potsdam conference changed post-war diplomacy </li></ul>
  9. 10. Significant Differences <ul><li>While the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had united in their efforts to defeat Hitler, ideological differences drove them apart after the war </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides wanted their values and economic and political systems to prevail </li></ul><ul><li>Both wanted a sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Both agreed that capitalism and communism could not coexist and that the other system was inherently evil </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, both took a hard line (fear-driven) towards the other </li></ul>
  10. 11. NATO vs. WARSAW PACT 1945-1960s
  11. 12. American Policies <ul><li>George Kennan, U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>He believed the Soviets needed communism to triumph in order to justify bloody dictatorship </li></ul>
  12. 13. American Policies <ul><li>Led to American (Truman policy) idea of containment – keep communism within its current borders and eventually more moderate leaders will reform the government </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. established Marshall Plan to help rebuild capitalist Europe and Truman Doctrine to prevent communist groups gaining control in non-communist states </li></ul>
  13. 14. BRINKSMANSHIP……
  14. 15. Spheres of Influence

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