Origins of The Cold War
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Origins of The Cold War






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    Origins of The Cold War Origins of The Cold War Presentation Transcript

    • Class Notes 11:1 Origins of the Cold War Modern World History, by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2004
    • Definition
      • The Cold War was a state of economic, diplomatic, and ideological discord among nations without armed conflict.
      • Cold War “battles” occur in Europe, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East
      • 1945-1991
    • Background
      • Mutual distrust between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had been brewing since the 1917 Russian Revolution (when U.S. forces invaded Russia to assist the anti-communist troops)
      • Soviet Union and United States united to defeat Hitler in WWII
    • Background
      • Once the war ended, differences became more apparent
      • Soviets lost 27 million people and saw mass devastation in the west
      • Americans lost just over 400,000 men and suffered no attacks after Pearl Harbor
      • Stalin had a strong interest in keeping the Soviet Union safe from any future invasions
    • Post War World
      • At the Yalta
      • Conference in 1945, Stalin agreed to self determination for European nations after WWII
      • Stalin wanted to ensure security for the Soviet Union (remember their losses)
      Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at Yalta.
    • Post War World
      • Stalin wanted a buffer zone and he wanted to extract reparations from East Germany
      • The other Allies had agreed to divide Germany , but division was seen as temporary – wanted to build international market system for trade – which the U.S. would dominate
    • Post War World
      • Stalin installed communists government controlled by Moscow in Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany
    • Post War World
      • He ignored his promise at Yalta
      • American attainment of the atomic bomb and different U.S./British leadership at the Potsdam conference changed post-war diplomacy
    • Significant Differences
      • While the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. had united in their efforts to defeat Hitler, ideological differences drove them apart after the war
      • Both sides wanted their values and economic and political systems to prevail
      • Both wanted a sphere of influence
      • Both agreed that capitalism and communism could not coexist and that the other system was inherently evil
      • As a result, both took a hard line (fear-driven) towards the other
    • NATO vs. WARSAW PACT 1945-1960s
    • American Policies
      • George Kennan, U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union
      • He believed the Soviets needed communism to triumph in order to justify bloody dictatorship
    • American Policies
      • Led to American (Truman policy) idea of containment – keep communism within its current borders and eventually more moderate leaders will reform the government
      • U.S. established Marshall Plan to help rebuild capitalist Europe and Truman Doctrine to prevent communist groups gaining control in non-communist states
    • Spheres of Influence